Buddhist values 2.chapter

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Buddhist values 2.chapter

  1. 1. 02.පරිච්ෙඡ්දය ෙබෞද්ධ සංකල්ප විමර්ශනය Consideration of Buddhist Concepts ෙබෞද්ධ සංකල්ප යනුෙවන් අදහස් වනුෙය් කුමක් දැයි ෙම◌දී විමසීම වැදගත්ය. ිසංකල්ප ෙලස හැඳින්ෙවනුෙය් කිසියම් මානව සංඥාවක් සඳහා ලබාෙදන ෙපොදු සම්මුතියකි. ෙම්අනුව සංකල්පයක් සංස්කාරයක් ෙලසද හඳුනාගත හැක. මන්ද සංස්කරවලද සකස්කළ හා සම්මුතියන ලක්ෂණ ෙදක විද මාන බැවිනි. ෙම් අනුව කිසියම් මානව අදහසක් සංකල්පයක් ෙව්.ෙම්අනුවසංකල්පයක් යැයි පැවසූ විටම සිහිපත් වනුෙය් සකස් කරගන්නා ලද්දක් ෙලසයි. අනුන්ට සිදුකරනඋපකාරය පෙරෝපකාරය ෙලස හැඳින්ෙව්. පෙරෝපකාරය සංකල්පයකි. එෙසේම එය සාරධර්මයක්දෙව්. මන්ද සංකල්පයක ලක්ෂණ ෙමන්ම සාරධර්මයක ලක්ෂණද එහි විද මාන බැවිනි. ෙම් අනුවඕනෑම සංකල්පයක් සාරධර්මයක්ද වියහැක. එෙසේම එෙසේ ෙනොවිය හැකි සංකල්පයද තිෙබ්. මානවසිෙත් කිසියම් පුද්ගලෙයකු පිළිබඳව ඇති ෛවරය නිසා තරහ පිරිමසින ස්වභාවය පළිගැනීමයි.ෙම්පළිගැනීම වනාහී මානව සංකල්යකි. එෙහත් එය සාරධර්මයක් ෙනොෙව්. එය සෘණාත්මක සංකල්පගණෙය්ලා සැලෙක්. ෙමයට ෙහේතුව පළිගැනීම නිසා තමාට හා සමාජයට අනර්ථකාරී හැසිරීමක්දක්වා අදාල පුද්ගලයා ෙයොමුවිය හැකි ෙහයිනි.සෘණාත්මක සංකල්ප ෙබෞද්ධ දෘෂ්ටිෙකෝණය අනුවහැඳින්ෙවනුෙය් ෙකෙළස් යනුෙවනි. ෙකෙළස් ඇතිවන මූළ ෙහේතු පිළිබඳ බුදු දහම දක්වා ඇත.කිසියම් ගසක් හටගැනීමසිදුවනුෙය් ඒ ගෙසේ මුල් මඟිනි. ගසක ෙකොළ,අතු,ඉති සිඳ දැමූවද, එහි මුල ආරක්ෂිතව තිෙබනතාක්යළි යළිත් ඒ ගෙසේ පැළවීෙම් සම්භාවිතාව ෙහෝ ශක තාව අෙහෝසි ෙනොෙව්.එපරිදිම ෙකෙළස් ඇතිවන නැතෙහොත් හටගන්වන ෙහේතු ඉවත්කරන තුරු ෙකෙළස්වල යළි යළිත් හටගැනීම සිදුෙව්.එයෙකෙළස්වලට ෙහේතුවන මුල් නිරුපදිතව පැවතීම නිසාම සිදුෙව්. ෙකෙළස් යළි යළිත් හටගැනීමටෙහේතුවන ෙකෙළස් මුල් තුනක් පිළිබඳව බුදු දහෙම් සාකච්ඡා ෙව්. එනම් ෙලෝභ, ද්ෙව්ෂ හා ෙමෝහයන ෙකෙළස් මූල තුනයි. සියළුම ෙකෙළස් හටගැනීමට ෙමකී ෙකෙළස් මූල තුන ඉවහල්ෙව්.එයසිතින් ගලවා ඉවත් කරන ෙතක් සසර භව ගමන පැවතීමට ෙහේතුවන ෙකෙළස් යළි යළිත් ඇතිෙව්.ෙම් ෙකෙළස් නැමැති හුය ගලවා ඉවත්කිරීම සඳහා වූ අතිශය කමානූකූල හා සංවිධිත පිළිෙවලක් දතිෙබ්. එය විදර්ශනා භාවනාවයි. එය තරමක් අසීරු නමුදු හුරු පුරුදු වූ විට මිහිරි හා පහසු භාවනාකමයක් ද ෙව්. එක් එක් පුද්ගලයාෙග් චරිත ස්වභාවය අනුව විදර්ශනා භාවනාව සිදුකල යුතු විවිධකම තිෙබ්. තමාෙග් චරිතයට හා ගතිලක්ෂණවලට මනාව සැසෙඳන ෙයෝග ම කමය ෙතෝරාෙගනනිවැරදිව ගුරු ඇසුරක් මඟින් එහි නිරතවීම මඟින් කමානූකූලව ෙකෙළස් මූල් ගලවාහැර පවිත වූසිතක් හිමිකර ගතහැක. බුදු දහමින් උපෙදස් ලබාෙදනුෙය්ද ඒ සඳහාය. fuhg by; m<uq mrspzfPAofhaoS meyeos,s we;s mrsos fn#oaO idr OrAu hkakixl,amuh jQjls boska ta ;;ajh ;`,oS thgo mokuz jQ huz ixl,am fjz kuz tjd w;sYhskauiQCIu foaj,aa jsh hq;`hසාරධර්ම hkqo ixl,amuh jQjla nejska tlS ixl,amfhau l`vd wkqfldgiajYfhka my; iZoyka jk ixl,ammoaO;sh ie,lsh yelshwfkla w;g සාරධර්ම ixl,am iudccSjs;fhaoS m@dfhda.slj l@shd jg kefZ.kafka flfiao$ hkak fuz uZ.ska ukdj ;yjqre jkqwe;.fuys සාරධර්ම ixl,amhkaf.a wkq fldgia jYfhka olajd we;af;a fufia m@dfhda.sl cSjs;hgkZ.k ,o සාරධර්ම iudcuh jHjydrhkah. fjk;a f,ilska lsjfyd;a tla tla සාරධර්මixl,amhla yojf;a iy fud<fha l@shdldrSFjhg m;ajk wjia:dj fuz uZ.ska ksEms;hs.