Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Nuclear weapon
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Nuclear weapon

1,369
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,369
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
93
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Transcript

    • 1. Nuclear weapon Ghost Lee
    • 2. What is nuclear weapon?An explosive device that derives its des-tructive force from nuclear reactions- fissionor combination of fission and fusion.Release vast quantities of energy fromrelatively small amount of matter.First fission bomb-approximately 20,000 tons of TNTFirst thermonuclear bomb-approximately 10,000,000 tons of TNT
    • 3. HistoryManhattan Project-US, UK, Canada, from1942-1946, under U.S. Army Corps ofEngineers, directed by J .R. OppenheimerIn 1939, Leó Szilárd and Albert Einsteinwrote a letter to President Roosevelt,expressing their concerns.
    • 4. Facilities:Uranium - Oak Ridge, Tennessee, “Little boy”,HiroshimaPlutonium - Hanford site, Washington state,“Fat Man”, NagasakiWeapon research and design laboratory - LosAlamos National Laboratory
    • 5. Governance, Control, and RolesIn the late 1940s, lack of mutual trustprevent the US and Soviet Union frommaking international arms control agree-ments.By the 1960s steps were being taken to limitboth the proliferation of nuclear weapons toother countries and the environmentaleffects of nuclear testing
    • 6. Partial or Limited Test Ban Treaty (PTBT orLTBT, 1963) - all nuclear testing to under-ground testingNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT orNNPT, 1968) - the goal of allowing thetransference of non-military nuclear tech-nology to member countries without fear ofproliferationAnti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT, 1972) -the US and the USSR, agree to deploy anABM system to one site, ended by the US in2002
    • 7. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT, I in1972 and II in 1979) - the US and the USSR,limit the number of ICBM, SLBM, heavybombers and MIRVSIntermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty(INF, 1987) - a global ban on short- and long-range nuclear weapons systemsStrategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START, I in1991 and II in 1993) - Limit nuclear forces inthe US and the newly independent states ofthe former Soviet Union
    • 8. Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORTor Moscow Treaty) - a very loose treaty,Russia and the US agreed to reduce their“Strategic nuclear warheads”Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, 1996) -bans all nuclear explosions in all environ-mentsNew START Treaty, 2010 - not yet ratified byRussia or the USNuclear-Weapon-Free Zones:Treaty of Tlatelolco - Latin America and CaribbeanTreaty of Pelindaba - African countriesCentral Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone
    • 9. Nuclear Non- Proliferation TreatyMore countries have nuclear weapons signifythat the world will become more instableand a nuclear war may happenIn the cold war, the stability of the inter-national system is based on Mutually AssuredDestruction and the balance of terror
    • 10. The NPT is elaborated in DISEC in 1968,came into force on March 5th, 1970,proposed by Finland and IrelandOriginally conceived with a limited durationof 25 years, later extended the treatyindefinitely by consensusHold Review Conference every 5 years, themost recent one - May, 2010
    • 11. Three-pillar system-Non-proliferationdisarmamentThe right to peacefully use nuclear technologyNon-nuclear countries who signed it have toNot to try to acquire nuclear weaponsNot to exchange nuclear technologiesThe five NWS have toGive new technologies on nuclear production of electricity to non-nuclear countriesReduce their nuclear arsenal and to take measures for the totalelimination of nuclear weapons
    • 12. Five Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) - China(1992), France (1992), Russia Federation(1968), the UK (1968), the US (1968), are alsofive permanent states of UNSCStrategic weapons - designed to threatenlarge populations , or to generally deterattacks, usually have indirect effect on theconduct of warTactical weapons - designed to actually beused on a battlefield in military situations
    • 13. Current contestation of NPT The world order have changed--1990, USSR dissolved, and NPT is outdated NWS have not respected their obligations Nuclear energy v.s. global warming
    • 14. International securityand stability problems
    • 15. International securityand stability problems
    • 16. International AtomicEnergy Agency (IAEA)An international organization which promotepeaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit itsuse of any military purposeThough established independently of the UNthrough its own international treaty, it still reportsto both UNGA and UNSCAlso provide international safeguards against misuseof nuclear technology and materials, promotingnuclear safety (including radiation protection) andnuclear security standards and implementation.
    • 17. HistoryIn 1953, the President of the US, Eisenhower,proposed his Atoms for Peace address to theUNGA; in September, 1954, they also pro-posed to found a international agency asfissile material bankDuring 1956, an IAEA Statue Conference washeld to draft the funding documents forIAEA, the Statue was completed in 1957.
    • 18. An autonomous organization not under directcontrol of UN; unlike other SIAs, they domuch of their work with UNSC but ECOSOCThree main pillars -Safety and SecurityScience and TechnologySafeguards and Verification
    • 19. Three main bodiesBoard of Governors - 35 members, 13 fromoutgoing Board, 22 from General Con-ference. Making most of the policy in IAEAGeneral Conference - 151 member state,meet once a year in September, to approvethe budget and policy from Board ofGovernorsSecretariat - professional and general staffof IAEA, responsible for enforcement of theactions passed by the Board and GC
    • 20. Case report - IranAhmadinejad ready for nuclear meeting with world powers United Nations (CNN) -- Irans president said he is ready for talks on his countrys nuclear program with the P5 plus one -- the world powers spearheading the negotiations. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told reporters"We are prepared to have talks," Iranian President at the United Nations on Friday suchMahmoud Ahmadinejad told reporters Friday. talks would be along the same lines ofthe meetings last October. The countries include Germany, and the five permanentmembers of the U.N. Security Council -- the United States, Britain, France, China,and Russia.He has said an Iranian representative would meet with the group. He said that ifEuropean Union foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton contacts his representative atthe International Atomic Energy Agency, a date can be set."We are prepared to have talks on a swap (a fuel swap deal) at anytime and withthe P5 plus one. We hope by October we will be prepared" to meet.He also said Iran is ready to meet with the United States for talks aboutAfghanistan, the war-torn country that borders Iran. U.S. and other forces havebeen battling the Taliban there for years."If they show conditions are ripe and are ready to hear the reality of Afghanistan,we are ready to sit with them on Afghanistan," he said.
    • 21. Case report - Iran Ahmadinejad ready for nuclear meeting w United Na president sai his countrys P5 plus on spearheading Mahmoud A "We are prepared to have talks," Iranian President at the Unite Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told reporters Friday. talks would the meetings last October. The countries include Germ members of the U.N. Security Council -- the United S
    • 22. Case report - Iran Ahmadinejad ready for nuclear meeting w United Na president sai his countrys P5 plus on spearheading Mahmoud A "We are prepared to have talks," Iranian President at the Unite Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told reporters Friday. talks would the meetings last October. The countries include Germ members of the U.N. Security Council -- the United S
    • 23. Iran has been conducting and hiding a seriesof activities for 18 years which could lead tonuclear weapon production.While the SC just passed several resolutionstrying to stop these activities, Iran refusedto obey it, especially on the enrichment ofuranium.
    • 24. Why does Iran refuse the resolution fromSC? What does SC want Iran to do?What sanctions has the UN imposed on Iran?What about additional sanctions from the USand the EU?What did Iran say about nuclear weapon?What about their non-military nuclear plan?The reactions from other countries ororganizations?
    • 25. DiscussionDespite all these restrictions, why so manystates still want to develop NW?What kind of international situation may leada country to develop NW?What else can we do to maintain or evenimprove international nuclear safety?