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  • 1. SUFFICIENCY ECONOMYç...If we are happy with however IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONSlittle we have, we will be lessgreedy and will exploit others less.If all countries observe this idea -not only in an economic sense, butto try to keep the middle ground -being sufficient and not extreme, notgreedy , then we can live happily...é H.M. The Kingûs Address delivered on His Birthday Anniversary on 4 December 1998 Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board 962 Krung Kaseam Rd., Phomprab, Bangkok 10100
  • 2. Sufficiency Economy Implications and ApplicationsPublication by :Sufficiency Economy Movement Sub-committeeOffice of the National Economic and Social Development BoardISBN 978-974-9769-75-1First Publication : September 20075,000 copies
  • 3. “...The definition of the term ‘SufficiencyEconomy’ cannot yet be found in anyeconomics textbook. That is no surprisesince it is a new theory – so new andinnovative it has not been included intextbooks. Economic experts and those whoare interested, however, can use it , modify itor apply its principles in an effort toimprove the country’s economy as well asthat of the world...” H.M. The King’s Address delivered on the Occasion of His Birthday Anniversary on 23 December 1999 1
  • 4. Forward Office of the National Economic and SocialDevelopment Board (NESDB) by SufficiencyEconomy Movement Sub-committee has initiatedthe process of Sufficiency Economy movement fordisseminating its concepts and applications invarious aspects, and also created momentum ofenhancing knowledge and understanding. Thesemovements would lead to insight, acceptance andapplications of all social sectors. NESDB has published “Sufficiency EconomyImplications and Applications” with cooperationof the Secretariat of the Prime Minister for draftingthe guidance of implications and applications bylevels and occupation groups. It consists of two parts: 2
  • 5. The first part is the principle of thePhilosophy of Sufficiency Economy, which HisMajesty’s Principal Private Secretary has bestowedto NESDB to disseminate to people at all levelsin all sectors. The second part is the guidance ofSufficiency Economy applications for people ineach level and various occupation groups. NESDB hopes that this publication wouldbe useful, jointly enhance knowledge andunderstanding of the Philosophy of SufficiencyEconomy and be the guidance of applications forall social sectors. Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board September 2007 3
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  • 7. The strength of Thai Nation has beennurtured and developed by His Majesty KingBhumibol Adulyadej, who is considered to be thesoul of the nation. Through his caring leadership,His Majesty has earned the abiding love andprofound respect of his people. Since the beginning of reign, His Majestyhas been trying to enhance the livelihood ofdisadvantaged Thais throughout the country. Royally-initiated activities include economic developmentand protection of critical natural resources. At numerous points during his reign, HisMajesty has propounded his philosophy of“Sufficiency Economy” and urged all Thais to practiceit to the greatest extent possible. SufficiencyEconomy advocates taking the middle path in lifeand the optimal route for conduct at all levelssuch as individuals, families and communities. 5
  • 8. The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy Sufficiency Economy is a philosophy bestowed by His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej to the people of Thailand. Through royal remarks on many occasions over the past three decades, His Majesty has provided guidance on appropriate conduct covering numerous aspects of life. After the economic crisis, His Majesty reiterated and expanded on his “Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy” in remarks made in December1997 and 1998. The philosophy points the way for a recovery that will lead to a more resilient and sustainable economy that is better able to meet emerging challenges such as globalization. 6
  • 9. Sufficiency Economy stresses the middlepath as an overriding principle for appropriateconduct by Thai people at all levels, from familyto community to country. It calls for nationaldevelopment and administration to modernize inline with the forces of globalization. “Sufficiency”means moderation, reasonableness, and theneed of self-immunity for sufficient protectionfrom impact arising from internal and externalchanges. To achieve this, the application ofknowledge with due consideration and prudenceis essential. In particular, great care is needed atevery step in the utilization of theories andmethodologies for planning and implementation.At the same time, it is necessary to strengthenthe moral fiber of the nation, so that everyone, 7
  • 10. particularly public officials, academics, andbusinessmen, adhere first and foremost to theprinciple of honesty and integrity. In addition,a way of life based on patience, perseverance,diligence, wisdom and prudence is indispensableto create balance and be able to cope appropriatelywith critical challenges, arising from extensiveand rapid socioeconomic, environmental, andcultural changes in the world.Unofficial translation. A working definition compiledfrom remarks made by His Majesty the King on variousoccasions and approved by His Majesty and sent by HisMajesty’s Principal Private Secretary to NESDB on29 November 1999 8