සාරධර්මms,snZoj fu;ruz ishquz jsYaf,aIKhla lsrSug fm<Uqfka fndfyda fokdjsiska fkdis;k me;a;lafj; wjOdkh fhduqlrjSu iZoydhld,du iQ;@h ms<snZoj rpkhjS ;sfnk Ydia;ShlD;Skays @wjOdkh fhduqjS mej;`fka ld,du iQ;@fhys .enzjSmej;`kd jQ ckm@sh isoaOdka;h jQksoyiapska;kh flfryshld,du iQ;@h foaYkd lsrSu iZoyd miqnsuzjQ lreKq wkqj tfiaWml,amkhlsrSu idjoH fkdfj;;a"ld,du iQ;@fhys .enzjk tlu foh pska;kksoyi muKlafkdfjzfn#oaO සාරධර්ම ms<snZoj b;dmqZM,a js.@yhla o ld,du iQ;@fhys wka;rA.;fjz
  2. 2. ld,du iQ;@fhys .enzjkakdjQ tlufoh pska;k ksoyi hehs .;fyd;a tujs.@yhtaldfoaYsl js.@yhla muKlajkq we;sth tfia jkafka ld,du iQ;@fhka js.@y flfrkakdjQixl,am nqoaOsuh yd prAhduh hk fldgia folla hgf;a bosrsm;ajk ksid;a"pska;k ksoyi hkසාරධර්ම ixl,amh wh;a jkafka bka nqoaOsuh(wdl,am)fldgi hg;g jk ksid;awdfjzok(l`Y,;d)yd prAhduh(ufkda pd<l) fldgig wh;a සාරධර්ම ixl,am ms<snZoj tuZ.skajsjrKh fkdjk ksid;ahfuu miqnsu ie,ls,a,g f.k fuu mrAfhaIK ldrAhfhysoS W;aidyoefrkqfha ld,du iQ;@fhka jsjrKh flfrkakdjQ iuzmQrAK සාරධර්ම ixl,am moaO;shjsYaf,aIK ldrAhh iZoyd fhdod.ekSugh සාරධර්ම ixialD;sh yd olajk inZo;djfhys iajrEmh ms<snZoj oek.ekSuidrOrAuj, l@shd ldrSFjh wjfndOlsrSu iZoyd uy;afiaWmldrSfjz1ta ta ixialD;shg සාරධර්මjHdma; jkafka flfiao$ ixialD;Ska w;r සාරධර්ම yqjudrejkafka flfiao$ hk fuz lreKqflfrAwjfndaOhlska hq;`j lghq;` lsrSu සාරධර්ම wOHhfhysoS uy;afia jeo.;afjztla w;lskald,du iQ;@h fn#oaO ixialD;sh;a" bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh;a hdflfrk yqhla f,i l@shd;auljQY@uK iuzm@odh i;`jQ udkj jgskdluz ksrEmkh flfrkakdjQ wdlD;shla f,i ie,lshyelshY@uK iuzm@odh i;`jQ ksoyia pska;kh;a" m@cd;ka;@jdoSNdjh;a"wjsysxid;auliajrEmh;a"i;rn@yau jsyrKhkays .enzjkakdjQ jsYajSh us;@;aj h ms<snZo oelau;a ld,du iQ;@huZ.ska fudkjg ksrEmKh flfrAth pska;k wOsldrsh flaJ|@lr.;a n@dyauKiuzm@odhi;`lDr;ajh;a"hd.h hZ{h n,sns,s mQcduZ.ska fmkakquz lrk iFj>d;k wdrAh ixialD;shgjsreoaOjQ jHdmdrhlaf,i idrA:lj fm<.eiajQ whqre ld,du iQ;@h uZ.ska fmkajdfohs2 ld,du iQ;@fhkaa js.@yflfrkakdjQ nqoaOsmrsmdl.; fn#oaO idrOrAuf,iyeZoskafjkafka hglS ixl,am iuQyhlgh fuu ixl,am iuQyh m@cdkk wdfjzokSh yd prAhduhhk mqZM,a lafIa;@ ;`kla lrd jsyso hhs fuu m@cdkk wdfjzokSh yd prAhduh hk lafIa;@ ;`kmqrd jsysohkakdjQ fn#oaO idrOrAu my; oelafjk whqrska y|=kajd osh yelsh3 1. mqZ[aZ[ yd l`Y, ixl,am4 (Adipose & Clever Conceptions) 2. oi mqKH l@shd5 (Ten Adipose Actions) 3. wjsysxid6 (Non Violence) 4. wmamspzP;d7 Moderate / Ascctisism) 5. ika;`gzGs;d1 (Acceptance)1 wOHdmk orAYk m@fjzYh"fykars jSrisxy"ksmqK tkagm@hsiia"kqf.af.dv"1993"117-132msgq2 w. ks. 1, ;sl ksmd;h"uyd j.a. ld,duiq;a; nqcuq"337-343 msg, fLd fid i ld,dud wrshidjfld qtjx wfjr ps;af;d"tjx wnHdmcACOps;af;d"tjx wixls,sgzG ps;af;d"tjx jsiqoaOps;af;d ;iai osgzfGjOuzfu j;a;dfrd wiaidid wOs.;d fydks;s3 w. ks. 