Northeastern UniversityGraduate Program of ArchitectureMasters Research StudioLittell | Fall 2010Prepared By:Ahmed Almulla, Matt Arnold, Hope Blanchette, Travis Blake, Joanna Grab, Melissa Goldfarb,Sarah Laliberte, Andrea Leveille, Brad Mckinney, Luke Palma, Sara Rosenthal, John Stoddard
Introduction Statement This book was written by twelve graduate students of architecture (M. Arch.) at Northeastern University in the fall of 2010 as part of our Master’s Research Studio. This book will explore issues related to pre-constructed building strategies in urban environments, thus the title, Prefab City. As a result of this exploration and analysis, we hope to uncover potential design opportunities in an area that seems to be less well documented and researched in the field. This book is intended to be used by our studio, and could be useful to peers, professors or professionals wanting an integrated understanding of an approach to prefabricated building in a urban context.
Table of ContentsIntroduction Determinants Deployment Tactics Purpose ...............................................1 Transportation ..................................10 Density on Demand...........................68 by Ground: Rail ..........................................11 Definition, Factors ...................................69 Definitions .......................................... 2 by Ground: Road ........................................13 Mobility and Adaptability .........................70 by Water .....................................................21 Construction .............................................71 Research Methodology + Scope ......4 by Air ..........................................................23 Connections .............................................73 Process.....................................................77 Site Access + Assembly....................26 Site Access ...............................................27 Parasite + Barnacle............................80 Crane Operation and Extents ...................29 Urban Infill Sites ......................................81 Cranes and Obstacles .............................31 Definitions ................................................83 Off Frame Assembly ................................33 Parasite Precedents ................................85 Barnacle Precedents ...............................89 Modular Strategies ............................38 Logistics ...................................................39 Instant Utopia ..................................98 Site Placement Strategies .......................43 Introduction..............................................96 Aggregation Techniques .........................45 The Plug-In Tower .................................100 Mechanical Systems.................................47 The Expanding Monolith .......................106 The Artificial Hill town ............................110 Component Strategies .....................49 Definitions ..................................................51 Extreme Prefab................................118 On-Site Labor ...........................................53 Launching Gantry Game .......................120 Fabricated Unit .........................................55 Incremental Launching System ............124 Panel System ............................................57 Extra-Large Prefab ...............................128 Precast Concrete ......................................59 Kit-of-Parts ................................................61
Non Physical Contexts Precedents Building Code..................................136 Rating Precedents .........................168 Regular....................................................137 Rating Systems ......................................169 HUD Code ..............................................138 Matrix Chart ............................................170 Prefab Scale ...........................................171 Zoning Code ...................................144 Enchridion................................................173 Boston ..................................................145 Charlottesville, VA ................................147 Precedents .....................................176 Little Rock, AK .....................................148 Economics ......................................150 Overview ...................................................151 HUD Code ................................................153 Single Family Modular .............................155 Stick Built Modular....................................156 Multi Family Modular ................................157 Multi Family Stick Built .............................158 Policy...............................................160
Purpose and DefinitionsPre-fabrication in urban settings is an Four main purposes of the book:underlooked, under-researched subject. This • Exploring prefab through the city lens: explaining the process of using prefab relative tomight have to do with the fact that there are dense, urban environments.limited examples of prefabricated architecture inthe city, even less that have actually been • Identifying and analyzing delivery methods; tracking the prefab process from therealized, and even less that have actually been manufacturer to site placement.successful. Those reasons (limited builtexamples) as well as the stigma associated with • Identfying advantages vs. disadvantages; why would someone want to use prefab in anprefabrication (cheap, indistinct) aren’t the only urban environment.factors; social and economic factors (such asunions) also play an important role. • To uncover potential design opportunities in an area that seems to be less well understood or studied in the general field. This gathering, dissecting and organizing of specificThere is a disproportionally high number of information is potentially valuable in the generation or advancement of a design idea.prefab buildings (especially residential homes) inrural settings. Our research, therefore, haspurposely limited looking into this well-documented area of prefab in order to exploreand eventually identify the challenges that are What this book is not about:unique to urban environments. • Prefabrication in rural settings. • How elements are prefabricated in a factory (not part of the construction or delivery process), unless it is significant in terms of time/labor/quality issues.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTSUrbanRelating to, or belonging to, a city. Examples of prefabricated architecture are disproportionally locatedin rural or suburban settings. Therefore, our aim is to focus on researching prefabrication in a moredense urban fabric. Although the ‘density’ factor is loosely defined, the context should be clearlyunderstood as urban.Prefab DEPLOYMENTDefinitions for this word vary slightly but are all common in the sense that they are too broad andgeneral (factory-built, factory-made, pre-cut, panelized, manufactured, modular, mobile). For ourpurposes, we are defining prefab as a building or structure that is manufactured in standard parts off-site to be shipped and assembled elsewhere.To be even more rigid in our definition of prefab, we have developed a matrix and identified projects ormethods of construction just outside the matrix to define the borders of our research zone. Theprojects within the matrix re-enforce our definition of prefab. CONTEXTDelivery Method‘Delivery method’ has different meanings in different fields and even within the field of architecture, itcan have various implications. Since it is an important factor in Prefab City, a precise definition, for ourpurposes, is required. By delivery methods, we mean the mode of transportation and route fromfactory where a prefab element was made to the actual construction site, and everything in between. PRECEDENTS Introduction • 2
Research Methodology and ScopeTo make our research and findings more effective Asphalt Road Drop Houseand useful, we have devised a strategy tocalculate or ‘rate’ the degree or ‘prefabness’ foreach of the examples presented. Firstly, thematrix helps us define our boundaries on whatconstitutes prefab. In other words, the limits ofdegree of ‘prefabness’ are defined by the projectsaround the border of the matrix, and everythingwithin falls in our realm of study.By developing this matrix, we have givenourselves two extremes of prefab and therefore 100% on-site 100% off-sitenow have a scale from which we can place otherobjects relative to the two ends. As our owncommitment to being objective about theseexamples, our ratings and matrix placementsprimarily use measurable facts and figures.
INTRODUCTION Off-site Prefabrication Puma City DETERMINANTS Drop House Nomadic Museum Precast Concrete Metastadt Segmented Bridges Pierson Court Nakagin Tower DEPLOYMENT Use Kim House Elemental Box City Bailey UseResidential Bridge Infrastructure Hong Kong Tower Habitat 67 CONTEXT 2 x 4 Res. Elemental Permanent Infill Zollverein Temporary PRECEDENTS Keetwonen Asphalt Road Custom Adobe Hut/ On-site Igloo Construction Standard Introduction • 4
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTde·ter·mi·nant[dih-tur-muh-nuhnt]–noun1. a determining agent or factor.A multitude of factors go into the design and PRECEDENTSdelivery of a prefabricated element. Prefabdelivery must be carefully thought through toensure smooth transition from factory to site.Factors to pay special attention to include methodof transportation, site restrictions, and theconstruction strategy. Determinants • 6
Transportation TypesGround: Rail Ground: Road Ground: CraneRail transportation is one of the most efficient With many different types, transportation by Cranes provide the means of moving a containermodes of tranport for moving freight. However, trucks provides some flexibility for moving or module to its place on site. The cost of havingthe constraints of connectivity to other modes of materials and modules to site. Trucks are limited a crane is one limitation. The dimensions of thetransport and the rigidity of the rail car are both by the roads that lead them to a site. Local height site and its constraints also are limiting factors.limitations that need to be considered when using and weight restrictions, as well as the turningrail. radius of the truck, must be considered.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTWater: Barge Air: Skycrane Air: Freight AirplaneBarges allow for the tranport of ‘mega structures’ Skycranes allow typically inaccessible sites to Freight airplanes can expedite the deliverythat would otherwise be precluded from use receive materials that could not be delievered process of containers and kit of parts projects.because they are unable to be moved by rail or there otherwise. The distance of the pick up to However, because of the dimensional and weightroad. While size of the component is not a factor site is very limiting, as well as the skill needed to restrictions, the typical container size is excluded PRECEDENTSwhen using a barge, port locations in relation to operate the device and the cost associated with from this mode of transportation.site are critical factors that limit the use of water delivery.transport. Transportation • 10
by Ground: RailRail transportation provides an economicalalternative to truck transport for longer shipping Seattledistances (over 250 miles). In the United States,there is an existing network of freight railwaysthat serve the major metropolitan areas. Boston ChicagoCities that are located close to water most often New Yorkhave the greatest convergence of railroads. PhiladelphiaWaterways offer the greatest capabilities for Los Angeles Washington D.C.intermodal transport.The two most commonly used methods of Atlantatransportation (shown below) are “trailers on flatcars” (TOFC) and “container on flat cars” (COFC).Both types allow undisturbed shipment of freight. US System of RailwaysTOFC COFC Beacon Park Freight Yard, Boston, MA
INTRODUCTIONThe container has become the unit ofmeasurement for rail transport. The dimensionalproperties of the container dictate the length ofthe rail car and the vertical clearance needed fortransport. This can be a limiting factor whentransporting containers into an urban DETERMINANTSenvironment. DEPLOYMENT Typical Railcar dimension is set by container container dimension so that dimension two containers can fit on one car Trailer lengths also accomodate container dimensions CONTEXT req’d clearance 18’-9” req’d clearance 20’-9” Worcester Boston 20’ -3” 18’ -3” PRECEDENTS < 19’-6” Other Railway Two 8’-6” Two 9’-6” Containers Stacked Containers Stacked Vertical Railway Clearance in Massachusetts Transportation • 12
by Ground: RoadTransportation of pre fab elements in a urbanenvironment is constrained by a number ofobstacles. One of which is the complex networkof roads that comprise many cities.In order to deliver pre fab modules to a site manydifferent sized trucks need to be considered aspart of the delivery process. Each truck has itsown set of limitations for maximum freight weight. Truck TypesAll of these factors must be considered when Pickup Trucksiting a pre fab project in an urban context. Advantages: Can easily navigate small urban streets Disadvantages: Lowest freight weight capacity, very limited by size Single Unit Truck Advantages: Comparitively narrow width (fairly easy for navigating small streets). Mid size compacity for freight (panels could fit) Disadvantages: Constrained by height. Dump Truck Advantages: Large freight weight compacity Disadvantages: Width could be problematic when trying to traverse complex sites. Semi Tractor Trailer Truck Advantages: Largest carrying capacity; multiple trailer options to facilitate different sized pieces. Disadvantages: Hardest to maneuver complex street network.
Semi-Trailer Load CapacitiesSemi-Tractor trailer trucks have the greatestcarrying capacity. There are a number of options 48’-0”for the trailer; some maximize the length, someheight of the element that needs to betransported. Outlined below are the options. 8’-6” 48,000 lbs. 8’-6” Flatdeck Trailer 11’-0” 37’-0” 8’-6” a b 10’-0” 48,000 lbs. 8’-6”a: Height restriction for truck (varies by state from 13’-6” to 14’-6”)b: Height limit for vertical clearance (typ. 14’-0” for urban areas, 16’-0” rural)Vertical Clearance for Semi-Trailers Single Drop Trailer 10’-0” 52’-6” 29’-0” 8’-6” 9’-0” 11’-6” 9’-2” 10’-0” 45,000 lbs. 8’-6” 45,000 lbs. 8’-6” * maximizes height Box Trailer Double Drop Trailer
Roadway Design & ObstaclesRoadway design can either help or hinder thetransport of prefab elements to site by truck.Outlined below are the guidelines for thedimensions of driving and parking lanes in a city. a1 b1 c b2 a2
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS Landscape Street Furniture Signage Pedestrian Utilities DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTTruck Turning Obstacles PRECEDENTS‘Making the turn’ is one of the challeneges oftruck transport when building in an urbanenvironment. The many obstacles the citypresents (parked cars, telephone poles, stopsigns, etc.) make routing a truck to site one of the City Utilities Lighting Parallel Parkingmost important parts of the process. Transportation • 18
Truck Turning RadiiThe swept path a truck takes as it makes a right Swept path of truck 60°turn is a critical moment. To the right is a diagramthat explains the logics of how a truck makes aturn.The most common trucks used for transport inthe city are the standard semi-truck and the 60’ radiussingle unit truck. The paths for oversized loads from point on sidewalkneed to be considered if larger elements need toget to site. Critical points that determine swept path Truck Making 60° Turn 60° 60° 90° 90° a a b b 180° 180° a: 53’-0” a: 53’-0” b: 8’-6” b: 8’-6” critical swept path critical swept path Standard Semi-Truck Single Unit Truck
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT 60° 60° 60° CONTEXT 90° 90° 90° a a a b *cannot make a 180° b PRECEDENTS b with a 60’ radius 180°a: up to 80’-0” a: 48’-0” a: 75’-0” or 1/3 truck bed length 180°b: 8’-6” b: 16’-0” b: 8’-6” critical swept path critical swept path critical swept pathStretch Semi-Truck Oversized Load (Width) Oversized Load (Length) Transportation • 20
by WaterVessels used for transport range in size based onthe depth of water being traveled. The prefabcomponent’s size, if only traveling by water, isrestricted by the smallest body of water it travelsthrough.The size of the locks in at the Panama Canaldetermine the size of the ships allowed through.Each lock is 1,050 ft long, 110 feet wide. TheBridge of the Americas at the Pacific Entrance tothe canal is the height determinate; 201 ft at hightide. These dimensions set the maximum size ofship elligible to travel through the canal known asthe Panamax. A typical Panamax Container shipholds about 4,400 TEUs.Container ship unit of measure: World’s Largest Ports (ranked by container traffic, 2006)TEU, twenty-foot equivalent units:containers measuring 20ft L x 8ft W x 8.5ft H 1. Singapore 2. Hong Kong 3. Shanghai 4. Shenzhen 140 million 5. Busan 6. Kaohsiung containers shipped worldwide each year 7. Rotterdam 8. Dubai 9. Hamburg 10. Los Angeles 22. New York/ New Jersey 28. Port SaidRo-RO Ship passing through a lock at - Dampierthe Panama Canal - Newcastle
INTRODUCTIONSize Comparison Boeing 757-200PF Cargo Freight: 155 feet long, 125 feet wing span DETERMINANTS World’s largest container ship, Emma Maersk: 1,302 feet long, 184 feet wide 11,000 full TEU 14-ton containers Football field: DEPLOYMENT 300 feet longTransport Ships TypesName Water Type Qualities CONTEXTRO-RO Roll-on/Roll-Off varies by size subdivided into multiple types, many carry vehicles and containers Sto-Ro off wheel cargo, brought on board by a ramp at stern or side entry Container/Ro-Ro flexibile storage- containers on + under deck forward, ramps at stern for aft underdeck. Ro-Ro cargo is often construction equipment Ferry Shallow transport distance less than 300miles, often personal vehicles and rail carsHeavy Lift Deep capable of unloading/loading heavy/bulky components - typical single lift of 100 tons Crane Ship off-load containers from non self-sustaining ships offshore or underdeveloped ports PRECEDENTS FLO-FLO Float-On/Float-Off submerges open deck entirely under water surface, smaller cargo ship is floated over, water is pumped out of ballast tanksBarge Carrier Ships Shallow very long length compared to width, hard to handle and off-load toContainer Ships Deep containers stack 5 or 6 high, twelve across and interlocked with fittings- typically rely on shore cargo handling gear for unloading/loading Transportation • 22
by AirIt may be cost effective to transport by air using afreight aircraft if the elements are small enoughand light enough to fit inside a cargo hold.Utilizing an air crane, despite its hourly cost, may container / palettebe necessary if the urban site is particularlydifficult to access by truck and standard cranes.The boom height necessary to place a prefab large main-deckcomponent may require too large of a crane for cargo doorthe adjacent street size. In this instance lifting aprefab unit as large as many typical single familyhomes may be the efficient option for transport. Cargo Freight Specs: Boeing 757-200PF Cargo Freight: Length: 155 feet Tail Height: 44 feet Wing span: 125 feet Max takeoff weight: 250,000 lb - 255,000 lb Main deck capacity: 15 max containers/palette Palette size: 7’-4” x 10’-5” Main deck volume: 6,600 cubic ft (palette loads) Size Comparison Upper deck volume: 1,830 cubic ft (bulk loads) Football field: Cruise Speed: 530 mph 300 feet long Range: 2,900 miles Rate of climb: 1,3330 ft/min Ceiling: 12,800 ft Cargo Freight Air Crane / Skycrane Must land to transport
