1 King Saud University College of Engineering Industrial Engineering Department Control Phase By: WadeaAmeen 431106471
What is DMAIC ? •A structured approach to problem solving and process improvement
DMAIC Process PHASE 0: Definition. These processes consist of identification of product or process that need improvement and also benchmarking product characteristic from other company. PHASE 1: Measurement. This phase consist of selecting characteristic (dependent variable, independent variable, process mapping). The major tool is Quality Functional Deployment (QFD). PHASE 2: Analysis. This process analyze and benchmark the key product or performance metrics. This phase determine which factor that influence more and which level of factor is the best for the process. Common tool is using Design of Experiment (DOE).
DMAIC Process cont. PHASE 3: Improvement. After knowing which characteristic level is the best, we must improve that process factor and characteristic. DOE and Taguchi Method are common tools used to make improvement. PHASE 4: Control. This process need to monitor new process conditions via Statistical Process Control (SPC). After steady period, the process capability is assessed. control:process performance and ensure that defects do not recur.
Control Activities& Tools Control Activities - Determine Needed Controls (measurement, design, etc.)- Implement and Validate Controls- Develop Transfer Plan- Realize Benefits of Implementing Solution- Close Project and Communicate Results Control Quality Tools - Statistical Process Control- Out of Control Action Plan (OCAP)- Design Changes to eliminate
Objective Control Prevent the problem and its root cause from recurring. Document project Implement results Implement controls
“Control” Flow Select SPC controls where appropriate Based on Solution, Brainstorm appropriate controls to sustain the gains Implement and validate controls Review and approve control plan with Management Realize savings and determine final financial benefits and ROI Determine long term owner and close the project
25 Process Process Process Improvement Improvement Improvement 20 15 No Controls 10 5 0 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 Benefits Of Control Phase Improvement Time
Sort cards into groups until all cards have been used.
Once the cards have been sorted into groups the team may sort large clusters into subgroups for easier management and analysis. Once completed, the affinity diagram may be used to create acause and effect diagram
The process decision program chart The process decision program chart systematically identifies what might go wrong in a plan under development. Countermeasures(اجراء مضاد) are developed to prevent or offset those problems. By using PDPC, you can either revise the plan to avoid the problems or be ready with the best response when a problem occurs. How do we develop a Process Decision Program Chart?
Break down the task into a tree diagram. The bottom 'leaves' on the tree will now indicate the actual tasks to be carried out. For each bottom-level task 'leaf', brainstorm or otherwise identify a list of possible problems that could occur.
Select one or a few of the risks identified in step 2 to put on the diagram, based on a combination of probability of the risk occurring and the potential impact, should the risk materialize. For each risk selected in step 2, brainstorm or otherwise identify possible countermeasures(prevent ) that you could take to minimize the effect of the risk. Select a practical subset of countermeasures identified in step 4 to put in the chart. Continue building the chart as above finding risks and countermeasures for each task. If there are a large number of tasks, you can simplify the task by only doing this for tasks that are considered to be at risk or where the impact of their failure would be large.
Matrix Diagram Purpose: Compare two or more groups of ideas, determine relationships among the elements, and make decisions. Process
Generate two or more sets of characteristics to be compared. Use tree diagrams or brainstorming.
Choose the proper matrix to represent the interactions (L, T, X, Y).
Put the characteristics on the axes of the matrix.
Control: 12. Implement process control system and bring the project to a close Three primary approaches may be used at this stage: Risk Management: This is similar to FMEA but now focus is trained on x, rather than y. Risk Management Score = RMS = (Impact)*(Probability) RM identifies and quantifies risks, establishes a risk abatement plan, and monitorsthe progress of the plan. Mistake Proofing: This is a technique for eliminating errors by making it impossible to make them in the process. To quote: “It is good to do it right the first time. It is even better to make it impossible to do it wrong.” Statistical Process Control (Charts): This is a feedback system with sequential data and ongoing process data collection.
Statistical Process Control Statistical process control (SPC) is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring and control of a process to ensure that it operates at its full potential to produce conforming product Statistical Process Control may be broadly broken down into three sets of activities: understanding the process, understanding the causes of variation, and elimination of the sources of special cause variation
PRE-Control PRE-Control technique helps shop operators to control the process so that defective parts are not produced. Although simple to understand for even the shop operators, PRE-Control is statistically robust
In PRE-Control, the drawing tolerance is divided in three zones as shown in the figure. These three zones are Green, Yellow, and Red.