1, ;sl ksmd;h, ld,du iq;a;, nq.c.uq.338 msgqj,4 tu hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud l`i,d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakdys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: l`uzfy ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhahd:5 tu ifpz fLd mk w;a:s mfrd f,dfld w;a:s iqlg |+lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdfld Gdkuyx ldhiaifNaod mruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dlx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuiai mGfud wiaidfid wOs.f;d fyd;s ifpzfLd mk k;a:s mfrd f,dfld k;a:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdfld bodyx osgzfGj Ouzfu wfjzrxwnHdmcACOx wkS>x iqLx w;adkx mrsyrduS;s whuiai |=;sfhd wiaidfid wOs.f;d fyda;s ifpz fLd mklfrdf;d k lrshah;s mdmdx bodyx WNfhafkaj jsiqoaOx w;a;dkx iukqmiaiduS;s whuiai p;`;af:dwiaidfid wOs.f;d fyd;s I fLd fid Nkaf; wrshidjfld tajx wfpzrps;af;d tajx wnHdmcACOps;af;dtajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;d tajx jsiqoaO ps;af;d ;iai ossgzfGj Ouzfu p;a;dfrd wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;S;s o6 tu i fpz fLd fid ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;ps.;dNscAfCOd js.;nHdmdfod wiuzuQ<afydiuzmcdfkd m;siaif;d fu;a;d iy.f;k fpz;id fpz;id fm-lreKd iy.f;k fpz;id-uqos;d fm- id-iy.f;k fpz;id-WfmlaLdiy.f;k fpz;id talx osix Mrs;ajd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d id-p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOd ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmlaLd i.f;k fpz;idjsmqf,ak uy.a.f;k wmamudfkak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk Mrs;ajd jsyr;s7 tu wuQ<afyd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,d fudfyk wkNsN~f;d wmrshdoskakps;af;d fkj wmrsmdKxNka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a:dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;soS>x r;a;x ys;dh iqLdh;s
  3. 3. 6. fi#kaorAhh m@sh;dj2 (Beauty Inclinution) 7. iqkuH nj3 (Sanatorium) 8. iajpzPkao;djh4 (Freedom of the Will / Free Will) 9. Ndjkdj yd iodpdrh5 ( Meditation & Moral) 10. iykYS,s;ajh6 (Toleration) hkqfjks. idr Ou!hkays iudcuh Ndjs;dj m@cdkk wdfjzok yd prAhd l`i,;d සාරධර්ම ixl,am 1 mqZ[aZ[ yd l`Y, ixl,am wOsldrS pska;kfhka jshqla;jSu l`i,uQ< 2 oi mqZ[aZ[ l@shd wOsldrS pska;kfhka jshqla; jSu l`i,uQ< 3 wjsysxid i;r n@yau jsyrK mxpYS,h 4 wmamspzp;d i;r n@yau jsyrK mxpYS,h 5 ika;`gzGs;d i;r n@yau jsyrK mxpYS,h 6 fi#kaorAhh ms@h;dj wOsldrS pska;k jshqla;sh i;rn@yau jsyrK 7 iqkuHnj n@yau jsyrK l`i, uQ< mxpYS, m@;smodj 8 iajpzPkao;dj lu!jsmdlh ms<snZo isjqjeoEreuz kHdh 9 Ndjkdj yd iodpdrh i;r n@yau jsyrK l`i, uQ< mxpYS,h 10 iykYS,SFjh wOsldrS pska;kfhka jshqla; jSu by; iZoykal< ixl,am oyhu ld,du iQ;@fhys oel.;yeltfukau jvd;amqZM,a js.