INTRODUCTIONdifficult accessurban site DETERMINANTS 23 0m im DEPLOYMENT ax im um dis t an ce Air Crane / Skycrane Specs: CONTEXT Length: 70 feet Height: 18ft 7 inches Empty Weight: 19,234 lb Max takeoff weight: 42,000 lb prefab component Max Speed: 126 mph extracted from fabricator, Range: 230 mi PRECEDENTS truck/rail/water transport Rate of climb: 1,3330 ft/min vessel Ceiling: 9,000 ft Cost: $5,000 per hour able to hover over site for delivery Transportation • 24
Site AccessThere are several logical reasons for usingcranes in prefab construction. Sites completelysurrounded are rendered inaccessible to bulkyconstruction equiptment.Other existing siteconditions like single access to site, corner site,or narrow site greatly limit the access points tobring in construction equiptment and modules.Buildings can be constructed on these accessible(but difficult) sites and open sites using stickframe methods, but in some cases the speed ofprefabricated construction methods can expeditethe process. courtyard crane necessary for construction surrounded site single access to site
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT alley crane necessary for speed CONTEXT PRECEDENTScorner site narrow site full access to site Site Access + Assembly • 28
Crane Operation + Extents Special crane components There are some extra equiptment items that make craning a module more efficient and precise. Rigging keeps the forces of tension perpindicular to the module, reducing the bending forces on the unit. An antirotation device helps control a crane’s motion and the way the module shifts from pickup Winch up to placement. Winch Wood frame modules are best moved withWinch right strapping and rigging. Steel frame modules use left Crane school hooks and holes intentionally in the design of Winch down Heavy equiptment training school is essential for modular structures to pick up the unit (as in crane training and operation. It involves written shipping containers). tests based on state laws and practical Emergency examinations employing students’ skilled Outriggers extending from the crane vehicle are stop manipulation of the crane operations. necessary to temporarily ground the module toStart Stop the site. Jog Reset The jib is very useful to hold the modular unit in an almost upright position. It has the potential to resolve design issues thanks to its ability to Crane cab controls suspend the module in a way different from the way a crane typically does. Rigging for wood frame module
INTRODUCTIONSmall And Large Crane ExtentsTelescopic Boom Crane All Terrain CraneNational Crane 1395 Tadano ATF 110G-520 Ton capacity 130 Ton capacity jib 20° 20° 143 80° DETERMINANTS jib 122 44° 95 20° 80° DEPLOYMENT 42 72 101 130 170 56 CONTEXT 24-7" 340-0" outrigger190-0" 20-0" outrigger PRECEDENTS 360° 360° work area work area Site Access + Assembly • 30
Crane + ObstaclesHand signals Permitting obstaclesHand signals are necessary for communication Permits in Boston one must obtain through thebetween the crane operator and the individual on Inspectational Services Department include: longsite guiding the placement of the crane. These form permit, amendment, use of premise permitsimple gestures are necessary for several (for using open space), electrical & fire alarmreasons. Construction sites are often loud. There permits, plumbing, gas, and sprinkler installationis a lot of space between the crane operator and permits.the individual conducting the crane’s motions.The dual perspectives of crane operator and Call Boston Public Works Department 24 hoursconductor are critical in ensuring safety and prior to work to get a permit. Coordinate withprecision. recycling, santiation, and street sweeping. Signs must be posted near the sitewith the construction schedule. In addition to this, it may be required to hire an officer to direct traffic. Hoist Lower Raise Boom Lower Boom Swing Raise Boom + Lower Boom + Stop Lower Load Raise Load Hand signals
INTRODUCTIONObstacles on a construction siteThere are a variety of existing physical barriersthat must be worked around. These can lead tointeresting, even fruitful design moves. Theyincludew but are not limited to: Utility poles DETERMINANTS Power lines Lamp posts Trees Fire hyrdants Subterranian utilities DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Site Access + Assembly • 32
Off Frame AssemblySite Dimensions Determined byTruck TurnTruck turn dimensions can influence the decisionto use a site or not. Sometimes scale and cost 20can dictate the use of an off frame assemblysystem. Often obstacles, like powerlines, can 6make modular construction on a site unfeasible 52without the use of an off frame solution. Still otherobstacles, like sidewalks and buildings 6surrounding the site (both immediately and acrossthe street), can impact the delivery of an off framemodular unit.Knowing the limits and minimum site dimensionscan transform a once unusable site into avaluable piece of real estate. Standard Semi Truck minimum site dimensionsEfficiency 20’ wide x 53’ deepEfficiency percentage is calculated by dividing the module dimensions 8’-6” wide x 53’ deeparea of the module by the area of the smallestpossible rectangular site. It is clear that the mostdense and efficient module-site relationshiphappens when the module is shorter and wider,as in the case of the oversized load (width)example. Module Site 43 %
INTRODUCTION 41 25 17 DETERMINANTS 6 6 653 53 53 6 6 6 DEPLOYMENT Stretch Semi Truck Oversized Load (Width) Oversized Load (Length) minimum site dimensions minimum site dimensions minimum site dimensions 41’ wide x 80’ deep 25’ wide x 48’ deep 17’ wide x 63’ deep module dimensions module dimensions module dimensions 8’-6” wide x 80’ deep 16’ wide x 48’ deep 16’ wide x 48’ deep CONTEXT 21 % 64 % 50 % PRECEDENTS Site Access + Assembly • 34
Off Frame AssemblyFrom Truck to Site Off-Frame Modular Delivery Module delivery is possible without a crane. The truck begins its delivery by backing into the site. Next jacks are placed underneath the module, taking the load off of the transportation chassis. The chassis is then removed by pulling it out into the street. In some cases, like the illustrated scenario, a chassis must be cut into pieces because the distance between the in place module and existing structure across from the site does not allow its removal. Backing up Entering site
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTPlacing jacks under module Removing chassis from site Breaking up chassis PRECEDENTS Site Access + Assembly • 36
Site Access + AssemblySourcesRent A Crane, Inc. http://www.rentacraneinc.com/equipment.htmlCapitol Building Supply. 2008. http://cbsigms.com/pricing/cranecharges.pdfPacific Northwest National Laboratory. September 2010. http://www.pnl.gov/contracts/hoist_rigging/mobile_cranes.asp#cranetypesWikipedia. 2010 2, November. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_(machine)National Modular Housing Council. http://www.manufacturedhousing.org/mc/admin/template/brochures/70temp.pdfCity of Boston.2010. http://www.cityofboston.gov/isd/building/boa/permittypes.aspCity of Boston. 2010. http://www.cityofboston.gov/transportation/Star-Flite Systems. http://www.flickr.com/photos/starflite-systems/4930960368/sizes/m/in/photostream/California Crane School. 2004-2010. http://www.californiacraneschool.com/Pennsylvania Crane School. 2009. http://www.pennsylvaniacraneschool.com/crane_practical_test.aspGokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010.Curbed Los Angeles. http://la.curbed.com/archives/2008/01/watching_a_pref.phpUniversity of Arkansas. http://architecture.uark.edu/719.htm
LogisticsModule Allowable WidthsModular strategies provide several benefits to the Module Allowable Widths 12’-0” standardconstruction process. The use of modules greatlyreduces time for the construction schedule (see 12’-0” standardbelow) by allowing builders to worksimultaneously on and off site. In workingprimarily off-site, negative impacts on theenvironment 8’-6” post-construction sitepermitting required (standard) and no revival 12’-0” permit required (wide)are greatly reduced. 14’-0” escort required (wide) special route required (oversize) 8’-6” no permitting required (standard) 16’-0”Module dimensions are determined by the 12’-0” permit required (wide) 14’-0” escort required (wide)Massachusetts Department of Transportation. special route required (oversize) 16’-0”MassDOT codes restrict travel of certain trucksand load sizes during high volume traffic hours.Module Allowable Lengths Module Allowable Lengths standard 12’-0” standard oversize maximum 40’-0” 53’-0” standard oversize 76’-0” 40’-0” 53’-0”Site Built Construction Schedule 76’-0” DESIGN PERMITING ON-SITE ON-SITE ON-SITE schematics + documents submission + approvals preparation + foundation building construction site restorationModular Construction Schedule DESIGN PERMITING ON-SITE ON-SITE TIME SAVED schematics + documents submission + approvals preparation + foundation site restoration schedule reduced by 30% to 50% OFF-SITE building construction
INTRODUCTIONSteel Frame Modular steel form deck 6” ceiling joists DETERMINANTS HSS frame steel form deck 3” concrete HSS frame steel studs gwb cladding DEPLOYMENTSteel framed modules are constructed with ahollow structural steel frame that is infilled withlight gague steel studs. The modules arrive onsite with interior and exterior finish materialsinstalled, are fastened to one another andfinishing touches are made. The steel moduleshown to the right allows for the construction of amaximum twelve story building. CONTEXT exploded axonometric mate-line concrete floor mate-line PRECEDENTS gwb ceiling 2 layers type x gwb mineral wool fire stop firesafingmarriage wall section Modular Strategies • 40
LogisticsWood Frame Modular gwb ceiling 2 x 6 ceiling joists gwb finish wall (2) 2 x 12 beam floor sheathing 2x4 studs (2) 2 x 10 beam 2x10 floor joists 2x6 studs sheathing claddingWood framed modules are built using typicalwood construction methods. Wood beams andstuds act as the main structure, with exteriorsheathing to prevent racking. Interior and exteriorfinishes come installed in the module. Woodmodules are often limited in height by local codesfor wood construction. gwb finish wall osb sheathing exploded axonometric 2 x 10 joists (2) 2x12 beam air space 2 x 6 ceiling joists gwb finish ceiling 2 x 4 stud wallmarriage wall section
INTRODUCTIONShipping Container Modular steel corrugated roof corrugated side wall steel square tube steel block DETERMINANTS steel post steel channel 1” plywood floor steel joists rubber gasket securing barsShipping container modules can come from steel doorsactual recycled shipping containers, or can becustom constructed for specific projects. DEPLOYMENTShipping containers are intended to be stackedfor the transportation of goods, and thereforestack easily as well to form buildings. Thecorrugated side walls provide a lot of thecontainers strucural capacity, and need to bereinforced with columns if sections are removedas shown above exploded axonometric CONTEXT steel angle below steel channel at plywood seam corrugated side wall steel joists below corrugated end wall steel permieter beam 1” plywood floor PRECEDENTS steel bottom block steel vertical supportstructure detail plan Modular Strategies • 42
Site Placement StrategiesOn-Frame Modularchassis set module on piers detach chassisThere are two main strategies for placing modular Off-frame construction (see below) is commonlybuildings on to a site. On-frame construction (see used for multi-story buildings. The module isabove), also known as mobile homes, is limited to placed onto the back of a flat-bed truck forsingle story structures. Modules are placed on a shipment, and is craned into its site upon arrival.chassis, hitched to a truck, and brought to site. The modules can be stacked according to localThe chassis is lowered onto a set of piers and zoning and codes, as well as the structuraldetached from the truck. The chassis and wheels integrity of the system. Off-frame systems areare left beneath the module, making the structure typically viewed as permanant.temporary in natureOff-Frame Modularflat-bed truck strap module to crane place module on foundation
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTSanchor module to ground add skirting DEPLOYMENTcraning sequence CONTEXT PRECEDENTSanchor module to foundation Modular Strategies • 44
Aggregation TechniquesThere are several ways modules can be Non-attached Semi-attachedaggregated to form a building. Modules can benot attached, semi attached, or attached as seenin the diagrams to the right. Here are severalexamples of how modules can be aggregatedwithin the different levels of attachment. Theexamples listed are existing aggregationtechniques in their simplest form.The ability of modules to be stacked and shiftedis reliant on their structural integrity. Differentconstruction methods will allow for smaller or Solo Frameworklarger cantilever dimensions and variable buildingheights. The height of modular buildings is alsoreliant on local zoning codes for specific materials Field Field jointPuma City, to the right, is a great example ofaggregated modules where one can actually seethe aggregation technique clearly. Modulesoberseve stack : shift relationships as well asmate and bridge.
Mechanical Systems Modular Building PartsAs the number of modules in a modular buildingincreases, the complexity by which they areattached also grows. A solo module arrivesready for use, and must only be tied into thefoundation. As more modules are introducedthere is a system by which their mechanicalcomponents are connected. Stacked modulesrequire shafts, similar to that of standardbuildings, to carry mechanical lines. Large in-site foundation typical module interstitial modulebuildings with high volume HVAC and plumbingsystems can introduce interstitial modules toallow lateral movement of systems in betweenstacked modules.Mechanical + Modular Connectionssolo module adjacent modules stacked modules
DefinitionsPrefab construction is often associated withwhole modules or shipping container architecture.However, there are other component strategiesthat qualify as prefabicated construction.Fabricated Unit Panel System Precast ConcreteFabricated units as defined by this section are Panel systems contain integrated systems within Precast concrete is fabricated in a multitude oftypically made of extruded or poured metal one component. Often included are structural, sizes. Precast components are comprised of an(aluminum or steel) The units range in scale from thermal/waterproofing, electrical, mechanical internal steel rebar framework and high tolerancea small fasteners to steel bridge trusses. For the systems. Made up of a sandwich of concrete. Concrete is meant to withstandconsideration of construction and design logics, complementary materials. How the panels are transport to and movement on site. Units aremetal fabricated components from the single stud handled on site is dependent on the weight and limited in weight and dimensions based on theto the 300’-0” bridge truss are in this category. size of each piece. smallest unit of transportation. Refer to the Transportation chapter for size limitations.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTKit-of-PartsThe Kit-of-Parts is a packaged set of componentsthat results in a cohesive end product, notcategorized by materiality; often the shipping PRECEDENTSpackage is used as a portion of the finishedproduct. It can include any number andcombination of the fabricated unit, the panelsystem, or precast components. Coordination ofproducts is done off-site then delivered. Component Strategies • 52
On-Site Labor The benefit of prefabricated systems is mostly realized in the reduction of construction on-site labor. Prefabricating components, panels, or modules can significantly reduce the amount of time workers are present at the site. The reduction of on-site time obviously reduces construction labor cost but also has the potential to reduce the amount of errors experienced at the construction site. However, a consequence of prefabrication is that the building components grow in size. Increased sizes result in the need to utilize more man-power and exra equipment. Transport equipment maximum loads need to be considered in the design of the components. Logistics in transfer are key limitations to designing structurally sound pieces that can handle transport and the loads inherent in the building design. Extra time is needed than on-site construction calculating and coordinating the connecting components because on-site flexibility is severly decreased. Increased coordination is then necessary for any building components not built as part of the prefabricated system, ie: the foundation. Since prefabrication alters the time and means for on-site labor it is important to understand the relationship of on-site personnel to the size and type of prefabricated component.launching and construction ofBailey Bridge with manual labor
INTRODUCTIONRelationship of On-site Labor and Component Transfer Labor Personnel Component Max. Weight Dimensions 51 lbs 2” H × 4” W x 8’-0” L DETERMINANTS 150 lbs 10’-0” H x 4’-0” W x 6” L 577 lbs 5’-0” H x 1’-0” W x 10’-0” L DEPLOYMENT < 2,000 lbs 4’ H x 4’ W x 3’-4” L < 2,000 lbs 5’-0” H × 4’-0” W × 8’-0” L CONTEXT 20,000 lbs 11’-6” H x 8’-0” W x 48’-0” L PRECEDENTS 25,000 lbs 15’-0” H x 60’-0” W x 9’-0” L Component Strategies • 54
Fabricated UnitsFabricated units have the advantage of beingconstructed in a controlled environment.Compared to stick-built methodology, fabricationgroups the individual studs, beams and joistswithin a factory setting. Instead of installing andconnecting each stud to the foundation throughthe footer of a wall, the framing is made into acomponent that includes the header, footer andall the studs for a predetermined length of wall.Degrees of Prefabrication Stud Stud Panel Bridge Trusselevationplan
INTRODUCTION Roof Structure Interior Finish PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT Floor Slab DETERMINANTS Framing Column-Beam Connection DEPLOYMENT Cladding Apetures CONTEXT FoundationFabricated Unit Logic PRECEDENTSSteel Frame ConstructionFabricated Units compose the structural framing.Other systems, energy, aesthetics, and openingsare additive to the unit. Component Strategies • 56 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT
Panel System 3 4 2Panellized construction minimizes on-siteconstruction. Construction materials typically 1fastened on-site are compiled into a componentconstructed in the controlled factory environment.Most common type of panel system is SIPs,structural insulated panels.SIPs are comprised of a thick layer of insulationbetween two layers of OSB, oriented strandboard. A basic SIPs panel is composed of bothstructure and insulation layer.Panel systems may increase material cost by upto 50% but on-site labor cost can potentially Panel Connectionsdecrease by 50%. The benefit exists in the Connections Fastener Spacingprecision of factory controlled construction withisolation from problems that exist at the site. 1. Track to Level Platform countersunk screw 2 screws per 24” 1 screw in betweenInstallation of the panels is based on 2. Track to Panel screw 2 screws per studmethodology developed for the specific system. 3. Panel to Panel screw (ex: wafer head) 12” OCDifferent systems will have different advantages: 4. Track to Panel* screw 2 screws per studwhether the panel is lightweight or resistent to *upper track connected after 12’-0” of panels installedweather, earthquakes, winds, insects, debris.
ODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT Last Panel Initial Panel Panel Installation SequenceComponent Strategies • 58 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
Precast Concrete Structural Components 1 2 3 4 Slabs length factor by function of service width by transportation restriction 5 6 7 Beams depth is dependent on length 10 length is function of capacity load Columns 1. Solid height is dependent on the width 2. Hollow Core 8 9 3. Single TeePrecast concrete construction is most readily 4. Double Teeseen within the city as infrastructure. It is a 5. Rectangularversitile construction type. Any shape and size is 6. Inverted Teepossible as long as the overall component 7. L-shapedconforms to the smallest restrictions on size 8. Round|Rectanglebased on transportation used to get from 9. Squareprecaster to the job site. Refer to the 10. Double HeightTransportation Sub-Chapter for restraints, pertransport type.The efficiency of precast concrete units becomesapparent in the repeatability of the shape. Composition of PrecastFormwork is expensive to fabricate. The more materials and accessories rebarsophisticated the form the higher the cost. Similar concrete: portland cement, water,shapes with minimal pour adjustments will result air, aggregatein the most cost efficient use of the form. formwork positive/negative connection keysUtilizing precast as a technology will add epoxy cementitious grout:additional time to the initial phase of the project between precast segments/for design/calculations and decrease on-site time. components
INTRODUCTIONPrecast Fabrication to Construction SiteFabrication of a precast unit mirrors the methodin which the unit will be installed at the site.Short Line Casting System Inside Formwork DETERMINANTS Bulkhead New Segment Older Segment Older Segment Soffit adjustable formwork for precast segments DEPLOYMENT Carriage New Old Outside Formwork CONTEXTLong Line Casting System Outside Formwork Elevation PRECEDENTS Inside Formwork Plan Component Strategies • 60
Kit-of-PartsExamplesContainer End ProductSunshower KitBailey Bridge KitA Kit-of-Parts is not defined by the specificmaterials and items contained, but defined by thenature of it arriving to the construction site as acohesive unit. The package the kit arrives in caneither be designed into the finished product ortransported away if not being used; it is a matterof preference. In the interest of decreasingtransportation costs it may be ideal andsustainable to introduce the transporting unit tothe final design.
INTRODUCTIONstructuredoorswindows DETERMINANTScontainercaseworkfastenerspanels DEPLOYMENTplumbing CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Contained in the Kit Component Strategies • 62
Component StrategiesSourcesPrecast Concrete by NEU School of Architecture Graduate Students Fall 2009 (Michelle Callinan, Daniel Riggs, Chris Kuczynski with Matthew Littell)Barker, James M. “Construction Techniques for Segmental Concrete Bridges” 1980.http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1980/July-August/JL-80-JULY-AUGUST-9.pdfToolBase techSpace: Panelized Wall Systemshttp://www.toolbase.org/pdf/techinv/panelizedwallsystems_techspec.pdfUS Department of Housing and Urban Development “Design, Fabrication and Installation of Engineered Panelized Walls: Two Case Studies”http://www.huduser.org/Publications/PDF/panelized_walls.pdfImages:http://www.enlisted.info/field-manuals/fm-5-277-bailey-bridge.shtmlhttp://www.usace.army.mil/History/hv/Pages/098-Role_of_US_Army_Corps.aspxhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/42108746@N00/30019541/http://tinyhouseblog.com/galapagos.htmlhttp://www.steelworksnz.co.nz/projects/http://www.flickr.com/photos/nycstreets/4831935944/http://www.kozialconstruction.com/Barker, James M. “Construction Techniques for Segmental Concrete Bridges” 1980.http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1980/July-August/JL-80-JULY-AUGUST-9.pdfhttp://tulane.edu/news/newwave/081710_sunshower.cfmhttp://www.metamere.com/images/segmentalbridgeunderconstruction4.jpghttp://www.mtc.ca.gov/images/ta02-0307/skyway.jpghttp://www.gautrain.co.za/web_images/_2S22gQ.jpghttp://www.djc.com/stories/images/20090716/DSCN1968_big.jpg
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENTDeployment: the distribution of resources in Precedent research was integral to thepreparation for work. development of this chapter, where the analysis CONTEXT helps to create subtle links between the urbanTactics: any mode of procedure for gaining context and each precedent to foster designsuccess. discoveries. Overall, projects were selected based upon the following criteria: • Clarity of the deployment methodDeployment Tactics takes an in-depth look at • Unique prefab implementation PRECEDENTScurrent techniques to rapidly deliver prefab • Relationship to the urban conditionarchitecture and infrastructure. This chapter • Success of the conceptual approachstudies projects with unique construction • Scale: S - XXLsolutions, which can be useful in the urbancontext. Deployment Tactics • 66
Density on DemandDensity on Demand • 68 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
Definition and Factors + Transport and LocationDefining Density on DemandThe creation of superimposed urbanismdeveloped through quick aggregation of compactstructures became a perfect model forprefabrication. Not only did it minimize on-siteconstruction but each piece could be shippedaround the world to develop communitieswherever shelter was needed. This “Density onDemand” can be seen in military bases,emergency relief shelters and temporary housingdevelopments.Creating Density on DemandThere is specific criteria in creating urbanismfrom prefabricated construction. Being quicklyassembled and disassembled to minimize on-siteconstruction takes full advantage of factoryprefabrication. This also means the finishedproduct includes little or no site work and a lightfootprint for a structure that is easily movedaround to various geographic locations andclimates. Aggregation becomes important tomaximize population density within compactlimitations if there is any need for downtown cityprefab infill.Factors • Mobility • Adaptability • Quick On-Site Installation • Light Footprint
INTRODUCTIONMobility + AdaptabilityThe ability to be transported to a site fullyconstructed, with minimal site work, createsopportunities for a potential site, regardless oflocation, for instant urbanism. The fact thesemobile shelters can be erected on site then DETERMINANTSmoved whenever needed adds a unique aspect totheir designs. In the case of the Quonset hut,since it was developed for multiple regionsaround the world, it incorporated sleds, wheels,chassis or even empty oil drums as pontoons tobe transported. Mobile or HUD code homesmaintain the chassis used in transport while DEPLOYMENToccupying a site which can be reused in order tomove the building to a different location. CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Density on Demand • 70
ConstructionOn-Site InstallationThe amount of time spent with on-siteconstruction has a significant effect onimplemention strategies. Instant urbanism isautomatically tied to its connection with the earth,the amount of on-site earthwork involved and thepermanence of those connections. The QuonsetHut and Fema Trailers are two examples thatminimize sitework and on-site construction to Wood Frame Housecreate efficient instant urbanism. Sitework is ableto proceed in parallel with the prefabricationprocess so when the materials arrive on site thereis a minimum amount of work to prepare in orderto receive the structure. The Quonset Hut has allof its pieces prefabricated on-site and utilizessimple connections in the field for quickinstallation. HUD code and mobile homes ingeneral are completely prefabricated, the chassisbeing reused on-site as supports and remainingattached to the unit. Mobile/HUD Code HomeInstallation TimeWood Frame House + foundation - One MonthQuonset Hut - One Day Quonset HutMobile Home - Six Hours (approx.)
Density on Demand • 72 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
ConnectionsLight Footprint Temporary ConstructionAspects which affect the lightness of a footprintare the permanence of the structure and themobility for which it is designed. One crucialcharacteristic is the amount of earth displacedupon construction. This raises the question as towhere to store or use this extra earth, particularlyin cases of wood frame houses that incorporatea crawlspace or basement. More temporarybuildings like the Quonset Hut and mobile homesend up with little or no displacement other thansurface contact creating the perfect opportunityfor rapid deployment and installation for disasterrelief or other instant shelter needs. Quonset HutDisplaced Earth Footprint3000sf Wood Frame House w/basement - 9,600ft3 Sill Plates3000sf Wood Frame House w/crawlspace - 3,840ft3Minimal Earth Interaction1000sf Quonset Hut w/Sill Plates - 16ft3 Earth Displaced1000sf Quonset Hut w/Slab on Grade - 320ft3 16 ft31000sf Mobile Home w/Footings - 12.4ft 2
INTRODUCTIONTemporary Construction DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT Quonset Hut Slab on Grade PRECEDENTS Earth Displaced 320 ft3 Density on Demand • 74
ConnectionsSemi-Permanent Construction Mobile Home Concrete Piers Footings Earth Displaced 37.3 ft3
INTRODUCTIONPermanent Conventional Construction Wood Frame House DETERMINANTS Basement DEPLOYMENT Displacement 9600ft3 Wood Frame House CONTEXT Crawlspace PRECEDENTS Displacement 3840ft3 Density on Demand • 76
Process Raw Material Delivery Components On-Site Storage On-Site Fabrication Factory Prefabrication Off-Site Storage On-Site Installation Delivery
INTRODUCTION Recycled + Quonset Hut Relocated DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT Erection Military Base Military Base CONTEXT Disaster Relief Trailer Park Trailer Park PRECEDENTS Recylced +Mobile Home Unit Relocated Density on Demand • 78
Density on DemandSourcesAllegheny Construction & Remodeling. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.alleghenybuilt.com/garagespolebuildings.html>.Cotsalas, Valerie. “Standoff at Nassau’s Last Trailer Park.” The New York Times - Breaking News,World News & Multimedia. 13 Jan. 2008. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/>.Decker, Julie, and Chris Chiei. Quonset Hut: Metal Living for a Modern Age. New York: PrincetonArchitectural, 2005.“Excel Home Factory Photos.” Modular Homes Consumer Guide Manufactured Home Floorplans andPrices. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.modulartoday.com/gallery-excelfactory.html>.
Urban Infill Sites Infill: n. A material that fills in an otherwise unoccupied space. Urban Infill: n. An architecture that is built in vacant or unused urban space. Infill architecture maximizes the left-over space within previously developed urban conditions. It takes advantage of unused spaces, difficult or atypical sites, and existing structures within the urban context by building “up and out.” The sites for infill architecture can be found in-between, on top of, below, within, or on the side of existing structures. Prefabricated designs are the perfect solution for infill architecture. Due to dense urban environments, infill sites are difficult to build on and may require as little on-site assembly as possible. Prefabricated designs, primarily constructed in the factory whenever possible, would allow architecture to be built on sites that would otherwise not have been developed. Infill Site Possibilities
DefinitionsPrefabricated architecture that responds to theseinfill conditions can be categorized into two types:parasite or barnacle. Parasite and barnacleprefab depends upon it’s host for structure, realestate, systems, circulation, or regulatorybenefits.ParasiteParasite: n. An organism that has a symbioticrelationship with its host: while the host is not hurtby the parasite, it also does not benefit. Theparasite takes advantage of various features of remora feeding on sharkthe host. Parasites are generally smaller thantheir host, show a high degree of specializationfor their mode of life, and reproduce at a fasterrate than their hosts.Parasite prefab is a type of prefabricatedarchitecture that specifically responds to infill sitepossibilities within the urban environment.Parasitical characteristics are represented asparasite prefab benefits from utilizing existingstructures (hosts) within an architectural context.This architecture depends upon the existingstructure and is unable to survive on its’ own.It is migratory and temporary, with the ability tomove from host to host. Parasite prefab candepend upon its’ host for all five of the benefitslisted above. parasite architecture precedent
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTSBarnacleBarnacle: n. A crustacean that lives permanentlyattached to a hard substrate or submergedsurface. DEPLOYMENTBarnacle prefab is a similar type of prefabricated barnacles attached to a rockarchitecture to parasite prefab, as it responds toinfill site possibilities within the urbanenvironment in a similar way. Barnacle prefabdoes attach itself to an existing structure, but themain difference is that it can survive on its own. CONTEXTBarnacle prefab is self-sufficient, with separateindependent systems from its host. Primarily, thebarnacle prefab would only utilize the host forstructural or real estate purposes. It is morepermanent than parasite prefab. PRECEDENTS barnacle architecture precedent Parasite + Barnacle • 84
Parasite Precedents Just the Facts: 1997 Rathenow, Germany mixed-use commercial + residential fit-up 900sm addition of 12 prefab containers This project is an addition to the rear of a 19th century building in a tight courtyard-like site. The containers were prefitted and assembled 500 km away. It took one day to deliver the containers on a standard size flatbed and one day to assemble with the help of a crane. They are housed on a concrete columnn and beam structure. The materials of the container are reinforced concrete, corrugated aluminum panels/sheeting, and steel frame insulated wall and roof panels. The building was gutted and prepared for the systems to recieve containers which were assembled with insulation and all necessary systems in the factory. These units are “plugged into” service systems within the floor compartment of the existing building.Housing & Commercial BlockKlaus Sill & Jochen Keim
INTRODUCTION Container Addition DETERMINANTS Interstitial Space n g tio ce in di pa ild Ad Bu lS er ia g in t it t in ta rs Existing Building is on te Ex In DEPLOYMENT C Unoccupiable SpaceThe twelve prefabricated containers are “pluggedinto” a concrete structural system. This addition CONTEXTacts as parasite prefab because the containersare attached to and feed on the systems of theexisting building. The structural system ofconcrete beams and columns is directlyconnected to the structural system existent in thehost building. These containers can not exist ontheir own; they rely on the host building to PRECEDENTSefficiently function. The containers were designedto be added to the existing building, yet thisadditional structural system causes a largepercentage in loss of usable or functional spaceof the 900 square meter addition. Unoccupiable Space Parasite + Barnacle • 86
Parasite Precedents Just the Facts: 2001 Rotterdam, The Netherlands 85 gross square meters Residential / Temporary Exhibition This project was designed as a temporary addition to a former warehouse building for an exhibition. The addition was located at the top of a small elevator shaft on the warehouse building, thus determining the size of the compact plan. This project represents parasite prefab as it is structurally supported by the host building, draws from the services of the existing building, and was designed to be temporary. This project is composed of load-bearing insulated panels, but the shape makes it dependent on the existing elevator shaft for strucutural support. The assembly of these panels on site took just a few days. The parasite prefab addition drew from the many services of the existing building, inluding the circulation system. As this was designed and assembled forLas Palmas Parasite an exhibition, the structure was moved to aP.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. PROJECT storage location by crane, road, and waterKortknie Stuhlmacher Architecten trasportation.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS Road Transport Existing Systems DEPLOYMENT Crane Transport CONTEXT Parasite Circulation Water Transport Existing Circulation PRECEDENTSCrane Site Assembly Assembly Section Parasite + Barnacle • 88
Barnacle Precedents Just the Facts: 2009 Residential Unbuilt Project This project was designed through parametric 3D modeling software and was intended to be built on any unused spaces within the urban fabric such as blank facades, rocks, or bridges. This project, as the architect said, “finds value by turning dead public space into lively private space.” It was intended as a tool for sustainable urban densification. This project has a structural panel that would bolt the prefabricated element to the surface of the host or existing structure. The panelized components would be quick and easy to assemble on site after the structural plate is attached. The circulation system here is a staircase that can retract up into the building. As a result, the only actual footprint of the building would be the staircase landing of the retractable stairs and the services duct.Parasite PrefabLara Calder Architects
3 Barnacle Precedents Just the Facts: Date: 1998 Location: Sevilla, Spain Typology: Temporary Scaffolding / Residential Santiago Parejo, through his Recetas Urbanas projects, is an architect who designs architecture that exploits gaps in currect building codes, administration, and legislation. He tries to find sites that offer real estate for various prefab additions to be built to existing buildings or structures throughout the city. He calls many of his projects, “Strategies for Subversive Urban Occupation.” As Benedicte Grosjean writes in ArchiLab’s Futurehouse (2002): “(Cirugeda) formulates realistic and empirical strategies to push the law to its limits and find pockets of non- law in which to develop a possible habitat.” In the Urban Shelter Building, Parejo finds a loop hole in local legislation that would allow someone to build their own shelter or “urban reserve.” Construction scaffolding can form a temporary room almost anywhere. It can either be Urban Shelter Building connected to the interior or completely separate. Recetas Urbanas Parejo’s temporary scaffolding room is always Santiago Cirugeda Parejo accessible from the public street and thus is only using the host building for real estate/regulatory reasons.