  • 11. 9
  • 12. “…Some people still do not understandthat a big undertaking like the construction ofthe Pasak Dam fits perfectly with the Philosophyof Sufficiency Economy. They tend to perceive itas something belonging to modern economicideas, something so unrelated to SufficiencyEconomy. In fact, the Pasak Dam serves theconcept of Sufficiency Economy as well…” H.M. The King’s Address delivered on the Occasion of His Birthday Anniversary on 23 December 200110
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  • 14. SUFFICIENCY ECONOMYImplications and Applications by Levels and Groups Level • Individual / Family • Community • Nation Group • Farmer • Businessman • Politician • Government Officer • Educator12
  • 15. Application of Sufficiency Economy at Individual and Family Levels Application of Sufficiency Economy byindividuals and families starts when one acquiresthe essential knowledge and necessary skills toappropriately cope with critical challenges arisingfrom extensive and rapid socioeconomic,environmental and cultural changes in the world. At the same time, it is essential for everyhuman being to realize how important it is tolive harmoniously in society and to coexist withnature. This means that one should adhere tomorality; maintain honesty and integrity; sharewith others; be self-disciplined, patient and 13
  • 16. prudent in making decisions and taking actions;and persevere in improving oneself. All of these virtues will lead to self-immunity or sufficient protection for individualsand families from the impact arising frominternal and external changes. This will enableone to be moderate and reasonable in life,according to one’s roles and responsibilities, sothat one can efficiently rely upon oneself and becapable of helping others and contribute tosociety. 14
  • 17. Application of Sufficiency Economy at the Community Level A “Sufficient Community” consists ofindividuals and families who have a degree ofself-reliance that is based on their ownknowledge and moral strength but strive forsustainable progress. These members of a sufficient communitycooperate by sharing their efforts and exchangingtheir ideas, knowledge, skills and experiences.They use community resources and developcommunity activities in ways that are appropriateto their geo-social circumstances in order to 15
  • 18. realize the utmost benefits and happiness ofcommunity members. Community activities are carried out andimproved continuously, based on morality :honesty, patience, perseverance, generosity andsympathy, which lead to social harmony andcreate a community that has immunity from theimpacts arising from change. Eventually sufficientcommunities of sufficient individuals create anetwork with other communities. 16
  • 19. Application of Sufficiency Economy at the National Level Sufficiency Economy at the national levelstarts with a national administrative anddevelopment plan that encourages and enablespeople to live their own lives and to cooperatewith others in development based on thePhilosophy of Sufficiency Economy, whileprudently implementing the plan step by step. Application of Sufficiency Economy at thenational level should begin by laying foundationsthat enable the majority of people to have thebasic necessities to live sufficiently and to 17
  • 20. support themselves adequately through the use ofknowledge and morality in their lives. Peopleshould also be encouraged to expand their visionthrough the creation of learning networksamong various socioeconomic backgrounds andprofessions, which eventually will lead toharmony and solidarity in society. 18
  • 21. Application of Sufficiency Economy for Farmers His Majesty’s “New Theory” for agricultureoffers the opportunity for farmers to use andapply their wisdom and skills to supportthemselves in ways, which are consistent withtheir respective environment. Royal initiativesalso stimulate and support collaboration andintegration using community resources to developstrong social and business networks, whileencouraging members to abide by morality andwisdom in their decisions and actions. Strongfoundations should be created using self-reliance 19
  • 22. before building up more market reliance in theadvanced stage. The “New Theory” Agriculture has threephases : The First Phase is to manage agriculturalland and resources at the household level in away that provides enough return to liveappropriately and with self-reliance, according toone’s conditions. The Second Phase is the formation of groupsin the form of cooperatives to collaboratively producegoods, organize markets, and develop communitywelfare to increase social solidarity and preparecommunities to keep pace with the outside world. 20
  • 23. The Third Phase is to build contacts andpartnerships with outside institutions such asbanks, businesses, government and non-government organizations, to obtain the financial,knowledge and technical support necessary forfurther development. 21