@yhla f,i th bosrsm;aj;sfnzfuzksidu fuu iQ;@fhys idrOrAuSh jYfhka .eUqreorAYkhla wkdjrKh flfrAkQ;k odrAYksljs.@yhkag wkqj huzlsis pska;khla orAYkhlaf,iyeZoskajshyelafla thg iqjsfYaISjk lreKqldr Kd iuzmQrAKjSfuka wk;`rejhm<uqfldgu wod<pska;kh;`< huzlsis oelaula wvx.`jsh hq;`fiau wdpdr jsoHd;aul mCIfhka idrj;a miqnsulata;`<jshhq;`uhm@Odk jYfhka fulS lreKqfol wksjdrAhfhkau iuzmQrAKjsh hq;`uh7 fndfydafofkla is;d isgskafka kQ;kfha b;d iS>@fhka m@p,s;jk huzhuz is;sjs,su;su;dka;r fndfyduhla orAYkh keue;s jsIhg wh;ah lshdhfldmuK nqoaOsf.daprjqj;afuzjd fndfyduhla yq|= is;sjs,s yd u;s u;dka;r j,g muKla iSudjkafka tajfha fulSorAYkhla jSuiZoyd wjYH lrkakdjQ uQ<sl iq|=iqluzj,ska tlla jQ wdpdrjsoHd;aul mCIhtajd;`< uojYfhkaj;a olakg fkd,efnk nejsks8 taw;ska ld,duiQ;@h fnfyjska nqoaOsuh yd wdpdrjsoHd;aul mCIfhkairAjiuzmQrAKhuqZM nq|=oyfuysu yrh .enzjS we;a;dfia ie<lsh yelshb;du;a mqZM,a jsIh1tu iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;s$fkd jd$l:x jd fy;a: fyda;S;s$iu;a;d Nkaf;iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;kaa;s tajx fkd fy;a: fyda;Ss;s k2w. ks. 1, ;sl ksmd;h, uydj.a., nq.c.uq. 337-343 msgq.3 tu w,qoafOd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,d f,dfNk-w|+gzfGd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,d fodafik- f,dfNk- ik-wuQ<afyd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,d fudfyk fuys w,qoaO hkq fr#|@ fkdjQ hk wrA:hhs w|=gzG hkqkmqre fkdjQ hk wrA:hhs wuQ<ay hkq uq<dfkdjk iajNdjh we;s hkqhs isf;ys iqLkuHYS,S iajNdjhgndOdldrS jkakdjQ uq<sl ffp;isl ix>gl ;`kl wjsoHudk;ajhu isf;ys meyenr iajNdjhgfya;`jknj fuhskafmfka4 tu ta: ;`uzfy ld,dud ud wkqiaifjk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgliuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;`ud khfya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;laflk ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKd fkd .rE;s5 tu hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud wl`I,d bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd bfuz OuzudjsZ[aZ|+.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dudmcfyhHd:6 tu w,x ys fjd ld,dud lxLs;`x w,x jspslspzPs;`x lxLkSfha p mk fjd Gdfka jspslspzPd Wmamkakd7 us:Hdj jkaokdudk lrk mYapd;akQ;kjdoh, ta vS mS l,xiQrsh, Ydia;@Sh w;sfrAlh, isZMusK brsodtlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 26 12 2004, 41 msgqjfld<U, 19. 12. 2004, 57 msgqj.8 mYapd;akQ;kjdoh orAYk jsIfhka mrsndysr ixialD;sl m@mxphls, ta. vS. mS. l,xiQrsh Ydia;@Shw;sfrAlh, isZMusK brsod, tlai;am@jD;a;m;@ iud.u, fld<U, 26 12 2004, 41 msgqj