In Sevilla, a minor work license must be obtained INTRODUCTIONand the scaffolding project must be approved byan architect. The scaffolding, composed of 60 x60 x 3 mm beams and 100 x 10 mm collars ofgalvanized steel, was assembled with a group ofwelders who helped to form the steel ribs. Thestructure was then covered by flexible sheets ofPVC foam. Storage space was added to give the DETERMINANTSstructure more function. The last step was to adda movable staircase and the project was ready togo as a temporary shelter. DEPLOYMENT Independent BarnacleCirculation CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Assembly Section Parasite + Barnacle • 92
Parasite + BarnacleSourcesBrayer, Marie-Ange, and Béatrice Simonot. ArchiLab’s Futurehouse: Radical Experiments in LivingSpace. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infillhttp://www.collagecityfilm.com/archives/category/musingshttp://www.remoratrade.com/http://www.kortekniestuhlmacher.nl/laspalmas.htmlhttp://www.kortekniestuhlmacher.nl/laspalmas.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnaclehttp://www.calderflower.com.au/http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/9/view/7625/lara-calder-architects-parasite-prefab.htmlhttp://www.recetasurbanas.net/index.php
Introduction Utopia: n. An ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects. The idea of creating an utopian architecture or the utopian theme. Ultimately, adaptability to urban fabric has often been a romanticized con- specificities that site conditions present is what cept rather than realistic one. While it is not new, gives prefabricated architecture an advantage the idea still intrigues architects today for various over the traditional stick built type. reasons: control, efficiency, master planning, etc. During the renaissance, designers and artists Instant Utopia consists of three precedents that such as Johannes Andreae and Bartolomeo were selected due to the clarity of the type forAndreae’s Christianopolis , 1619 which they represent. Those buildings are as flirted with the concept of the perfect world, the Garden of Eden, and published catalogues of follows: their engraving and writings on the subject. 1. Nakagin Capsule Tower, Kisho K. 1972 2. Habitat ‘67, Moshe Safdie, 1967 Today, there is a limited number of actual built 3. Metastadt, Richard Dietrich, 1972 projects that fall within the realm of utopia. An identifying name is given to each building type Instant Utopia attempts to identify the key fea- that clearly addresses the unique attributes of the tures of this architecture in regards to deploy- type. The following page goes into further detail, ment. Prefabricated architecture, whether in the identifying the key features of this type and creat- form of modular/capsule living environments, or ing a usable language for the precedents.Bartolomeo’s City of Truth, 1609 panelized systems, is integral to the creation of
INTRODUCTIONThe Plug-In Tower is both directly and indirectly a The Plug-In Towerpart of the urban context in which it sits. Thearmature rises out of the complexity inherent in itsurban fabric, creating a resting place for the cap-sules to plug in.Not unlike a cancer The Expanding Monolith is DETERMINANTSunaffected by its context. It starts as an initialgrowth and slowly, or rapidly, metastasizes intoan endlessly adaptable system, creating city outof density.The Artificial Hilltown explores the idea of making Dense Urban Fabric Plug-In Capsule Ascending Armatureurbanism on a site, regardless of the contextualenvironment. Flipping and re-aggregating the The Expanding Monolith“blocks” to make a picturesque environment is DEPLOYMENTwhat gives the type its fake variety. CONTEXT Dense Urban Fabric Initial Monolith Expanding Effect The Artificial Hilltown PRECEDENTS The Armature The Single Block Mirrored Blocks Instant Utopia • 96
Nakagin Capsule TowerThe Plug-In Tower The Nakagin Capsule Tower is located in a dense Just The Facts: business district of the Ginza area of Tokyo, Architect: Kisho Kurokawa Japan. Originally, it was conceived of as a hotel Location: Ginza, Japan for business men to stay at during the week. Program: Residential & Office Today, it consists of 144 rental apartments. The Construction Schedule: 1970 – 1972 first floor includes a self-service cafe and the sec- Construction Type: Precast Concrete & ond floor contains office space. Prefabricated Capsules Kisho Kurokawa designed the Nakagin Tower in Number of Floors: 14 the midst of the metabolist movement of the Number of Capsules: 144 1960’s. At this time, leading architects envisioned Dimensions: 8’-0’’W x 13’-0’’L x 8’-0’’H cities containing flexible and expanding struc- Vertical Circulation: 2 Elevator Cores & 2 tures. The Nakagin tower was the first fully real- Staircases ized structure to develop from this movement. Horizontal Circulation: Prefab Bridges The capsules were originally designed to have a Kitchens: Prefabricated Off-Site life-span of 25 years, yet they continue to be used Bathrooms: Prefabricated Off-Site today. It is highly debated whether the building Capsule Life-span: 25 years (and still going) should be torn down due its intended life-span. Superstructure Life-span: 100 years
INTRODUCTIONThe Armature Components DETERMINANTS 1 2 Podium Precast Lift Shaft Stair Cores DEPLOYMENT 3 CONTEXT 4 Armature Interim Bridges Entire Assembly PRECEDENTS Exploded Axonometric Armature: n. a framework to support the clay or 5 1. Precast Concrete Shell w/ Steel Frame other material used in modelling. 2. Plug-In Service Fins The tower is comprised of two, interconnected 3. Lightweight Precast Concrete Floor Plates towers which serve as the framework for the cap- 4. Precast Concrete Lift Shaft sules to rest on. The on-site preparation work to 5. Ground Level Podium - Office Space create the armature is the first stage. Instant Utopia • 98
The Capsule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Capsule Axonometric 8 1. Plumbing, Electrical, & Waste Lines 2. Vertical Plug-In Service Fin 3. Air Conditioning Duct 4. Air Conditioning Register 5. Prefabricated Bathroom 6. Built-In Desk 7. Moveable Chair 8. Built-In Bed
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS123 DEPLOYMENT456 CONTEXT7 Typical Capsule Plan 1. Capsule Entrance8 2. Prefabricated Bathroom PRECEDENTS 3. Air Conditioning Chase 4. Interior Finish Surface 5. Welded Light-Weight Steel Truss Member “A” 6. Welded Light-Weight Steel Truss Member “B” 7. Built-In Bed 8. Circular Window Instant Utopia • 100
The Aggregation & Capsule Delivery 1 1 1 2 3 2 4 2 5 6 7 3 3Components: Plan & Core1. Typical Capsule2. Lightweight Precast Concrete Floor Plate3. Prefabricated Interim Bridge4. Plug-In Service Fin Aggregation: Type 1 Aggregation: Type 25. Precast Concrete Shell w/ Steel Frame 1. Typical Side-Entry Capsule w/ Side Window 1. Typical Side-Entry Capsule w/ End Window6. Prefabricated Lift Cage 2. Typical Front-Entry Capsule w/ Side Window 2. Typical Front-Entry Capsule w/ End Window7. Typical Floor Entrance/Exit 3. Side Window Capsule Aggregation 3. End Window Capsule Aggregation
MetastadtThe Expanding Monolith Metastadt was designed to be a completely new Just The Facts: typology in city design. It was thought of as an Architect: Richard J. Dietrich and Bernd idealized form of luxury living that evolved out of Steigerwald the German post-war lifestyle. Metastadt incorpo- Location: Wulfen, Germany rated many modern-day conveniences such as Program: Residential, Office, & Retail shopping, office space, open roof gardens, and Construction Schedule: 1965–72 (realized); living space, which was intended to provide a 1969 (model) sense of community. One key feature to Construction Type: Steel & Metal Panel Metastadt’s conception was a flexible steel rig- Number of Units: 102 ging system that could grow or shrink over time. Modular Dimensions: 12’-0’’W x 12’-0’’L x This structure provided the option for residents to 11’-0’’H make additions by simply adding steel modules to Vertical Circulation: Elevator Cores & the existing layout. Staircases Kitchens: Prefabricated Off-Site Unfortunately, due to technical faults that resulted Bathrooms: Prefabricated Off-Site in poor insulation and water leaks, Medastadt was demolished in the early 1980’s.
Habitat ‘67The Artificial Hilltown Moshe Safdie’s architectural thesis project at Just The Facts: McGill University, “ A Three-Dimensional Modular Architect: Moshe Safdie Building System”, laid out the theory and design Location: Montreal, Canada components to what would eventually be called Program: Residential: 1 Bedroom (600 Sq. Ft.) – Habitat ‘ 67. At the time, this project was just a 4 Bedroom (1,700 Sq. Ft.) germ of an idea, but a few years later Safdie’s Construction Schedule: 4/7/66 – 2/28/67 thesis would be selected to be part of Montreal’s Construction Type: Precast Concrete Expo ‘67. By the time the project was completed, Construction Cost: 13.5 Million Safdie was just shy of thirty years old. Number of Floors: 12 Number of Units: 158 Units (354 “Boxes”) Habitat ‘67 is set along the Saint Lawrence river, Dimensions: 17’-6’’W x 38’-6’’L x 11’-6’’H just East of downtown Montreal. It contains a total Vertical Circulation: Multiple Elevator Cores and of 354 precast concrete modular boxes that make Staircases at each Node up 158 units. Each unit is equipped with a private Horizontal Circulation: Every Fourth Level deck, and large open windows with views to Kitchens: Pre-Assembled Off-Site downtown Montreal or the Saint Lawrence river. Bathrooms: Prefabricated Off-Site Module Weight: 63.5 Metric Tons
The Aggregation Unit 1 1 Bedroom Unit 2 2 Bedroom Unit 1 Unit 7 Unit 3 2 Bedroom Unit 4 2 Bedroom Unit 2 Unit 8 Unit 5 3 Bedroom Unit 6 Unit 3 3 Bedroom Unit 9 Unit 7 3 Bedroom Unit 8 Unit 4 3 Bedroom Unit 10 Unit 9 3 Bedroom Unit 5 Unit 10 Unit 11 3 Bedroom Unit 11 4 Bedroom Unit Types Unit 6 Aggregation of Unitss
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS 1 2 DEPLOYMENT Mirrored & Replicated Aggregation at Front CONTEXT 3 4Armature Components PRECEDENTS1. Type A2. Type B 53. Type C - End Condition4. Type D Replicated Aggregation at Rear5. Type E - End Condition Instant Utopia • 114
Instant UtopiaSourcesBergdoll, and Peter Christensen. Home delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: MOMA, 2008Campi, Mario. Skyscrapers: An Architectural Type of Modern Urbanism. Michigan: Birkhäuser, 2000Förster, Wolfgang. Housing in the 20th and 21st Centuries. Michigan: Prestel, 2006Gund, Graham. Habitat ‘67. New York: Queen’s Printer, 1967Kurokawa,Kishō. Metabolism in Architecture. California: Studio Vista, 1977Safdie, Moshe. Moshe Safdie, Volume 1. Australia: The Images Publishing Group, 2009Images:AboutArchitecture. Ed. Bryan Veloso.http://aboutarchitecture.wordpress. com/2007/08/22/constant-and-vision-vs-reality/MWArchitecture. Ed. Matt Ward.http://mwarchitcture.blogspot.com/Utopias Illustrated.http://www.santa-coloma.net/voynich_drebbel/utopias/utopias.htmlWikipedia. 2001. 15 Januaryhttp://en.wikipedia.org
General InformationInfrastructure construction in an urbanenvironment can provide some insight into thepotential of prefabricated architecture in the city.Infrastructure construction often contends withsigniﬁcant trafﬁc congestion during typical workhours. This section of the book looks into the useof three assembly methods that are able toovercome complicated urban obstacles. Theextra-large components used in these deliverysystems allow the construction to tread lightly on Advantages Quality Controlthe urban fabric. The size of the components arelimited by transportation restrictions.The construction methods outlined below Reduceminimize the disturbance to the surrounding site, Traffic Congestion Offsite Constructionincluding congested transportation areas and Renvironmentally sensitive areas. Worker safety is Traffic Prefabincreased because a large portion of work isperformed on the ground. Reduce Increased Worker Environmental Speed Safety Impact Disadvantages Transportation Heavy Low Limitations Components construction Construction tolerances staging
Launching Gantry CraneThe launching Gantry crane is a constructionmethod that reduces the impact on an urban Site Disturbanceenvironment during construction. The largeprefabricated components are able to be Construction Undisturbed Staging Areaassembled off site and transported to theconstruction site on an as needed basis. Thisreduces the need for large staging areas at the Constructionconstruction site and reduces the impact on the Staging Areaarea below the bridge spans.This type of construction can be attributed tovertical skyscraper construction, in where thelaunching system uses the substructure tosupport the crane. The superstructure isincrementally built using the already assembledsuperstructure as a counter balance for thesections of the bride that are being erected.Launching Gantry Crane
Launching Gantry CraneConstruction SequenceThe launching gantry allows work to commence on two fronts. The crane Once one side of the structure is connected back to the remainder of thespans between two substructures allowing superstructure components to superstructure it creates a back span for the forward componentsbe assembled on either side of the substructure creating a double balanced cantilevering half way to the next substructure.cantilever.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENTWith the reach of the crane being limited to half the distance of the most The previous process is repeated as many times as needed to span theforward span, the crane needs to be move forward to start the next span obstacle. CONTEXTand complete the previous segment. PRECEDENTS Extreme Prefab • 120
Incremental LaunchingThe theory of the incrementally launched bridgeconsists of building the superstructure segments Site Disturbancein a assembly area located behind the bridgeabutment. Each segment is prestressed to the Undisturbedsection of superstructure already built. The entiresuperstructure is then jacked forward a distanceequal to the length of the segment. This process Constructionis repeated until the bridge is in its ﬁnal position. Staging AreaThe bridge is launched along temporary bearingswhich allows the bridge to roll over thesubstructure elements. Once the bridge iscomplete the temporary bearings are replacedwith permanent bearings.Incremental Launch System
INTRODUCTIONAssembly Area Bridge Span Launching Nose (Bridge Span) DETERMINANTS Superstructure Substructure Launching Jack ProcessTemporary Roller Bearings Lifting Pushing DEPLOYMENT Returning Lowering CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Extreme Prefab • 122
Incremental LaunchingConstruction SequenceOnce the substructures are set the launching nose and ﬁrst segments of the The launching nose and ﬁrst bridge section is jacked forward a distancesuperstructure are constructed in the assembly area. equal to the length of the bridge segment. With the additional length of the launching segment due to the launching nose, stress is reduced on the bridge segment.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENTAdditional bridge sections are assembled in the assembly area and the The process is repeated as many times as needed to cross the obstacle.launching sequence is repeated. The roller bearings attached to the top of The launching nose is disassembled when the bridge is in its ﬁnal location. CONTEXTthe substructure allow the superstructure to roll over the substructure. the roller bearings are replaced with permanent bearings. PRECEDENTS Extreme Prefab • 124
Extra-Large PrefabWith prefabricated components being limited insize by transportation restrictions extreme prefab Site Disturbancepieces need to turn to other modes oftransportation. Urban water ways could allowsupersized prefabricated components to be 99%complete upon delivery to the site. Construction Staging AreaExtra-Large Prefab
INTRODUCTION Transportation Logistics 195’ 1500 40 Tons ClearancesTons 35’ DETERMINANTSBardge Limitations 975’ 105’ Collection of bardges allowed above St. Louis river due to locks 15 Bardges and restricted water ways. DEPLOYMENT Collection of bardges allowed 280’ below St. Louis river with larger locks and wide water ways. Assembly Location 40 Bardges CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Extreme Prefab • 126
Extra-Large PrefabConstruction SequenceExtreme prefab components are too large for vehicle transportation so The large bridge section is assembled on the barges to alleviate the need towater transportation is typically used. The staging area or assembly area crane the bridge section onto the barge. An adjacent staging area canneeds to be adjacent to a water way that is connected to the ﬁnal locations receive deliveries preferably from a local factory location.of the bridge.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENTThe water route must be planned ahead of time to make sure the bridge Once the bridge section arrives at its ﬁnal location, the section is ﬂoatedsection can clear all obstacles. into place and jacked up into its ﬁnal location. Finally, on site assembly CONTEXT occurs and the bridge is complete. PRECEDENTS Extreme Prefab • 128
Extreme PrefabSourcesAASHTO -. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.transportation.orgVSL International Ltd. | Post-tensioning | Structural Engineering. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.vsl.com/>.Topic, By. Federal Highway Administration: Home. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <www.fhwa.dot.gov/>.“TRB 2005, Session 628: The Future Is Now... Successes in Bridge Construction - Highways for LIFE -FHWA.” Federal Highway Administration: Home. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hfl/ralls.cfm>.“PCI Journal Magazine Archives.” Site Introduction - Welcome to PCI. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.pci.org/publications/journal/archive.cfm>.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTThe nonphysical context refers to the information PRECEDENTSneeded in prefabrication that does not consist ofphysical design attributes. This informationincludes building codes, zoning laws, economics,and policy. All of these aspects determine howprefabrication operates in different urban areasthroughout the United States. Non-Physical Contexts • 134
RegularAccording to the 2009 International Chapter 17 Section 1703.6 Chapter 17 Section 1705.2Building Code: Evaluation and follow-up inspection services: Content of statement of special inspections: Where structural components or other items The statement of special inspections shall identifyChapter 17 Section 1702 regulated by this code are not visible for the following:Fabricated Item: inspection after completion of a prefabricatedStructural, load-bearing or lateral load-resisting assembly, the applicant shall submit a report of 1. The materials, systems, components and workassemblies consisting of materials assembled each prefabricated assembly. The report shall required to have special inspection or testing byprior to installation in a building or structure, or indicate the complete details of the assembly, the building official or by the registered designsubjected to operations such as heat treatment, including a description of the assemble and its professional responsible for each portion of thethermal cutting, cold working or reforming after components, the basis upon which the assembly work.manufacture and prior to installation in a building is being evaluated, test results and similaror structure. Materials produced in accordance information and other data as necessary for the 2. The type and extent of each special inspection.with standard specifications referenced by this building official to determine conformance to thiscode, such as rolled structural steel shapes, code. Such a report shall be approved by the 3. The type and extent of each test.steel-reinforcing bars, masonry units, and wood building official.structural panels or in accordance with a 4. Additional requirements for special inspectionstandard, listed in Chapter 35, which provides Chapter 17 Section 1704.2 or testing for seismic or wind resistance.requirements for quality control done under the Inspection of fabricators:supervision of a third-party quality control agency Where fabrication of structural load-bearing 5. For each type of special inspection,shall not be considered “fabricated items.” members and assemblies is being performed on identification as to whether it will be continuous the premises of a fabricator’s shop, special special inspection or periodic special inspection. inspection of the fabricated items shall be required by this section and as required elsewhere in the code.