  • 24. Application of Sufficiency Economy for Businessmen Businessmen adhering to Sufficiency Economydemonstrate the following characteristics: • They are more concerned on sustainableand stable long-term profits than short-termresults. They are well-informed about business-related knowledge, eager to learn new informationin order to cope with changes, and be prudent indecision-making. • They conduct business ethics, withhonesty and integrity. They display perseveranceand diligence by continuously developing their 22
  • 25. businesses through improvements in productionefficiency and product quality, based on changingtechnologies and market needs. • They are socially responsible andconcerned about the environment at every step,while balancing profit-sharing among allstakeholders such as consumers, staff/workers,business partners, and shareholders. 23
  • 26. Application of Sufficiency Economy for Politicians A politician whose conduct is based onSufficiency Economy can set an example ofleadership and moral discipline, by being afraidand ashamed of misconduct even on small issues,since any decision or action of even one politiciantends to have widely impact on society. In addition, politicians at every level haveto truly understand local conditions in thecommunities that they represent. Such politiciansmust also understand the political system, lawsand regulations, social values and traditional 24
  • 27. culture, while being well-informed about domesticand international development crises. These politicians will play their roles insuch a way as to create a balanced progress forpeople to live sufficiently, be able to supportthemselves, and be harmoniously united. Making policies and laws, based onSufficiency Economy, not only conserves goodcustoms, social values, wisdom, and environment,but also undoes the damage from any improperbehavior that has led to imbalance orunsustainable development. In addition,leaders should encourage the development andadoption of new practices, knowledge, or 25
  • 28. technologies for enhancing common benefits.Importantly, the leader should strongly realizethe potential and conditions of the communityand nation so that people can be more self-reliant. 26
  • 29. Application of Sufficiency Economy for Government Officers Government officers and staffs should firstapply Sufficiency Economy in their own lives;starting with realizing their roles andresponsibilities as social-service providersenhancing a social environment so that peoplecan live in harmony within society and inbalance with ecology. Each officer should be morally consciousand honest, leading lives with perseverance andprudence, knowing the causes and effects of theiractions, being moderate in his or her life, and 27
  • 30. having prepared oneself for impact from internaland external change. An officer should prepare and implementpolicies, plans, and projects pertinent to SufficiencyEconomy with emphasis on the balanced developmentof economy, society, environment and culture,so that eventually people and the community asa whole can depend on themselves andappropriately cope with challenges in the world. Government officers should be careful nottoo much impose their own ideas but toencourage people to think by themselves.Also, they should remember the principle of“ helping people to help themselves.” 28
  • 31. Application of Sufficiency Economy for Educators A teacher or lecturer should be a rolemodel for students by living a life based onSufficiency Economy, so that they can teach byexample and be able to guide students to abetter understanding of Sufficiency Economythrough classroom curriculum and studentactivities. To live one’s life, based on SufficiencyEconomy, it is essential for human beings to liveharmoniously in society and also to coexist with 29
  • 32. nature. One should reflect on and practicesufficiency economy until one believes thatthe principles will lead to progress in one’s own lifeand to peace and harmony in society. In practice,one should adhere to morality; honesty andintegrity; generosity; self-discipline, patience andprudence in making decisions and taking action;and perseverance in continuously improvingoneself. These will lead to self-immunity fromchanges, and enable one to be moderate andreasonable in life, so that one can efficiently relyupon oneself and be capable enough to helpothers and contribute to society. 30
  • 33. As knowledge and reasonableness are verysignificant, educators have the vital roleon these matters. Such knowledge must beprudent, careful and appropriate for eachsocio-geographic conditions. 31
  • 34. “…The development of the country must befostered in stages. It must start with the constructionof infrastructure, that is, the provision of foodand basic necessities for the people by methods,which are economic, cautious and conformingwith principles. Once the foundation is firmlyestablished , progress can be continually, carefullyand economically promoted. This approach willprevent incurring mistakes and failures, and leadto the certain and complete achievement of theobjectives…” H. M. The King’s Address delivered on Kasetsart University Commencement Ceremony on 19 July 197432
  • 35. For more information Please contact Sufficiency Economy UnitOffice of the National Economic and Social Development Board962 Krung Kasem Rd., Pomprab, Bangkok 10100 Tel : 0 2280 4085 ext. 2407, 5103 Fax : 0 2282 9158