  4. 4. m:hka;`<oS ld,duiQ;@fhka bosrsm;aflfrkakdjQ pska;kh by;olajk,o ishZM fldkafoaisj,gwkq.;ju mrsmQrAK odrAYksl miq;,hla uZ.ska ksrEmKh fldg oelajSfuz yelshdj we;1 wfkla w;g ld,duiQ;@fhys සාරධර්ම jsjrKhflfrkafka odrAYksl fukauixialD;sl jgdmsgdj lska hq;` jhfuys oelafjkakdjQ ld,du jeishka jdihlf<a b;djsjD;ixialD;sl rgdjla;snQ iudc mrsirhlh tnejska Tjqka;`< fndfydafoa ms<snZo ksjerosjsksYaphlg t<eUsfha b;djsjD; udkislFj hlska hq;`j tafoams<sn Zoj lreKq ldrKdfidhdne,Sfuka wk;`rejh2 fudjqkaf.a .u flaimq;a;h kuzjshfuho l`vd.ulafkdj f,dl`.ula fyj;aks.uhlajshfmr ld,j, ks.uhla fmdvsmfya gjqula ;rug f,dl`jg mej;sksta tfiajQfhafjfiiskau .xbjqre jeks c,myiqj yd .ukamyiqj ;snqKq;ekaj,hfunZ|=jQ .ulg .Z.fomiisgskafkda /iafj;sTjqyq tnZ|= .ula fj<odugo uOHia:dkh lr.ks;s3 uq,a ld,j,oS koSka weiqrefldg msysgqjk,o fujeks .uz koS.@du hkqfjkayZ|=kajk,oehso we;euzyq jsYajdi lr;sfuzwkqj koS.@du kS.ujS thska ks.u hkjpkh iEfokakgwe;ehs Tjqkaf.a woyihs uq,oS fufia koSka whsfkau jdf.a we;sjQ fuz.uz jsfYaIh miqj koSkake;s;ekaj, we;sjqK;a takuskau fyj;a ks.u yegshgu yeZoskajqknj fmfkaflaimq;;ho fuzwhqrska m@lgjQ ks.uhls4 flaimq;a;h msysgd ;snqfka fndfydafokd ks;r .ukd.ukfhys fhfok m@OdkudrA.hkaish,a, yuqjka kdjQ ia:dkhlhtnejska fuz ia:dkh miqlr hkakdjQ fndfydafokdf.ajsjsO wd.usl yd odrAYksl u;su;dka ;r flaimq;a;fha jeishkag b;d iqmqre|= foanjg m;ajS;snsKsfuzksidu tayeu u;jdohlau ms<s.kafka;ake;s"neyerlrkafka;a ke;s uOHia: pska;khlaflaimq;a;jeishka;`< iajNdjfhkau msysgd ;snqKs5 flaimq;a; .uzjeishkajQ ld,duhka laI;@sh jxYslhkanj ufkdar:mQrKS(wx.`;a;r) wgzGl:dfjz iZoykafjz lafI;@h fyj;a fL;a; hg wOsm;sj jsiQjka laI;@ShjxYslfhdah N~ush iuznJOfhka wOsm;sNdjh biQ,Qfjda laI;@sh jxYlfhdahtfukau lDIslu!h ydrdcH md,kh iuznJOfhka mrsmd, klghq;`j, ksr;jSfuz j.lSu laI;@shhkayg mejrS;snsKs6Tjqyq wdoSl,ams; uyd iuzu; rcqf.a mgka mejf;kafkda fj;sfuz uyd iuzu; rdcHFjh jkdySm@cd;ka;@dka;@jdofha uq,au wjia:dj f,i ie<lshyelshuyd iuzu; rcq m;alr.kafkauyck;dj nejskstao Tyqf.a .`KOu! yd iq|=iqluz i<ldf.kh7 nq|=kajykafia;a ld,duhkaf.a jxYhg"tkuz laI;@shjxYhg wh;a fjz. laI;@shjxYslfhda fnfyjska pska;k ksoyi yd m@cd;ka;@jdoh .rel< whfj;s8 fuzksid nq|=kajykafiald,du jeishkaf.a udkisl miqnsu ms<snZo ukd wjfndaOhlska hq;`jisgSnjfmfka tfukau fuzjxY iuznJOh ksid ld,du jeishkq;a nq|=kajykafia flfrys jevs f.#rjhlska yd wdorhlskahq;`j isgshdg ielhlake; iajNdjfhkau ;uka;`< huzlsis wvqmdvqjla ;sfnk;eke;a;d;`< tafya;`fjka jkySkudkh is;;`, ieZ.jS mj;shstfia wvqmdvqkuz ke;a;d;`, taySkudkh ke;snejska jsjD;ukilska lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj mj;Sld,duiQ;@fhys jxYfhka yd mruzmrdfjka1 ld,du iQ;@h iy pska;k ksoyi,ik;a fla. kdkdhlaldr,fn#oaO ixialD;sluOHia:dkh,keosud,,foysj,, 2001, 21 msgqj2 ld,du iQ;@h iy pska;k ksoyi,ik;a fla. kdkdhlaldr,fn#oaO ixialD;sluOHia:dkh,keosud,,foysj,, 2001, 2 msgqj3 ld,du Ou!h, nU/kafoa isrs iSj,S ysus, iuhjO!k fmd;ay,, fld<U, 1961 32 msgqj.4 tu5 tu 32-33 msg. q6 tu 31 msgqj.7 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h,n<xf.dv wdkkao ffu;@sh ysu,iuhjrAOk sfmd;ay,,fld<U,1986, 1 msgqj.8 ld,du Ou!h, nU/kafoa isrs iSj,S ysus, iuhjO!k fmd;ay,, fld<U, 1961, 31-32 msgq.