INTRODUCTIONAccording to the Massachusetts 110.R3.1.3 Scope: 110.R3.9.3 Required Construction Details:Building Code: 1. 110.R3 shall govern the design, manufacture, Building systems for manufactured buildings shallThe Base Code for Massachusetts is comprised handling, storage, transportation and installation provide or show the details listed below includingof the International Building Code and a separate of manufactured buildings, and manufactured the method of their testing or evaluation.package with Massachusetts amendments to the building components intended for installation inchapters of the IBC. Massachusetts and/or manufactured in General DETERMINANTS Massachusetts for shipment to any other state 1. Details and methods of installation.Information on prefabrication can be found in which such building, building components, or 2. All exterior elevations.section: manufactured homes and the labels thereon are 3. Cross sections as necessary to identify major110. Special Requirements accepted. building components. R3 Manufactured Buildings, 4. Details of flashing. Building Components and Mobile 2. The Federal Manufactured Home Construction 5. Attic access and attic ventilation. Homes. and Safety Standards promulgated by the 6. Exterior wall, roof, and soffit material. Department of Housing and Urban Development 7. Interior wall and ceiling finish material. DEPLOYMENT govern the design, manufacture, handling, 8. Fire serparation walls. storage and transportation of manufactured 9. Sizes, locations and types of doors, windows, homes for installation in this state. and fire/smoke detectors. 10. Foundation plans, vents and underfloor 3. Subject to local zoning ordinances and by- access. laws, manufactured buildings, manufactured building components or manufactured homes Building Classification may be sold for, delivered to, or installed on, Space and Fire Safety CONTEXT building sites located in any jurisdiction of Structural Detail Requirements Massachusetts if such buildings, building Mechanical Detail Requirements components or manufactured homes have been Plumbing Detail Requirements approved and certified pursuant to the applicable Electrical Detail Requirements codes. PRECEDENTS Building Code • 138
HUD CodeHUD (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban HUD Code regulates and monitors the HUD Code ensures compliance with a thoroughDevelopment) Code refers to the federal code manufactured home’s design and construction, inspection system that takes place at each stepthat applies to factory made manufactured strength and durability, transportability, fire as the home is being constructed in the factory.homes. resistance, energy efficiency, and overall quality. It also sets standards for heating, plumbing, air HUD Code is focused on performance by“HUD’s mission is to create strong, conditioning, thermal, and electrical systems. allowing the manufacturer to use products thatsustainable, inclusive communities are most compatible with the factory-buildingand quality affordable homes for all. The process gains from assembly-line process as long as these products andHUD is working to strengthen the manufacturing by producing efficient and factory assemblies perform according to the guidelineshousing market to bolster the controlled modules that require little work on-site. established in the HUD code.economy and protect consumers; This saves time and money which results in muchmeet the need for quality affordable lower prices to the consumer.rental homes; utilize housing as aplatform for improving quality of life;build inclusive and sustainablecommunities free fromdiscrimination; and transform theway HUD does business.”HUD Code is a national code applying to allstates. The federal government requires that theHUD building code be used for all mobile andmanufactured homes. Modular buildingconstruction is regulated at the state and locallevels the same way traditional site built homes.
INTRODUCTIONPermanent Chassis: Multi-Level HUD Code:All HUD Code buildings must have an attached, Multi-level HUD code buildings are achievedpermanent chassis. This is typically in the form of through a use of a crane to stack the units.a steel building platform. The National Commission claims that it isThere is very limited customization of HUD Code technically feasible to produce a manufactured DETERMINANTShomes. Mobile homes are almost always single unit with a removable chassis that is comparablefloor homes since they must be built on a non- in cost and quality to a unit with a permanentremovable steel chassis. chassis. The unit is built two stories high in the factory andOn-Site Additions: shipped to the site. This requires specialAdditions such as porches or garages are not tranportation permits. This is possible only whenregulated by HUD code. Any addition must be the factory is relatively close to the site and DEPLOYMENTbuilt to local, state, or regional building codes. overhead clearance is generous. CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Building Code • 140
HUD CodeNew Colony VillageJessup, MarylandFirst HUD Code development in the EasternUnited States with two-story homes.Contains 413 units, all single family detached twostory manufactured homes.Innovative chassis design allows themanufactured units to be stacked. The chassis isan integral part of the floor joist system. The 2x10floor joists are doubled at the perimeter,eliminating the typical steel chassis. Hitches,axle, and wheel assemblies are removable.Stairs are built to the local code, since they arenot covered by HUD code.Porches, garages, and basements are builton-site.
INTRODUCTIONCultural Perception of HUD Code Mobile homes tend to depreciate in value since itHomes is very hard to improve or expand an existing mobile home.Stigma is defined in the dictionary as being amark of shame or discredit. Mobile home communities are portrayed in entertainment (ie: television) as being poor, un- DETERMINANTSThere is a stigmatization of mobile homes, more kept areas.specifically the term “trailer park.” DEPLOYMENT Example: Project 2020 by Nurhan Gokturk for New Orleans prefabricated houses must destroy the chassis that the units are transported on. The chassis is destroyed because it is associated with mobile homes, and the negative connotation that comes with it. CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Building Code • 142
Building CodeSourcesInternational Building CodeMassachusetts Building CodeBoston Redevelopment Authorityhttp://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/press/PressDisplay.asp?pressID=209U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developmenthttp://www.hud.gov“HOME WORK” by Matthew LittellTwo-Story Manufactured (HUD-Code) Homeshttp://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/Whole-House-Systems/two-story-manufactured-homesEliminating Barriers to the Use of HUD-Code Housing in Attached Constructionhttp://www.huduser.org/publications/pdf/sfa_final.pdfPATHhttp://www.pathnet.org/Manufactured Housing Institutehttp://www.factorybuilthousing.com/Default.aspTechPractices: New Colony Villagehttp://www.toolbase.org/Home-Building-Topics/Land-Use/New-Colony-VillageNew Colonyhttp://articles.baltimoresun.com/keyword/new-colony
BostonAs identified by the Boston Zoning Use Regulation 1A: Mobile Home on a Permanent Foundation Key:Code: and Occupied by no more than one family. A= Allowed C= CondtionalMobile Home: a dwelling, other than a Residential Business Industrial F= Forbiddenrecreational vehicle, that is transportable in one Single- C Local-C Restricted- For more sections, built on a permanent chassis, General- C General-C General- Fand designed to be used with or without a Apartment-C Maritime- Fpermanent foundation. Waterfront- FMobile Home Park: a parking space for two ormore mobile homes used as dwellings. Use Regulation 53: Mobile home park Residential Business Industrial Single- F Local-F Restricted- A General- F General- C General- A Apartment-F Maritime- F Waterfront- C
INTRODUCTIONBoston Trailer Park IncLocated in the West Roxbury NeighborhoodDistrictBoston’s Only Trailer ParkThe Boston Trailer Park was established in 1953. DETERMINANTSThe Porche and Honda dealership next door tothe trailer park tried for years to kick the tenantsout so they could expand.HUD Code is only allowed on commercial land,and is not considered residential property. Thetenants living in the trailer park do not have the DEPLOYMENTsame rights as other home owners.In 2004, an agreement was reached that the 100tenants would only lose 4 acres of land to the cardealership, retaining 9 acres to the trailer park.The Mayor’s Office and the BostonRedevelopment Authority served as mediatorsduring the negotiations. CONTEXT PRECEDENTSThe Boston Trailer Park is considered apart of aMFR (Multifamily Residential) Subdistrict.These are established to encourage low tomedium density multifamily areas with a variety ofallowed housing types. Building Code • 146
Charlottesville, VA & Little Rock, AKAccording to the CharlottesvilleZoning Code:Chapter 34No manufactured homes shall be permitted,except in an existing manufactured home park.1. All manufactured homes placed or substantiallyimproved on individual lots or parcels, andexpansions to existing manufactured home parks,must meet all the requirements for newconstruction, including elevation and anchoring.2. All manufactured homes placed or substantiallyimproved in an existing manufactured home parkmust be elevated so that the finished floor of themanufactured home is elevated no less than 3feet above the level of the base flood, or themanufactured home chassis is supported byreinforced piers or other foundation elements ofat least an equivalent strength, of no less than 36inches in height above grade.3.The manufactured home must be securelyanchored to an adequate foundation system toresist flotation, collapse and lateral movement.4. All recreational vehicles placed on sites mustbe either: be fully licensed and ready for highwayuse and be on the site for fewer than 180consectutive days, or meet all the requirementsfor new construction, including anchoring andelevation requirements.
INTRODUCTIONAccording to the Little Rock ZoningCode:Zoning Classifications and Descriptions“R-7” Mobile Home DistrictFor mobile home parks at a maximum of 8 DETERMINANTSdwelling units per gross acre. This district isutilized for creation of rental mobile home parksonly.“R-7A” Mobile Home DistrictFor mobile home subdivisions proposing lot salesfor placement of mobile home units. The DEPLOYMENTmaximum permitted density is 12 family units pernet saleable acre.Mobile Home Park-MHThis category accomodates an area specificallydeveloped to accomodate mobile homes.There are a total of 11 manufactured and mobile CONTEXThome communities near Little Rock, Arkansas. PRECEDENTS Building Code • 148
Zoning CodeSourcesGokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010.City of Little Rock Planning and Developmenthttp://www.littlerock.org/citydepartments/planninganddevelopment/Code of Ordinances, City of Charlottesville, VAhttp://library1.municode.com/default-test/home.htm?infobase=12078&doc_action=whatsnewBoston Trailer Park Thriveshttp://archive.seacoastonline.com/2004news/04022004/south_of/8461.htmBoston Redevelopment Authorityhttp://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/zoning/downloadzone.asp
Economic OverviewIn the current world, clients are demanding moreproduct for less. This leads the architect toincrease quality and scope, while reducing thecost and time of a project. Prefabrication can beone solution in order to please the currentdemand of the client. Current Paradigm in Architecture Q x S = C x T Quality Scope Cost Time Current Client Mandate Q x S > C x T Quality Scope Cost TimeThrough the use of prefabricated parts, both time Modular Savings Tradtional Homesand money can be saved by reducing assemblytime on-site. Since prefabricated parts are madein a factory off-site, it is possible to do work on- Time Design Designsite and off-site at the same time, which will save Savingsadditional cost and time. Site Prep Dual Construction and Construction Site Prep
INTRODUCTIONThe cost of mechanical systems are currently Little Hall, Princeton University Science & Technology Center, Rider Collegeapproaching nearly 50% of a building’s cost. The (1899-1901) (1992)execution of these systems could be moreeconomical if they are produced in a factorybeforehand, rather than on-site. DETERMINANTSThis can be seen through the comparison of thecost of mechanical systems in Little Hall atPrinceton University and The Science andTechnology Center at Rider College. Building Systems: Building Systems:The mechanical systems for Little Hall built in Fireplace Heating HVAC1901 take up 45% less cost than the mechanical Storm Drain System Plumbingsystems of the Science & Technology Center built Power DEPLOYMENTin 1992. Lighting 5% Emergency LightingPrefabrication can reduce the cost of modern Building Systems as Telephonemechanical systems by producing them off- Percentage of Total Cost Datasite while on-site construction is taking Securityplace. Fire Alarm Fire Suppression Water Purification CONTEXT Gas Distribution 50% Building Systems as Percentage of Total Cost PRECEDENTS Building Code • 152
HUD Code Interest Down Payment Typical payment schedule for bank or owner without financing needs: Principal Disbursements 1/3 deposit with cash/check 1/3 prior to home leaving the factory 1/3 when everything is completed and Borrower- Payments to Lender approved on-site J F M A M J J A S O N D J30% HUD Code homes are treated like a car loan20% (25%-30% down).10%0% The land is not owned, but rented. Lender Chart- Distributions to Borrower Requires 2-3 weeks for processing. J F M A M J J A S O N D J80% No appraisal of unit needed, making the process70% very simple.60%50%40%30%20%10%0% Payments are minimal or non-existent after the first two months of a HUD code project. Having Manufacturer- Payments Received the payments in the beginning allows for a less J F M A M J J A S O N D J complicated process during manufacturing and80% placement on the site.70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%
Building Code • 154 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
Single Family Modular vs. Stick Built Interest Down Payment Principal Disbursements Borrower- Payments to Lender J F M A M J J A S O N D J30% Similar payment schedule for the borrowers to the20% lender for modular and stick built construction.10% 0% Lender Chart- Distributions to Borrower Lender distributions to the borrower happen J F M A M J J A S O N D J during the middle of a single family modular30%20% project, not in the beginning or end.10% 0% Modular construction requires involvement of a manufacturer. Manufacturer- Payments Received J F M A M J J A S O N D J30%20%10% 0% General Contractor- Payments Received J F M A M J J A S O N D J30%20%10% 0%
INTRODUCTION Interest Down Payment Principal Disbursements DETERMINANTS Borrower- Payments to Lender J F M A M J J A S O N D J30%20%10%0% DEPLOYMENT Lender Chart- Distributions to Borrower J F M A M J J A S O N D J30%20%10%0% General Contractor- Payments Received CONTEXT J F M A M J J A S O N D J Payments to the general contractor are higher30% and more disbursed in stick built construction.20%10%0% PRECEDENTS Building Code • 156
Multi-family Modular vs. Stick Built Interest Down Payment Principal Disbursements Borrower- Payments to Lender J F M A M J J A S O N D J 30% 20% 10% 0% Lender Chart- Distributions to Borrower J F M A M J J A S O N D J 30% 20% 10% 0% Modular construction requires involvement of a Manufacturer- Payments Received manufacturer. J F M A M J J A S O N D J 30% 20% 10% 0% General Contractor- Payments Received Payments to the general contractor are minimal J F M A M J J A S O N D J 30% during a multi-family modular project. Most of the 20% payments go to the manufacturer. 10% 0%
INTRODUCTION Interest Down Payment Principal Disbursements DETERMINANTS Borrower- Payments to Lender J F M A M J J A S O N D J30% The majority of the borrwer’s payments to the20% lender happen in the beginning of the project10% during a multi family stick built project.0% DEPLOYMENT Lender Chart- Distributions to Borrower J F M A M J J A S O N D J30% The distributions to the borrower are spaced out20% during a multi family stick built project.10% 0% CONTEXT General Contractor- Payments Received J F M A M J J A S O N D J30%20%10%0% PRECEDENTS Building Code • 158
EconomicsSourcesMeetings with commercial and residential loan officers at Chelsea Groton Bank & One West BankRefabricating Architecture by Stephen Kieran & James Timberlake
PolicyDavis-Bacon Wage Determinations: -Many craft unions have what is called “work Boston Department of Neighborhood(1931) Public works contracts usually go to the preservation” clauses in their collective Developmentlowest bidder. There was a desire by Congress to bargaining agreements with their employers, “Developers should assume that wage ratesreserve jobs on federal projects for local workers under which the employers, mainly would emulate existing federal regulationswho nationwide faced epidemic unemployment. subcontractors, agree not to handle products on governing wage and labor standards.” which labor is performed at the factory when that-This assures workers a fair wage, provides local labor traditionally was performed at the site; -Neighborhood Stabilization Plan: requires thatcontractors a far opportunity to compete for local restricting the ability of the new employer to Davis-Bacon wages will apply if the applicationgovernment contracts, and preserves its own introduce new work processes, thus prohibiting includes 8 or more units.ability to distribute employment and federal prefabricated work on new construction projects.money equitably through public works projects. -Encourages small project (2-5 units) (1983) Congressional Budget Office study found applications, therefore the Davis Bacon Act is not-It is applicable to projects federally funded or that the Davis Bacon Act costs taxpayers 1 billion applicable.partially funded/assisted by the federal dollars a year in unnecessary costs.government. -This was not because of union wages but-It is required prevailing wage rates and fringe prevailing wages.benefits to be paid to construction workers. -Contractors do not have to compete on labor-The wage determination requires that each costs, they just pass them on to the taxpayer.contract over $2,000 to which the U.S. is a partyfor the construction, alteration, of repair of apublic buildings/works shall contain a clausesetting forth the minimum prevailing wages to bepaid to various classes of laborers andmechanics employed under the contract.-Under the provisions of the act, contractors/subcontractors are to pay workers employeddirectly upon the site of work no less than thelocally prevailing wages and fringe benefits paidon projects of a similar character.