  5. 5. wdksidu jspdrmQrAjl fkdjS hula ms,sfkd.kak hhs oelafjk ioyka uZ.skao meyeos,sjkafkanq|=r|=kqf.a fulS wvqmdvq jsrys;Ndjh ;`,skau mekkeZ.`kdjQ jsjD;Ndjhhs1 ixialD;sh iudc ixorANh ;`< ls@hd;auljkakls.ixialD;sh hkak m@isoaO udkjjsoHd{fhl` jQ tvzjvz ghs,rA jsiska fufia ksrAjpkh lrkq,ensk.“Culture is that complex swhole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any othercapabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society “ ghs,rAf.a fuz bx.@SismdGfhka ixialD;sh .ek lshfjk foa f;areuz .kakg th jsNd. lrn,uq.2 ghs,rA lshk yegshg ixialD;sh hkq “ixlSrAK tallhls.3”th lE,sj,g lvd jgyd .;fkdfya.4 TzkEu cd;shl ixialD;sh jsjsO wxYj,ska hq;` ksid ta wx. tlg tlajQjsg ixlSrAKjQjla njg m;afjhs.5 ghs,rA B <Z.g ixialD;shg huz huz jsjsO fldgia we;`,;a jQnjlshhs.6oekSu jsYajdi weoys,s l,dYs,am iodpdrh kS;sh pdrs;@ jdrs;@ uska iuyr tajdh.7B <Z.g<Z.g ghs,rA ixialD;shg wh;a wjfYaI wx. w;r ukqIHhdf.a fjk;a olaI;d fyda we;slr.;amqre|= tla lrhs. by; lS oekSu wdoS wx.j,g wu;rj usksid ;ukajsiska we;slr.;a mqre|= ydoCI;d we;akuz tajdo ixialD;shg we;`,;a fjz.fuz ishZM wx. usksid jsiska my< lr.kq ,enqfjzukqIH iudcfha idudcslfhl` jYfhks.8 fn#oaO ixialD;sh .;fyd;a thg huzhuz wx. Wmdx. tlajQfha fn#oaO pska;kfha wdNdIhksidhfn#oaO pska;kh;`< Y@uK iuzm@odhi;` huzhuz .`Kdx. we;jsfYaIfhka lemS fmfkku,CIKhkajQfha lsis|= wOsldrsuhn,hla fuz;`< olakg fkdjSu;a"iudkd;au;djh ydm@cd;ka;@jdoh .relsrSu;a"udkjflaJ|@Sh yd ukqIH;ajh uQ<slfldgf.k lghq;`lsrSu;a"hklreKqhld,duiQ;@fh ys js.@yjkakdjQ b.ekajSuz ishquzj mrSCId lrne,SfuzoS uqZM ld,du iQ;@hufn#oaO ixialD;sfhys levm;la f,i .;yelsnj fmfkkq we;9 ghs,rA ixialD;shjs.@y l< wkaouksid ixialD;sl js.@yfha m@Odk wx. ;`kla biau;`fjkqwmg oel.; yelsh.bka m<uqjekak ld,h ms<snZo yeZ.Suhs.ixialD;sh tljru my<jk fohlafkdfjz. ld,dka;rhla ;siafia yev.eiafjuska tl;`fjuska h:d ;;ajhg m;a fjkakls.10fojkqjixialD;sh hkq usksid jsiska bf.k.kq ,nkakls.;ukaf.a mrsirfha cSj;ajk l`vd orejd wjgixialD;sh Wf.k.ksh.Wmam;a;sh ksidu ixialD;sh ms<snZo wjfndaOh flfkl`g fkd,efnhs.fya sth mrsirfh kau W.; hq;`h.B <Z.g jeo.;au ,CIKh kuz ixialD;sh wmf.a prAhdjka j,gu. fmkajSuhs.wm ljqre;a yeisfrkafka fuz prAhdjka wkqjh.ta prAhdjka nsys lrkqfha1 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h, n<xf.dv wdkkao ffu;@sh ysu,iuhjrAOk sfmd;ay,, fld<U, 1986, 1-3 msg. q2 uqyqo f.dv .,kafka N~;fhla ksido$ Wmd,s iurisxy, isZMusK brsod, tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 13. 02. 2005, 10 mssgqj.3 tu4 ixialD;sfhys jsfYaI wx., lUqremsgsfha wrshfiak ysus, ;rx. wxl-9, ixia n,xf.dv m@Z{djxi ysus yd;siai ldrshjiuz, wkq, uq|@Kd,h, fld<U, 1964, 64 msgqj.5 uqyqo f.dv .,kafka N~;fhla ksido$ Wmd,s iurisxy, isZMusK brsod, tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 13. 02. 2005, 10 mssgqj.6 ixialD;sfhys jsfYaI wx., lUqremsgsfha wrshfiak ysus, ;rx. wxl-9, ixia n,xf.dv m@Z{djxi ysus yd;siai ldrshjiuz, wkq, uq|@Kd,h, fld<U, 1964, 64-65 msgq.7 weoys,s yd j;a ms<sfj;a, whs. fla. fcAuzia ;rx. wxl 9, ixia. n,xf.dv m@xZ{djxi ysus yd ;siaildrshjiuz wkq, uq|@Kd,h, fld<U, 1964, 80-81 msg. q8 ixialD;sfhys jsfYaI wx., lUqremsgsfha wrshfiak ysus, ;rx. wxl-9, ixia n,xf.dv m@Z{djxi ysus yd;siai ldrshjiuz,wkq, uq|@Kd,h, fld<U, 1964, 70-71 msg. q9 ld,du iQ;@h iy pska;k ksoyi, ik;a fla. kdkhlaldr. fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh,keosud,,foysj, 2001, 3 msgqj.10 ixialD;sfhys jsfYaI wx., lUqremsgsfha wrshfiak ysus, ;rx. wxl-9, ixia. n,xf.dv m@Z{djxi ysusyd ;siai ldrshjiuz, wkq, uq|@Kd,h, fld<U, 1964, 68-69 msg. q