INTRODUCTIONConstruction Unions vs. Labor Work Preservation Clause:Unions: -Work preservation recognized as legitimate-Construction unions are considered skilled/craft union goal, but means to enforce it areunions, while factory workers would be a part of a questionable. Unions may, under certainlabor union. circumstances, use economic pressure to enforce a work preservation clause, right of control of DETERMINANTS-The labor used to assemble modules in a factory materials/design.may be union or nonunion, depending on thelocation of the plant. Massachusetts Prevailing Wage Law-1950’s prefabricated housing markets were on (1914):the rise but unions fought against it. - Established to give fair wages for tradesmen and women. The law determines compensation DEPLOYMENT-Construction unions are not currently as involved and benefits for construction workers employedin construction of single family homes. on state and municipal-funded construction projects and public construction projects.-An ideal project is a government sponsoredproject. CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Building Code • 162
PolicySourcesPolicy Analysishttp://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa132.htmlPrevailing Wage Laws and the Cost of Public Construction in Massachusettshttp://www.cpcs.umb.edu/lrc/documents/MAPREVAILINGWAGEfinalMay2010.pdfLabor Unionshttp://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/574/574.F2d.457.75-2770.75-2166.75-2064.htmlLabor and Workforce Developmenthttp://www.mass.gov/?pageID=elwdhomepage&L=1&L0=Home&sid=ElwdDavis-Bacon Wage Determinationhttp://www.gpo.gov/davisbacon/referencemat.html
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTIn the pages ahead, you will find precedents PRECEDENTScollected in our research that hold qualities ofprefabrication that we would like to showcase.These examples have been categorizedaccording to principles and methods we havedesigned in order to best display their featuresand components. Precedents • 166
MatrixMatrix | Prefab Scale | EnchridionDue to the complexity and duality of many of theprecedents uncovered in this book, a matrix,scale and enchiridion were created in order togroup precedents into a research discussion. Bydeveloping a series of organizational qualifiers,precedents were filtered into three matrixes whichdetermined their stature.Matrix Prefab Scale EnchridionThe x axis determines the building typology measures the degree of prefabrication, delivery, displays the multiplicity of prefabricationbased on residential on residential or industrial construction methods and time. processes involved in each precedent.characteristics; y axis determines the ration ofon-site/off-site construction. 65 je ct Prefab Score on-site/off-site ratio o pr modular (+) panelized kit of parts use use precast residential infrastructure prefab steel degree of prefabrication temporary hud/mobile (-) grid infill/parasite permanent temporary infrastructure custom density standard page number
INTRODUCTION Off-site Prefabrication Melrose II Metastadt Puma City Citizen M DETERMINANTS Drop House Nomadic Museum Precast Concrete Pierson Court Segmented Bridges Loft House Nomiya System 3 Kiem & Sill Honk Kong Bank Stelco Nakagin Tower South Side Metasdadt Studio East Kim House DEPLOYMENT Elemental Urban Shelter Use Box City Bailey UseResidential Bridge Infrastructure Moduli 225 Parcel 12 + 18 Hong Kong Tower Habitat 67 Baukasten CONTEXT Yacht House 2 x 4 Res. Elemental Permanent Infill Zollverein Temporary PRECEDENTS Keetwonen Asphalt Road Custom Adobe Hut/ On-site Igloo Construction Standard Precedent Ratings • 170
Prefab Scoring SystemPerformance Criteria Type:By defining the intertwined elements that Modular (with superstructure) or Panels (kit of parts)constitute a prefab building in an urban How are the pieces are put together? (slide out, snap in place, bolted, welded, filled in, etc...)environment, we have come up with a prefab How many pieces make up the project? How big is the biggest piece?scale that measures the ‘prefabness’ of a project. How complete are the pieces when they arrive on-site? 25 points: 1 transportable piece with everything fitted, arrives on site completeThe scoring system’s only purpose is to be able to 0 points: 1,000 small or big pieces, requires welding and foundation, incomplete when on-sitematch relatively smiliar buildings, and compare Delivery:and contrast them to each other. It is by no means Route in miles from factory to final site:set in stone. However, to make our scoring (highway, intercity road, truck size) (shipping, container, barge size) (air, airplane, helicopter) (train)system fair, objective and relatively accurate, we 25 points: 0 miles traveled by air / 0 points: 50,000 miles traveled by largest truck size in intercity roadonly used measurable facts and figures. Urban Scale:Each of the criteria we have set for a building How dense is the surrounding area? How many square feet is the project? How many floors?measures its performance in that relative factor. 10 points: tight urban fabric, 1,000,000 SQF, 100 floors / 0 points: rural site, 0 SQF, 0 floorsThe seven factors are: Type, Delivery, Urban Material:Scale Material, Longevity, Manpower, and Time. Precast steel or concrete, wood, plastic, poured-in-place concereteType, Delivery and Urban Scale are the most 10 points: precast concrete, plastic / 0 points: mud-hutimportant elements that come to define theperformance of prefabricated buildings in a city, Longevity:so they are each worth 20 points. Each of the rest Temporary or Permanent, On the grid or off the grid, replaceable pieces?are worth 10 points. The points combine so that 10 points: permanent structure (1,000 years), off-the grid, all pieces replaceablethe most prefab building gets a 100 score and the 0 points: temporary (1 day), on the grid, no replaceable piecesleast prefab gets a 0 score. Manpower: How many people did it take to construct on-site? Was a crane used?In order to make the distinction between what 10 points: 1 person, no crane / 0 points: 1,000 people and 10 cranes‘Type’ elements make a project get a high or low Time:score, we will explain the two extremes, just like How long did it take to build on-site?we did to explain the boundaries of our matrix. 10 points: 1 minute / 0 points: 100 years Type Delivery Urban Scale Material Longevity Manpower Time 100 20 20 20 10 10 10 10
INTRODUCTION Satirenrenne 67 System 3 85 Yacht House 67 CitizenM 83 Baukasten 66 Nakagin Capsule Tower 83 Spacebox 66 Pierson Court 82 65 81 DETERMINANTS Bluff Homes Melrose II Precast Bridge 65 Metastadt 81 Parasite Prefab 64 Sill and Kem 80 Parcel 12 and 18 64 Drop House 78Pinchin St Studios 64 Kim House 78 Keetwoven 63 Urban Shelter Building 78Park Row Terrace 63 The Nomadic Museum 77 DEPLOYMENT Honk Kong Bank 61 Stelco Catalogue Housing 77 Habitat ‘67 58 Puma City 76 Elemental 49 Studio East Dining 76 Nomiya Restaurant 75 South Side Row Houses 75 74 CONTEXT Rue De Meaux Las Palmas 73 Rucksack House 73 Box City 71 Loft House 70 69 PRECEDENTS Moduli 225 Rastipuisto 69 Moho Manchester 68 Precedent Ratings • 172
Enchridion er al w ci te To en mer si ra le nk om su Pa Ba ge ap C es em se as id ng se 67 se 25 n C Ke g & om II l dt Br te ou ta lm Ko ou nM on ou t‘ i2 ity in se ta as en H Pa O fH n y ita agContents H w C as H ul ro ile si ze g uk H p et ab od on uf ou ft ak x m el et ro s O Ba iti Ba Bo Lo La Bl M El Ki M H M M H D N C HPrefab Score 65 66 65 71 83 78 49 58 61 80 63 78 73 70 81 81 69 68 83ModularPanelizedKit of PartsPrecast ConcretePrefab SteelTemporaryHud / MobileGrid EnvironmentInfill / ParasiteInfrastructureDensity on Demand
w er 77 N om ad 75 ic N M om us iy eu a 64 Pa R m ra es si ta te ur 64 an Pa rc Pr ef t el ab 63 12 Pa rk & 18 82 R ow Pi Te er so ra r n 64 ce Pi C nc ou hi rt n 76 Pu St m St a ud io C 69 R ity s as tip 73 ui R st o uc ks 74 ac R k ue H D ou e se 67 Sa M ea te ux rin 75 in So ne ut h 66 Si Sp de ac R eb ow 77 St ox H el ou co se s 76 C St at ud al io og 85 Ea ue Sy st H st ou em Din si 78 in ng U 3 g rb an 67 Sh Ya el ch te tH rB ou ui ld se in gPrecedent Ratings • 174 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
ContentsSystem 3 | Oskar Leo Kaufmann 179CitizenM | Concrete Architectural Associates | Amsterdam, Netherlands 183Nakagin Capsule Tower | Kisho Kurokawa | Ginza, Japan 185Pierson Court | Kieran & Timberlake | Yale University, CT, United States 189Melrose II | Danois Architects | South Bronx, NY, United States 193Metastadt-Bausystem | Richard J. Dietrich | Wulfen, Germany 195Housing and Commercial Block | Sill and Keim | Rathenow, Germany 199Drop House | D3 Architects 203Kim House | Waro Kishi | Osaka, Japan 205Urban Shelter Building | Santiago Cirugeda Parejo | Sevilla, Spain 207The Nomadic Museum | Shingeru Ban | Nomad** 209Stelco Catalogue Housing | Batron Myers Associates 211Puma City | Lotek | Nomad** 213Studio East Dining | Carmody Groarke | London, United Kingdom 217Nomiya Restaurant | Pascal Grasso | Paris, France 219South Side Row Houses | Affordability, Inc | Chicago, IL, United States 221Rue De Meaux | Renzo Piano | Paris, France 223Las Palmas | Kortknie Stuhlmacher Architecten | Rotterdam, Netherlands 225Rucksack House | Stephan Eberstadt | Liepzeig, Germany 227Box Office | Distill Studio | Providence, RI, United States 229Loft House | Studio Aisslinger | Berlin, Germany 233Moduli 225 | Kristian Gullichsen and Pallasmaa | Finland 235Rastipuisto | Helamaa and Pulkkinen | Helsinki, Finland 237MOHO | Shed KM, Joule | Manchester, United Kingdom 241Saterinrinne | Brunow and Manula | Helsinki, Finland 243Yacht House | Richard Horden | United Kingdom 245Baukasten | Walter Gropius 247Spacebox | Utrecht, Netherlands 249Bluff Homes | Vetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI, United States 251Precast Concrete Segmental Bridge 253Parasite Prefab | Lara Calder 255Parcel 12 & 18 Row Houses | MRVDV | Borneo-Sporenburg, Netherlands 257Pinchin Street Studios | Urban Space Management | London, UK 259Keetwonen | Tempohousing | Amsterdam, Netherlands 261Park Row Terrace | Vetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI, United States 263Hong Kong Bank Building | Norman Foster | Hong Kong, China 265Habitat ’67 | Moshe Safdie | Toronoto, Canada 271Elemental | Alejandro Aravena | Santiago, Chile 275Sources 279
System3Oskar Leo Kaufmann | 2008 | Multi-family residential/commercialPrefab Score 85 Assembly Concept on-site/off-site ratio (+) Serving Space Naked Space use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: High-quality, affordable modulesthat consist of two identical rectangular formswith completely different structural and functional Building Elementsderivation.Units of Prefabrication: The “serving” spacecomes completely prefabricated to site. The“naked” space consists of prefabricated planarelements that form the space.Structure: Wood structure. Flat floor and roofplates allow for up to thirty units to stack togetherto form a ten-story tower.Delivery: All elements that make up a unit fitperfectly in a standard cargo container; can beshipped anywhere. All parts are prefabricated.
System3Oskar Leo Kaufmann | 2008 | Multi-family residential/commercial Alternative UsesA single unit with typical provisions and site workwould cost about $130,000. As many as thirtyunits could be arranged and stacked to create aten-story, 11,000 square-foot office tower. Plan Office Plan Office Section Hotel Plan Hotel Section
INTRODUCTIONIn the “serving” space all elements are fabricated External services and products:out of stainless steel: lighting, kitchen, bath, I.E. installations, staircases, baths...cooling, ventilation, electricity, internet, laundry,dishwasher and vertical circulation all integratedand produced in a single factory. The “naked”space is also made up of planes that are Skin producer DETERMINANTS Plannerprefabricated. The material used is an unpainted Solid elements4 3/4 inches thick regional wood, with a skin that produceris removable, changeable and washable. Serving units producer Window producer DEPLOYMENT Building site Basic Unit Assembly CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Large Scale Stacked Assemblies Precedents • 182
Citizen MConcrete Architectural Associates | Amesterdam, Netherlands | 2008 | HotelPrefab Score 83 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom Entrance to Lobby Pod (Hotel Room) standardMethodology: Using pre-fabrication to eliminatehidden costs and cut unnecessary items; giving aluxury feel for a budget price.Units of Prefabrication: 215 units arrived to thesite, each containing a simple bathroom and bed,under 50 square feet. The units were pre-fabricated locally.Structure: Steel frame housed the pods which aremade of a black metal box with large glass panelsangeled and set back in them to break up therigid facade. Fenestration Bath and BedDelivery: Units were prefabricated in a nearbyfactory owned by CitizenM and fit perfectly on aflat bed truck.
Nakagin Capsule TowerKisho Kurokawa | Tokyo, Japan | 1972 | HotelPrefab Score 83 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use Capsule Steel Structure Capsule Bolting residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication Container factory Tokyo ring-road height (-) in Tsuruga clearance 11 ft permanent 400 km (250 mi) 50 km (30 mi) temporary custom Site standardMethodology: Japanese Metabolism, physicalobjects are never eternal, celebratesindividualism, response to long commutes.Units of Prefabrication: Capsules arrive fromfactory completely prefabricated, ready to belifted by crane and bolted onto the superstructure.Structure: Steel frame with light-weight concreteshaft which houses vertical circulation,mechanical shafts.Delivery: Dense urban surroundings meant thatcapsules were delivered from factory to site onthe same day it was attached to thesuperstructure.
Nakagin Capsule TowerKisho Kurokawa | Tokyo, Japan | 1972 | Hotel The capsules contained a built-in bed and drop-in bathroom unit. They were outfitted off site and hoisted into place by crane, latching onto the fourteen-story superstructure and its concrete shaft of vertical circulation. All capsules were driven in by truck the same day they were to be “plugged-in”. A stop-over happened on the outskirts of Tokyo where the capsules got transfered to smaller trucks. Although the building was designed for maximum Construction, 1971 flexibility, the clip-on capsule was decidedly compact, leaving very little room for customization. Originally designed as living spaces for bachelors during the week, it has functioned as a hotel, apartment building, office tower and artists’ studio. Isometric Plan of Capsule
INTRODUCTION The precast concrete floor slabs that were part of the core’s structure were erected at a rate of one every two days, alternating with the construction of the steel frame, affording a full operational core to facilitate the periodic construction of the framework without an external scaffold. 144 DETERMINANTS capsules were attached to the building in less than a month. Interestingly, the podium, which is the most under-looked part of the project, had more traditional construction techniques and also responsible for much of the on-site construction time. DEPLOYMENT attaching capsules to structureModern Alternative pre-fabrication of capsules core structure and mechanical system on-site construction pre-fabrication of steel frame and re-enforced concrete floor slabs design process CONTEXT 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 PRECEDENTS Precedents • 188
Pierson CourtKieran Timberlake | New Haven, CT | 2006 | DormitoryPrefab Score 82 30’ 10’-8” on-site/off-site ratio EDPM waterproofing over steel form deck (+) 6” ceiling joists use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication 6” x 6” Hollow Structural Steel (HSS) (-) 6” x 2” HSS 6” X 4” HSS permanent 6” stud wall temporary 5/8”gypsum brick cladding 2.5” stud walls inserted into custom steel frame with steel strap standardMethodology: Using a crane to make constructionpossible in this courtyard site, this project was 3” concrete floor poured over steel form deckcompleted on site in 4 days over the university’s 6” x 4” HSSspring break. 8” x 2” HSSUnits of Prefabrication: Modular units arrive onsite completely sealed and inspectedStructure: Steel frame modular units are stacked Pierson Court would not be possible without theand bolted together. power of the crane. The project is made up of 34 modules placed in a courtyard. The entire on siteDelivery: The modules travel via truck from the construction process took 4 days with 12 workers.New Jersey factory to the site less than 150 milesaway. A crane takes modular units off the trucks Layers of a module This efficiency of labor and time in an otherwise impossible situation is an excellent example ofand into the courtyard site. how prefabricated constructon techniques are valuable processes for architects to understand.
Pierson CourtKieran Timberlake | New Haven, CT | 2006 | DormitoryPrefab Score 83 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standard
INTRODUCTION The diagram to the left shows securing the modules to each other on site. The light gray portion indicate horizontal brick layers layed on site. The dark gray indicates the datum line which was a layer of bricks left out to show its modular structure. The pink bricks were insterted DETERMINANTS to vertically lock the modules together and are also pronounced to show structural honesty of the building’s modular unit construction. One can also see the modularity of the structure in plans, as seen on the right. DEPLOYMENTModular ConstructionThis construction method is clearly documentedthrough photographs. The modular arrives on CONTEXTsite on a truck. A crane lifts the module onto thesite. A construction worker guides the moduleinto the proper spot. The images of the processshow how stacking the modules act as a wayincreasing efficiency in both time and cost. PRECEDENTS Precedents • 192
Melrose IIDanois Architects | South Bronx New York, NY | 2002 | Low-income HousingPrefab Score 81 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standard Street PerspectiveMethodology: Construction time was minimizedwith large precast concrete modules and precaststructural frame.Units of Prefabrication: Structural wall panels,hollow-core floor planks, curtain wall facadepanels, large entrance lobby module, precastconcrete cornice, and concrete entrance stairs.Delivery: All precast modules were transportedon flatbed and assembled on site with a craneand six workers. Building Sequence Joint Detail
INTRODUCTIONTwo precast factories in New York andMassachusetts produced a precast wall panelsystem that imitates brick and window lintels.This minimized the amount of work on site tosimple assembly. DETERMINANTSMelrose II was able to significantly reduceconstruction costs with precast concrete buildingmethods. Assemblers can construct the entirebuilding from six factory made modules. Asillustrated in the building sequence axonomoetric, Cornice Modulethe structural frame and floor planks areassembled first, then the precast window facadepanels are hung from the structure. After, a three- DEPLOYMENT Lot Planstory entrance bay module is attached, along withthe precast concrete stairs and projectingcornice.The structural joint is a concrete haunch systemwith reinforcing bar and concrete topping toconnect load bearing walls with hollow-core floorplanks. CONTEXT Facade Module Delivery Route PRECEDENTS Factory Assembly Precedents • 194
Metastadt-BausystemRichard J. Dietrich | Wulfen, Germany | 1972 | Multi-family residential/commercialPrefab Score 81 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Using a light-weight steelinfrastructure to act as a base for the users to fill Modelin with city functions.Units of Prefabrication: Infrastructure comes tothe site in component pieces that are puttogether. Are filled in with modular units.Structure: Steel structure, panels can be anymaterial.Delivery: Reduces construction time on-site, canre-densify city cores and act as infrastructure.