  6. 6. ixialD;shhs.wd.usl idr OrAu l@shd;aul lsrSfuzoS fufiayeisrsh hq;` hehs iuzu; prAhd rgdjlawe;.wm fuh Wf.k .;af;a flfiao$wfma ixialD;sh ;`,sks1 ixialD;sh ms,snZoj flgsfhka fyda hula mejiSu fuysoS jeo.;ajkqfha thl`ulaoehsjsoHd;au lj wrA:l:kh fkdfldg idudkH ckjHjydrfha we;s f;areuu.ska tayd ne|=kqYdia;@ShjsIh lreKla meyeos,s lsrSu wiSre lreKla nejsksidrOrAuhkq l`ulaoehsksishdldrfhka jgyd.ekSug kuz ixialD;shla hkqfjka yeZoskafjka fka l`ulaoehs ksishdldrjf;areuz.ekSu jeo.;ah2ld,du iQ;@h;`< .enzjkakdjQ idrOrAu ixl,amhkaf.a uQ,druzNhNdr;fha bka|=ksuzk ixialD;sfha uq,a olajdu wE;g jsysfokakla nejz fmkajd fokafka fuujsoHd;aul wrA:l:kh ;`< isgf.k lrkakdjQ Ydia;@Sh mrAfhaIKh ksis whqrska fufyhjSfuzyelshdj tuZ.ska ,efnk nejsks3 ixialD;sh .ek jsjsO ksrAjpk we;;a" myiqj ;ld ghs,rA iemhq ksorAYkhla is;;ndf.k ixialD;sh hkak fufia fldgiaj,g fnod f;areuz .;yelsh4 1. ixialD;sh hkak ta ta wx. tlg tlajS tlg neZoS mj;akd ixlSrAK tallhls 2. ixialD;sh bf.kSfuka jgyd.; hq;` fohls.ta ms<snZo wjfndaOh flfkl`g Wm;skau fkd,efnhs. tfia fyhska ixialD;sh “W.;ukd” fohls 3. ixialD;sh ld,h ;`,ska jO!khg m;a fjhs(fn#oaO ixialD;sh wjqre|= 2500lg jvd merKsh) 4. th mrsKduhg m;ajSfuzoS we;euz wx. yef,hs.fjk;a wx. iuyrjsg fjk;a ixialD;Ska ;`,ska Bg tla fjhs 5. ixfla;j;a wrA: uZ.ska ixialD;sh m@cdj;`, iuQy cSjs;fhaoS jHx.drA:j;a fjhs.thska woyia jkafkaa Tjqka tys wrA: ixfla; uZ.ska jgyd .kakd njhs flfkla u,a w;ska f.k nq|= ms<suhla fj; .ukalsrSu .;fyd;a w;ska f.khk u,a Tyq yeZo me<Zo isgsk wkaou hk .uk Tyqf.a wNsm@dh wmg wZ.jk ixfla;hkah wfma ixialD;sfha cSj;ajk TzkEu wfhl`g Tyqf.a .ufka wrA:h jegfyhs wrA:h ta ixialD;sfha cSj;ajk iEu fokd jsiskau fnod yod .ekSug mqZMjkalu f;areuz .ekSug mqZMjka lu fuys,d .efka 6. ixialD;sh lD;Huh jkakg;a mqZMjk wj-lD;Huh jkakg;a mqZMjk ta lshkafka ixialD;sfha wx.hka l@shdjg kef.k jsg bka iudcuh rgdj Yla;su;ajkakg;a bv we;iudc rgdjg ydks jkakg;a bv we; wms ishZM fokdu tl ;ekl ysZo Ndjkd lruq fuz Ndjkdfjka wfma lKavdhu w;r iuznkaO;dj ;j ;j;a ;yjqre jkq we; lD;Huh jYfhka th jev odhlh wfma lKavdh fuz yeZ.Suz iuyrjsg uska ;yjqre jqj;a u;ameka mdkh lsrSu ksid iudchg b;d ydkslr ;;ajhla u;`jkq fkdwkqudkhth wjlD;Huh tlla yegshg wms yZ|=kajuq mqZM,a wre;lska .;fyd;a iudchl ukqIHhd ms<snZo Tjqkaf.a prAhdrgdj ( yeisrSfuzms,sfj<) yd iuznkaO ,sLs;^w,sLs; iEu fohlau ixialD;shg wh;a fjzrgl ,sLs;^w,sLs;idys;Hh (ck Y@e;s) l,dYs,am uQrA;s jsYajdi weoys,s wd.uz pdrs;@ jdrs;@ wNspdrjsOs yd hd;`lrAu1 Religious,Values and Peak Experience,H.Abraham Maslow,Penguine,1970.2 ,, Do ,, .3 ffjosl hq.fhka fn#oaO hq.hg"jehsfyafka mZ{aZ{df,dal ysus"weuzvS.`Kfiak iyiud.u"fld<U"1964"1-8 msgq4 Primitive Culture,E.B.Tylor,John Murry,1871.ghs,r Ata ta iudcj, olakg ;snQ jsoHd;aul oshqKqjgwkql~,j mrsKduSh pska;kh yev.efiknj jsYajdi lf<ah. TzkEu ixialD;shl wjsoHd;aul,CIKj,ska tu ixialD;shg .efkk cj;djf.a isl`uzme;`uzj, uq.aOnjo m@lgjkafka hehs olajhs. huzixialD;shla oshqKq hehs ms<s.ekSug n,mdkqfha ck;djf.a ;rAldkQl~, nqoaOshhs.w;drAlsl wjsoHd;aulis;`uz me;`uz;`,ska nsys jkqfhao fkdoshqKq ;dCIKsl Ys,aml@uhs.kj mrsKdujdoS pska;kh js.@ylsrSuiZoyd ghs,rA jsiska yZ|=kajdfokq ,enQ ixl,am folls.tkuz ixikaokd;aul l@uh(Comparative method)yd ixialD;sl meje;au (Cultural Survival).