Metastadt-BausystemRichard J. Dietrich | Wulfen, Germany | 1972 | Multi-family residential/commercialThe execution of the structural details meant thatthe building and ground floor plan could bealtered or enlarged at any time, or bedismanteled. Construction South Ariel View Typical Facade Infrastructure Model
INTRODUCTIONThe structural system that was developed usesan orthogonal steel framework with flex-resistantjoints. The space-defining elements and technicalinfrastructure were inserted into the frame,suspended from steel pylons. The smalldimensions of the structural could be precisely DETERMINANTSadapted to specific spatial needs. The absence ofdiagonal bracing created the maximum of spaceand permitted the greatest possible flexibility. DEPLOYMENT Construction Concept CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Entrance Joint Detail Perspective Precedents • 198
Housing + Commercial BlockKeim + Sill | Rathenow, Germany | 1997 | Housing + CommercialPrefab Score 80 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Preassembled units wereconstructed with all mechanical systems and Building Sectionfinishes in place and ready to be plugged intoexisting systemUnits of Prefabrication: Twelve 3.5m x 2.3mcontainer unitsStructure: 4” concrete column and beam framefor units to plug into.Delivery: Units were shipped in one day onstandard flatbed trucks. Units were craned intothe structural frame on the second day. Typical Unit Plan
Housing + Commercial BlockKeim + Sill | Rathenow, Germany | 1997 | Housing + CommercialPrefab Score 65This project is a renovation of an old 19th centurybuilding into a mixed-use program. The existingfront half of the building was rehabilitated asresidential. The back half of the building receivedan addition of twelve prefab containers formingan engineering firm studio.The total addition to the rear facade is 900square meters. Materials include reinforcedconcrete, corrugated aluminum panels/sheeting,steel frame, stainless steel hardware, glass,and insulated wall and roof panels.The prefab containers are assembled withsanitary, under-floor heating system, electrical,plumbing, and communication services. Theprocess of assembly involve preparing theexisting building to receive the structures and toallow for services to be plugged in. Thestructural columns are then put in place andbeams are added to support the container units.Finally, containers are “plugged into” the structureand service systems. Some containers areconnected through the use of a coupling piecewhile others are divided by partitions
Construction SequencePrecedents • 202 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
Drop HouseD3 Architects | 2010 | Single-family residentialPrefab Score Perpsective Diagram 78 Child’s Bedroom Extruded Bathroom Extruded Kitchen on-site/off-site ratio Parent’s Bedroom Partly Extruded (+) Open Terrace North Facade, Operable Panels use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom Extruded Entrance standard Exterior TerraceMethodology: Cargo containers are efficient, but South Oriented South-East Facing Bris-Soleilpeople feel uncomfortable in metal boxes, so this Retractable in Winteris a wood house that fits in a container.Units of Prefabrication: Arrives to site completelyfitted in factory, all equipments pre-installed.Dropped onto site, folds out. PlanStructure: Wood and glass ‘box’ that fits perfectlyin a standard cargo container.Delivery: Eliminates on-site construction, caneasily be shipped anywhere in the world by truckor barge. Section
Kim HouseWaro Kishi | Osaka, Japan | 1987 | Single-family residentialPrefab Score 78 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology:Using off-the-shelf materials tocreate a modern house based on japanesetypology, in a constrained site (8.5 feet wide, 18feet deep) Interior Perspective Construction DetailUnits of Prefabrication: All the materials used toconstruct the house were off-the-shelf and readyfor use. typical row house conditionStructure: Four wide-flange prefabricated steelframes erected in equal intervals along the depth 18’ deepof the plotDelivery: Standard building materials, can bereplicated anywhere. Requires transportation to 8.5’ widesite and on-site construction. Plan Diagram Section Diagram
Urban Shelter BuildingSantiago Cirugeda Parejo | Sevilla, Spain | 1998 | Scaffolding + HousingPrefab Score 78 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Prefabricated, inhabitablescaffolding that creates a temporary space opento the public.Units of Prefabrication: Precut steel and PVCsheetsStructure: Galvanized Steel beams and collarswith flexible PVC foam coveringDelivery: Parts arrive on site and steel membersare assembled by welders. Elevated storagespace and various screws required for assembly.
The Nomadic MuseumShingeru Ban | All Over the World | 2005 | MuseumPrefab Score 77 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: The shipping containers arestacked without modification in order to save onconstruction time.Units of Prefabrication: 148 shipping containers New York Beijing Santa Monica Tokyo (2005) (2006) Abu Dhabi (2007)Structure: The stacking of the steel shippingcontainers creates a self-supporting grid.Delivery: The nomadic museum travels by cargoship to each location, then uses a crane to placethe shipping containers into place.
INTRODUCTIONThe nomadic museum is a travelling gallery thatstarted in New York in 2005. The contents of thegallery are assemebled/disassembled, thenshipped in the actual shipping containers thatmake up the museum itself. Waterproof papertubing is used for the columns and the roof DETERMINANTStrusses to cover the museum. There is flexibilityin the stacking of the shipping containers toconform to each site. For example, the site inSanta Monica was shorter than that of New York,so the gallery was split into two 100m lengthbuildings, rather than the original 200m length.The innovation behind the nomadic museum isthat museum can be placed anywhere a cargo DEPLOYMENTship can pull up. CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 210
Stelco Catalogue HousingBarton Myers Associates | 1969 | Steel housing prototypePrefab Score Axonometric View of Cluster 77 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication Unit Components (-) permanent temporary Exterior Panels custom standardMethodology: Using a structure of steel columns, Opening Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixedmodules based on a 3-foot-sqaure dimension Ceiling Connectorscould be filled in. Interior Panels FloorUnits of Prefabrication: Steel column sections, Fascia Opening Fixedsandwich panels of prefinished steel andcatalogue ordered parts. Framing Members Joist Column Edge beamStructure: Steel column sections, hollow tubebeams, and a number of different sandwichpanels with a urethane core for horizontal andvertical surfaces.Delivery: Catalogue ordered parts could beassembeled by two unskilled persons in just anhour per square frame. 1 2 3
Puma CityLot-ek | All Over the World | 2008 | RetailPrefab Score Puma City is a nomadic structure, travelling all 76 over the world. The process begins when the cargo ship reaches the location. A crane is used to put the shipping containers onto trucks, and on-site/off-site ratio once at the site another crane is used to assemble the building. This process is done (+) backwards for the disassembly. use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: The store is assembled, thendisassembled to travel all around the globe.Units of Prefabrication: 24 shipping containersDelivery: The nomadic structure travels by cargoship to each port. From there, the shippingcontainers are brought to the site by truck andthen put into place by crane.
Puma CityLot-ek | All Over the World | 2008 | RetailIn order to travel from each destination, theopenings of the shipping containers must be filledin. Without these pieces, the shipping container’sstructure becomes compromised, and it would beimpossible to put them on a cargo ship forextended periods of time. There are wall coverpanels, floor cover panels, and roof cover panelsthat travel with Puma City.Panel System
INTRODUCTIONThe concept behind Puma City is a pulling apartand shifting of shipping containers to createindoor/outdoor spaces, and outdoor spaces.These cantilevers become roof decks for peopleto use. DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 216
Studio East DiningCarmody Groarke | 2010 | London, England | Temporary Pavilion / RestaurantPrefab Score 76 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Use borrowed constructionmaterials of live construction site on location toconstruct temporary pavillionUnits of Prefabrication: borrowed kit-of-parts thatwere then recycled for no wasteStructure: Scaffolding boards, poles andindustrial grade heat retractable polyethylene rofmembraneDelivery: No delivery necessary since allmaterials remained on-site.
Nomiya RestaurantPascal Grasso | 2009 | Paris, France | Temporary Pavillion / RestaurantPrefab Score 75 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Module created for simpleconstruction and take-down.Units of Prefabrication: Glass cabin withperforated metal screen 18 m long, 4m wide,3.5m high and 22 tonnesStructure: Metal and glass boxDelivery: Transported in special trunks in twoparts. Constructed at Cherbourg boatyard innorthern France then assembled on the roof of LePalais de Tokyo.
South Side Row HousesPiekarz | Chicago, IL USA | 1998 | Low-income HousingPrefab Score 75 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Precast concrete wall panels areassembled via crane onto a pre-preparedfoundationUnits of Prefabrication: Insulated precastconcrete wall panels, Hollow-core floor planks,Precast concrete wall panels.Delivery: Panels were transported in flatbed truck
INTRODUCTIONThis project used a precast concrete foundationand structural wall panels to minimizeconstruction time and reduce cost for affordablehousing. DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 222
Rue de MeauxRenzo Piano | Paris, France | 1988 | Multi-family HousingPrefab Score 74 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: A panelized system of precastconcrete and terra-cotta rainscreen is attached totraditional steel frame construcion.Units of Prefabrication: GFRC - glass fiberreinforced concrete panels. Terra-cottarainscreen cladding.Delivery: Panels were transported on flatbed andassembled on site with a crane. Ground Floor Plan
INTRODUCTIONThis project implemented precast concretefoundation and structural wall panels to minimizeconstruction time and reduce cost for affordablehousing. DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Section through courtyard Precedents • 224
Las Palmas ParasiteKortknie Stuhnmacher Architecten | Rotterdam, Netherlands | 2001 | HousingPrefab Score 73 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: A parasite style prefabricatedstructure that is compact in nature and relies onits host building for supportUnits of Prefabrication: Component constructionusing a panel system. All building services wereconnected to that of the existing building.Structure: Constructed from load bearinginsulated panels and relies on th elevator shaft ofan existing building for supportDelivery: Parasite was assembled in 4 daysdespite the exceptionally difficult and windylocation.
Rucksack HouseStefan Eberstadt | 2004 | Leipzen, Koln, & Essen, Germany | HousingPrefab Score 73 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Prefabricated house extension thatcan be dismanteled and reassembled.Units of Prefabrication: 9 sq. meter transportabledwelling componentStructure: Suspended from steel cables anchoredto the roof or facade of existing building. Moduleis a weded steel structure with veneer plywoodinterior claddingDelivery: Located in place on facade by a crane
Box OfficeDistill Studio | Providence, RI | 2010 | OfficesPrefab Score 71 on-site/off-site ratio use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: The shipping containers areworked on at an off-site location while the on-sitework is being done. This saved time and money.Units of Prefabrication: 34 1/3 shippingcontainersStructure: Steel shipping containersDelivery: The shipping containers are brought tothe site by truck, then stacked through the use ofa crane.
INTRODUCTIONThe Box Office is an office building containing 12individual units. Each unit is accessed individuallyoutside. The building is three floors and is Off-site On-siteconnected through the use of sky bridges. Theshipping containers used for this projectpresented opportunities for interesting and DETERMINANTSinnovative design solutions throughout.The construction schedule allows for work to bedone on-site and off-site at the same time, whichsaves time and money. The 6 weeks of iron workafter only 4 days of stacking the containers is the Holes for Columns Excavationmost costly and intensive part of the process. Install Doors/Windows DEPLOYMENT 2-3 Months Stacking CONTEXT 4 Days Iron Work Remove Walls 6 Weeks PRECEDENTS Precedents • 230
Box OfficeDistill Studio | Providence, RI | 2010 | OfficesThe use of shipping containers created severalissues that required creative solutions. Forexample, each unit is mechanically independentfrom one another. There are 12 units total, andeach unit has a condensor outside. This modularHVAC system made installing the systems mucheasier, and far less complicated.Another design solution occured when the twoshipping containers are stacked on top of eachother. They only touch at the corners, creating anopen intersitial space between them. The solutionachieved here was to use spray foam insulation tofill the interstitial space. Condensor outside of unit Interstitial space diagram
INTRODUCTIONThe walls of a shipping container act as a beam,and once they are removed the container losesintegrity. In order to allow for the removal of wallsto create an open floor plan, a column grid wasput in place. The columns were placed where thewalls were removed, and spaced 1/3 of the DETERMINANTSdistance apart. DEPLOYMENTShipping container structure diagram CONTEXT Column grid layout digrams PRECEDENTS Precedents • 232
Loft HouseStudio Aisslinger | 2009 | Berlin, Germany | HousingPrefab Score 70 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Customizable living unit meant forrooftop construction on various post-war flat roofsthroughout BerlinUnits of Prefabrication: Interior Modular structurefor customized partitions, fixed and slidingpanels. Overall size: 40 sq. meters; 2.5 m highStructure: Galvanized steel and timber frameconstructionDelivery: Kit-of-parts stored within two standard40 foot cube containers. Weight calculated toallow for freight helicopter or construction cranehandling
Moduli 225Kristian Gullichsen and Pallasmaa | Finland | 1971 | Single-family residentialPrefab Score 69 on-site/off-site ratio 18 (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) 15 permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: A single module that can be addedto, arranged in any combination, as family grows. 5Units of Prefabrication: Single modules arriveready to be attached to the space frame. All Detail of joint assemblymaterials used for the house (except for woodenposts) prefabricated. 4Structure: No foundation required, modulessupported by wooden posts and stout metalpylons, hovering slightly above the ground. 3Delivery: No foundation required, assembly couldtake as little as two days. All materials availablewithin 200 miles. Module configurations 1
Rastipuisto Apartment BlockHelamaa and Pulkkinen Architects| Helsinki, Finland | 2009 | Multi-family HousingPrefab Score 69 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology:Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete panels,precast hollow-core planks, modular windowsystem.Delivery: Flatbed truck for transportation of panelsystem. Cran to assemble the structure on site.
INTRODUCTIONThe main block is divided into discrete verticalsegments, with each segment separated by astaircase or the gable walls. Within eachsegment, dwellings can be varied for room layout,amenity space and location of widows along theexternal elevation. Thus window locations along a DETERMINANTSprecast panel that encloses two differentapartments need not be on fixed positions, nor dothey have to run in vertical alignment betweenfloors. The storey-high precast panels stretch thefull width of these vertical segments and thismakes some precast units as long as 8m andkeeps the number of units to a minimum, therebyreducing construction cost. Where the front DEPLOYMENTelevation is punctuated by the staircases they aredetailed a little differently fromthe repeating rhythm of the precast panels thatenclose the apartment zones. CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 238
Rastipuisto Apartment BlockHelamaa and Pulkkinen Architects| Helsinki, Finland | 2009 | Multi-family HousingThe standard design of the windows are ofcomposite aluminium and hardwood construction.The exterior frame is a durable aluminium with apowder-coated finish while the interior ‘warmframe’ is a hardwood.The building frame comprises perimeter load-bearing precast sandwich panels, internal precastwall panels that divide the apartments, solid180mm and 200mm thick precast wall units thatenclose the staircase and lift core and providelateral stability. There are no columns. The floorsare hollow core prestressed floor planks thatspan from the front to the back of the building.The building is supported on piled foundationswith interconnecting ground beams to support theloadbearing wall panels. The staircases are allprecast with a terrazzo surface finish.
MOHOShedKM | Manchester, MA | 2006 | Urban HousingPrefab Score 68 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Fully-fitted prefabricated units werestacked onto pre-prepared structural steel cores.Units of Prefabrication: Prefabricated roommodules. Steel sub-structure to receive modules.Delivery: Modules were transported on flatbedand assembled by a crane at a rate of six unitsper day.
INTRODUCTIONThe construction was based in stackingprefabricated units onto a pre-prepared structuralsteel core. It was erected at a rate of six modulesper day and minimal assembly crew. The modularunits allow the construction process to be greatlysimplified, reducing the construction schedule DETERMINANTSand work crew to provide affordable housing. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 242
Saterininne Housing DevelopmentBrunow and Manula Architects | Helsinki, Finland | 2009 | Multi-family HousingPrefab Score 67 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Maximize the size of prefabricatedpanels to expedite on site construction.Units of Prefabrication: Precast structuralconcrete panels, Precast concrete sandwichpanels, and a modular window system.Delivery: Precast concrete parts were deliveredon flatbed and assembled via crane andassembly crew.
INTRODUCTIONThe sandwich panels totalled 1,650 pieces, eachone 5.1 sq. meters in area. The panels werefinished as normal grey concrete and painted onsite by the main contractor. At the factory, steelcasting beds were used to fabricate the 5 tonpanels. An integrated shock-compactor was used DETERMINANTSto increase the strength of the sandwich panels.The factory then holds the de-molded pieces fortwo weeks unitl it is inspected and approved fordelivery.Each of these sandwich panels is assembled inan interlocking pattern to increase panel size andfacilitate assembly. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 244
Yacht HouseRichard Horden | United Kingdom | 1983 | Single-family residentialPrefab Score 67 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) Plan permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Applied “Technology transer” usedin yacht mast designs to residential construction,combining technology and housing. Assembly ProcessUnits of Prefabrication: Steel tensions membersand the interior wall modules.Structure: Concrete footings on short ends heldstructural lattice taut and level while aluminumcompression and steel tension members heldspace frame.Delivery: Uses pre-existing alloy space-framegrid on site, house was built by the family in twoweeks using simple tools. Assembly Detail
BaukastenWalter Gropius | 1923 | Multi-family residentialPrefab Score Building Blocks 12 66 6 on-site/off-site ratio 4 (+) 123 use use residential infrastructure 3 degree of prefabrication (-) permanent 2 temporary 1 123 custom standardMethodology: “an oversized set of toy buildingblocks out of which different types of machines 5 Possible Combinationsfor living can be assembled”Units of Prefabrication: Standard, industriallyproduced elements that function as a variable kitof parts, interlocking to form a near infinite arrayof configurations.Structure: Concrete panels or steel frame, eitherwould be prefabricated in a factory. 125Delivery: Concrete panels made in factory, could 12356 12345be shipped anywhere, would require on-siteconstruction. Project was never realized.
SpaceboxShedKM | Utrecht, Netherlands | 2004 | Studio HousingPrefab Score 66 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Fully-fitted and prefabricated studiounits are stacked on eachother - eliminatingon-site construction.Units of Prefabrication: Structural studio podsthat can be stacked and serviced by a minimalcirculation armiture.Delivery: The factory prepares each pod fullyfitted and is trasported to the site on truck andhoisted into place via crane.
INTRODUCTIONInstant, self-contained studio residences.All you need is a crane to stack them up to threeunits high. The Spacebox is equipped to functionas a compact studio residence, complete withkitchen, shower and toilet with a surface area of18M or 22M. There’s a large window on one end DETERMINANTSand the entryway on the other. The units areequipped with a boiler, mechanical ventilation andelectrical heating. Spacebox units are made ofthe same high-grade light weight composites thatare used in shipbuilding and aircraftmanufacturing.Source: http://mocoloco.com/archives/000821. DEPLOYMENTphp CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 250
Bluff HomesVetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI USA | 2009 | Single Family TownhomesPrefab Score 65 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology:Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete panels,precast hollow-core planks, modular windowsystem.Delivery: Flatbed truck for transportation of panelsystem. Cran to assemble the structure on site.
INTRODUCTIONBluff Homes is a single family townhomes projectin Milwaukee. Each home was made of precastconcrete panels and hollowcore planks. DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 252
Precast Concrete Segmental BridgePrefab Score 65 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Width of segments is determinedby the maximum allowed by road regulations. Thewidth of the road, also the length of the unit, isdetermined by the maximum truck capacity anddesired amount of lanes.Units of Prefabrication: Segments arrive ready toinstall on-site and are joined together with rebarties and cementious grout.Structure: Precast concrete composed of cement,steel rebarDelivery: Moved from precast fabricator toconstruction site by a double drop deck trucktrailer, then lifted by a gantry crane into positionabove the substructure
Parasite PrefabLara Calder Architects | 2009 | HousingPrefab Score 64 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: A prefabricated parasite systemthat attaches to empty facades, rock faces andbridges to make use of unaddressed sites.Units of Prefabrication: A panelized system thatwas designed through the use of a parametric 3Dmodeling system.Structure: A back plate is bolted to the existinghost surface and floors and wall panels rely onthe strength of the plate.Delivery: Unbuilt concept
Parcel 12 & 18MVRDV | Borneo-Sporenburg, Netherlands | 1988 | Urban HousingPrefab Score 64 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Precast concrete row houses wereassembled with precast concrete structuralframes and finished on site.Units of Prefabrication: Precast concreteinsulated sandwich panels.Delivery: All modules were transported on flatbedand assembled on site with a crane.
INTRODUCTIONBorneo Sporenburg masterplan was a residentialbrief of 2500 dwellings, set those two peninsulasas one planning area, dictating a high density ofhousing. In numbers the project, according theC.A.B.E, is described as:• Average density: 100 dwellings per hectare (the DETERMINANTS600 dwellings in the three large housing blocksbring up the average density)Source: http://urbantheorywest8amsterdam.blogspot.com/ DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 258
Pinchin Street StudiosUrban Space Management, Ltd | London, UK | 2007 | Container HousingPrefab Score 64 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Pre-assembled shipping containerswere stacked to construct the housingdevelopmentUnits of Prefabrication: Shipping container housemodules.Delivery: Containers were transported on flatbedand stacked on site with a crane. An assemblycrew then bolted/welded the containers intoplace.
INTRODUCTIONCreated out of 35 prefabricated containers thisinnovative development includes doctors surgeryspace with office space on the next three floorsas well as a roof-top garden.Source: http://londonwall.blogspot.com/2009/11/ DETERMINANTSpinchin-street-studios-by-urban-space.html DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 260
KeetwonenTempohousing | Amsterdam, The Netherlands | 2006 | HousingPrefab Score 63 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: The units are brought to the sitewith walls and windows already in place, then arestacked to create the 12 housing complexes.Units of Prefabrication: 1,000 shipping containersStructure: Steel shipping containersDelivery: The shipping containers are brought tothe site by truck, then stacked through the use ofa crane.
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT Typical UnitsKeetwonen is the largest shipping container city 1 Shipping Containerin the world, consisting of 1,000 shipping 2 Shipping Containerscontainers. This housing is primarily for students, CONTEXTand each unit contains their own bedroom, livingroom, bathroom, kitchen, and balcony. TheKeetwonen complex also contains office space,super markets, a sports area and a cafe for thestudents. Each unit is brought to the site andstacked through the use of a crane. Originally theproject was meant to only stay on site for 5 years, PRECEDENTSbut the relocation has been postponed until 2016.The units can be easily moved to a differentlocation to create the massive container citythrough the use of cranes and trucks fortransport. Precedents • 262
Park Row Terrace HousesVetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI USA | 2005 | Multi-family Row HousesPrefab Score 63 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Implement a precast concretestructure to reduce cost and constructionassembly.Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete wallpanels, Hollow-core floor planks, and structuralload-bearing wall panels.Delivery: Prefab panelized system is easilytransported on flatbed to the building site.
INTRODUCTIONPark Terrace Row Houses are a unique project inMilwaukee, Wisconsin. They are apart of anurban redevelopment trend along the riverfront ina post industrial neighborhood. The row houseswere designed as two family units, one duplexand one single floor occupancy. DETERMINANTSPrecast Concrete Panels and Hollowcore Plankswere the main units of prefabrication. Theconcrete panels were designed to not only act assheer walls in this project but act as the fire wallsbetween each unit. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 264
Hong Kong & Shanghai BankNorman Foster & Associates | Hong Kong, China | 2007 | SkyscraperPrefab Score 61 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Reduce on site construction timewith prefabricated building assembly methodsUnits of Prefabrication: Bathroom modules.Mechanical modules. Steel superstructure. Glasscurtain wall system.Delivery: International delivery via barge andtransported by flatbed from harbor to site.
INTRODUCTIONThe Hong Kong Bank implemented an unprece-dented prefabrication process that responded tourban site restrictions and a premise to minimizeconstruction time. The structure was assembledfrom six steel modules fabricated in London andshipped by sea. Bathroom and mechanical mod- DETERMINANTSules were fabricated in Japan and stacked andattached to the superstructure. This allowed foron-site construction to progress quickly andincrease turn-over time. However, the complexityof the design and coordination process betweenmultiple practitioners invariably delayed the con-struction process despite its proposed design. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 266
Hong Kong & Shanghai BankNorman Foster & Associates | Hong Kong, China | 2007 | SkyscraperThe steel superstructure was fabricated inLondon, England and shipped innternation-ally by sea. This pieces arrived as six mod-ules that were assembled by crane into foursets of “mast” super-columns. These werethen fitted with truss hangers that suspendthe floor components.Bathroom modules were fabricated in Japanas “skinless.” They were then shipped over-seas and assembed via cranes ontop of themast towers. These modules were thenattached to the truss superstructure and fit-ted with metal cladding.The structural glass curtain wall was fabri-cated in the United States and assembledon site. It consisted of a kit of parts of struc-tural, non-structural, and solar shadingcomponents.
INTRODUCTIONThe prefabricated elements of the projectinlude the steel superstructure composed ofmast columns, truss hangers, and suspen-sion columns. Modular bathroom andmechanical units are stacked and attachedto the superstructure. The floor components DETERMINANTSare completed after the truss hangers havebeen put in place. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 268
Hong Kong & Shanghai BankNorman Foster & Associates | Hong Kong, China | 2007 | SkyscraperThe structural innovation of Hong KongBank has allowed the plan to benefit from anexternally loaded core that services an inte-rior column-free space. The open floor planis also divided by movable partitions thatcan re-configure the spatial organization ofthe plan for future use capacity. This adapt-able re-use concept has also been imple-mented in section where double heightstories create spaces for sustainable socialinteraction and circulatiory functions thatare separate yet complimentary to the officefloors.
INTRODUCTIONThe steel supertructure was coposed of twomodules for the column masts and fourmodules for the truss system. These pieceswere assembled by crane; a structural pinsystem fastened the pieces together. Thebenefits of the superstructure are evident in DETERMINANTSits ability to provide 33.5 meter spansbetween columns. This allows a greaterflexibility of floor space that is unprece-dented in contemporary construction. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 270
Habitat ‘67Moshe Safdie | Montreal, Canada | 1967 | Multi-family residentialPrefab Score 58 Precast Concrete Roof on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication Fenestration (-) permanent temporary 2 X 4 Interior Wall Assembly custom standardMethodology: Interlocking modules that arestructurally interwieved. Focus is on the indiviualunit rather than the global structure. Floor AssemblyUnits of Prefabrication: With the exception ofbathroom cores and millwork, all the residentialunits were pre-fabricated on-site and lifted intoplace by crane. “B”Structure: Concrete structure, bolted together Precast Concrete Exterior Shelland post-tensioned.Delivery: Modules were built on-site whicheliminates the travel factor that a lot of pre- Unit Deckfabricated units have. Exploded Axon
Habitat ‘67Moshe Safdie | Montreal, Canada | 1967 | Multi-family residential Module Interlocking Diagram Typically, three modules formed a single unit. Both indiviual modules and units torque and cascade around each other which creates an infinite number of orientations to both the structure itself, and the city. Each modular unit is clearly legible as a singular unit, but understood as an absolutely irreplaceable part of a greater whole.Typical Module CombinationPlans and Elevations Construction Photo
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENTSection CONTEXT Bridging Units and TerracesView from across the Saint Lawrence River PRECEDENTS Precedents • 274
ElementalAlejandro Aravena | Santiago, Chile | 2001 | Low-income HousingPrefab Score 49 on-site/off-site ratio (+) use use residential infrastructure degree of prefabrication (-) permanent temporary custom standardMethodology: Elemental utilizes a precast andsitecast concrete to reduce overall constructiontime and cost.Units of Prefabrication: Six precast concretecomponents and hollow-core floor planks.Structure: The primary structure is precastconcrete and has a seconday structure madefrom site-cast concrete block.Delivery: Precast panels were transported viaflatbed truck. Cranes were used to hoist these Plans 1, 2, 3 & Elevationpanels from the truck as workers guided eachpanel into place. Exploded Axonometric
INTRODUCTIONElemental was started as a prototype model forthe development of quality low-income housingfor the future. Through the use of precastconcrete building methods, the constructionprocess can be minimized to one day. Thesystem utilizes precast concrete floor slabs and a DETERMINANTSstructural frame that arrives on flatbed. A craneand assembly crew construct the prefab frame.The structure is then completed with site-castconcrete block for the facade. The design allowsfor residents to expand their homes as necessaryinto each interstitial unit space. DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 276
ElementalAlejandro Aravena | Santiago, Chile | 2001 | Low-income HousingThe project goal for Elemental was to replaceexisting slum dwellings in Santiago, Chile. Thedesign vision considered the needs of thedisplaced families by focusing on an expeditedbuilding delivery system. The answer was to usea durable prefabricated concrete frame that couldbe assembled within hours. The building structureis completed with site-cast concrete block thatadds an aesthetic appeal to the facade. Crane typeTransport of Precast Concrete Panels Crane Assembly Plan Kit of Precast Parts
INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS Area for expansion Prefabricated unithvv DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Precedents • 278
PrecedentsSourcesSystem31. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.Citizen M1. Powers, Richard. Contemporist. 2010. http://www.contemporist.com/2010/09/15/citizenm-glasgow-hotel-by-concrete-architectural-associates/Nakagin Capsule Tower1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.2. Harbison, William. “Analysis of Nakagin Capsule Tower.” 2009. wharbison.blogspot.com/2009/12-analysis-of-nakagin-capsule-tower-5th.html3. Kurokawa, Kisho. “Metabolism in Architecture.” Westview Press, Boulder, Co. 1977.Pierson Court1. Architectural Record. 2010. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives/renovations/05_piersonCollege/photos.asp2. Chen, Aric. Teaching Tools. Metropolis Magazine, July 25, 2007. http://www.metropolismag.com/story/20070725/teaching-tools3. Warren, Jerry A. Capital Projects Handbook. Yale University. 2005. http://www.facilities.yale.edu/publications/CapitalProjectsHandbook.pdf4. Modular Building Institute. 2006. http://www.modular.org/htmlPage.aspx?name=news26#yale5. Whitley Manufacturing Co., Inc. 1995-2010. http://www.whitleyman.com/news/article.html?id=1206713574Melrose II1. www.scottsystem.com/informers/Beauty_in_the_Bronx.pdf2. www.pathnet.org/si.asp?id=26523.campaign=en&utm_source=en-hana-us-sk-gm&utm_medium=ha&utm_term=mapsMetastadt-Bausystem1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.2. Anssen, M., ‘Interview mit dem Metastadt-Architekten Richard J. Dietrich : Man hätte uns nicht in Richtung Wulfen treiben dürfen’, Bauwelt, 79, 1988, pp.1990-95.3. Janssen, M., ‘Metastadt, Wulfen : Eine Studentin von heute über eine Utopie von gestern’, Bauwelt, 79, 1988, pp. 1990-91.
INTRODUCTIONKim & Sill1. http://www.architektenprofsill.de/flash/starter1280.htm DETERMINANTS2. http://www.detail.de/rw_5_Archive_En_HoleArtikel_1513_Artikel.htm3. “Housing and commercial block in rathenow” Detail Magazine. Vol. 38. No. 5. Pg. 808-812. 19984. http://myweb.wit.edu/kiml1/590fall05/web-content/terry.pdfDrop House1. Nuruly. Home Decor G. 2010. http://www.homedecorg.com/2010/04/the-drop-house-modern-wooden-prefab-home/Kim House DEPLOYMENT1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.Urban Shelter Building1. http://www.onesmallproject.com/pagescontributors/contributorparejo.html2. http://www.recetasurbanas.net/indexphp?idioma=ENG&REF=1&ID=0003Nomadic Museum:1. http://www.burohappold.com/BH/PRJ_BLD_nomadic_museum.aspx CONTEXT2. http://nymag.com/nymetro/arts/architecture/11077/Stelco Catalogue Housing1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.Puma City: PRECEDENTS“1. Adapting Prefabricated Industrial Systems into Innovative Architecture” by Jesse Cabrera & Daniel Ottochian2. http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/fashion/articles/2009/04/23/a_portable_city_visits_fan_pier/Studio East Dining1. http://uk.westfield.com/stratfordcity/studio-east/studio-east-dining/ Precedents • 280
PrecedentsSourcesNomiya Restaurant1. http://plusmood.com/2009/09/nomiya-temporary-rooftop-restaurant-pascal-grasso-laurent-grasso/2. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/09/11/nomiya-temporary-restaurant-by-pascal-grasso/South Side Row Houses1. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1999/January-February/JL-99-JANUARY-FEBRUARY-3.pdf2. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/ascent/2000/summer/AS-00SU-3.PDFRue De Meaux1. http://www.housingprototypes.org/project?File_No=FRA006Las Palmas Parasite1. http://lifewithoutbuildings.net/2005/08/life without-books-green-house.html2. http://www.kortekniestuhlmacher.nl/Rucksack Housing1. http://www.convertiblecity.de/projekte_proje kt02_en.htmlBox Office:1. Josh Brandt, Stack Design BuildLoft House1. www.aisslinger.de2. www.loftcube.netModuli 2251. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.Rastipuisto1. “The Art of Precast Concrete:” http://www.scribd.com/doc/18765509/the-art-of-precast-concrete-colour-texture-expression
INTRODUCTIONMOHO - Manchester1. http://www.jouleconsultingengineers.co.uk/presnew.htmSaterininne DETERMINANTS1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/18765509/the-art-of-precast-concrete-colour-texture-expressionYacht House1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.Baukasten1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.Spacebox DEPLOYMENT1. www.mocoloco.com/archives/000821.php2. www.spaceboxusa.com/Bluff Homes1. http://www.thebluffhomes.com/Precast Concrete Segmental Bridges1. Barker, James M. “Construction Techniques for Segmental Concrete Bridges” 1980. CONTEXThttp://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1980/July-August/JL-80-JULY-AUGUST-9.pdf2. http://www.metamere.com/images/segmentalbridgeunderconstruction4.jpg3. http://www.mtc.ca.gov/images/ta02-0307/skyway.jpg4. http://www.gautrain.co.za/web_images/_2S22gQ.jpg5. http://www.djc.com/stories/images/20090716/DSCN1968_big.jpg PRECEDENTSParasite Prefab1. www.calderflower.com.auParcel 12 & 181. http://urbantheorywest8amsterdam.blogspot.com/ Precedents • 282
PrecedentsSourcesPinchin Street Studios1. http://www.containercity.com/pinchin-street-studios.html2. http://londonwall.blogspot.com/2009/11/pinchin-street-studios-by-urban-space.htmlKeetwonen:1. http://www.tempohousing.com/projects/keetwonen.html2. http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/08/24/prefab-friday-keetwonen-container-student-housing/Park Row Terrace Housing1. www.vetterdenk.com/work.phpHong Kong Bank1. Ford, Edward R. “The Details of Modern Architecture” Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.2.The_Hongkong_and_Shanghai_Banking_Corporation3. http://www.urbain-trop-urbain.fr/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Fiche-hong-kong-bank-de-Foster.pdf4. http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/29554/52723412.pdf?sequence=15. http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic32894.files/7-4_Hongkong.pdfHabitat ‘671. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.2. Cotter, Bill. “Habitat 67 Then and Now.” 2004. http://www.space1999.net/~sorellarium13/habitat-67.htmElemental1. http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental/2. http://www.elementalchile.cl/3. www.acleanbreak.org