  7. 7. we|=uz me<|=uz wdNrK yd |@jHd;aul ixialD;sl ;;ajh iudc ixia:d yd wdh;k wdoS iEufohlau ixialD;sfha fldgia f,i .; yelsh1 ixialD;sh lshkafka rcjrekaf.a cSjkrgdj muKla fkdjknj uska f;areuz.; yelshck;dj f.au cSj;ajk rgdj fyda fudaia;rh ixialD;sh jkafkah iuyr jsg wfma rfgzixialD;sh .ek l:dlrkjsg iS.srs ps;@ nq|= ms<su wkqrdOmqr fmdf<dkakre kgnqka fmryerj,awdoshmuKla ixialD;sh hehs weZ.fjhs “ixialD;sl ;@sfldaKh” hk jpkfhka fldgq lrk ,owfma merKs |@jHd;aul ixialD;sfha ksrAudK yd kgnqka ;ju;a olakg ,efnk m@foaYhhsixialD;sh lshkafka merKs iudcfhka b;srsjQ ksrAudK yd kgnqka hk wrA:h fu;ekoS biau;`fjhs kuq;a we;a; jYfhkau ixialD;sfha cSjudk me;a; usksiqka cSj;ajk rgdj uSg jvdjeo.;a ixialD;sl wx.hls2 merKs |@jHd;aul ixialD;sh merKs usksiqkaf.a Wkqkqka w;r mej;s iuznkaO;dfudkjdoehs wmg lshd fohs ta b;srs jQ ixialD;sl odhdofhka merKs usksiqka .ek bf.k .ksuqwo cSj;ajk wm yd merKs usksiqka w;r iuznkaO;dj we;s lrkafka Tjqka b;srs fldg .sh ta|@jHuh ixialD;shhs tajd ixialD;sfha fldgia nj ienEh kuq;a ixialD;sh Bg jvd m<,awrA:hla we;a;ls iudchl usksid cSj;ajk iuzmQrAK rgdju ixialD;sh jYfhka .efka3 ixialD;sh jgyd .ekSug ;j;a fydZo udrA.hla kuz ixialD;shg wh;a fkdjkafkal`ulaoehs jgyd .ekSuhs ixialD;sh .ek mj;akd m@Odk jeros u; folla fuysoS oelajSu b;djeo.;a fjz bka m<uqjekak kuz ixialD;sh hkq Wiia iudcfha lSm fofkl`g wh;a fydanqoaOsu;`ka fyda ishquz l,d ridiajdoh yd iuznkaO fohla hehs l,amkd lsrSuh ixialD;sh f,dl`usksiqkag fyda ;shqKq risl yeZ.Suz we;s usksiqkag muKla wh;a fohla fkdfjz fuz iuZ.uixialD;sh hkq iudchla i;` iEu fohlau wvx.` fohlehs is;Suo jerosh we;a; jYfhkauixialD;sh tla;rd wkaoul oekSu yd jsYajdi moaO;shls4 ixialD;sh fuz wkaoug n,kjsg fldgia ;`klg fnod f;areuz .; yelshtkuz 1. w;aoelSuz yd සාරධර්ම u; nsysjQ ixialD;sh(Culture of Values) 2. l,d risl;ajh u; nsysjQ ixialD;sh(Culture of Arts) 3. පතිමානක ixialD;sh(Culture of Norms) hkqfjks uska m<uqjekak jk w;aoelSuz u; nsysjQ ixialD;sh wmg wfma mrsirh ydiliajk l@uwe;`,;a keK kqjK f.kjs;a fohsfu;a;d ixl,amh Bg fydZo ksorAYkhls.wkdrAh ixialD;sh;`, ishZM iFj j.!hd jsIfhys i;r n@yujsyrKh mokuz lrf.k fu;a;d iy.;j l@shdl<iudc hka;@K hla mej;sksiudcfhys jsiQ iEu ;rd;srlu ck;dj b;d iuZ.s iuzmkakjl@shdl< nejska Tjqka w;r wNHka;r wdrjq,a fkdjshfuz ;Fjh wdrAhhkag wkdrAh ixialD;shwdl@uKh lsrSug f,dl` myiqjla yd jdishla jQ w;r wjidkfhys wkdrAh ixialD;sh mSvdjgm;afldg ish n@yauK pska;k h Ndr;h mqrd m;``rjd yerSugo th rel`,la jsksY@uKiuzm@odhg miqnsuz jQfha wkdrAh ixialD;sh jQ fyhska wkdrAh ixialD;sfhys .enzjQ fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdIh Y@uK iuzm@odhhg fkduZoj ,ensks tu iuzm@odh i;` huz huz wx. ndysr wkqldrlhka jYfhka miql,l wdrAh ixialD;sh mokuzlr.;a n@yauK iuzm@odh jsiskao wkq.ukh lrkq ,enqj;a tajdfhys ienE wka;rA.;h lsisosfkln@yauK iuzm@odhg Wlyd.k fkdyels jQfha wdrAh ixialD;sh uqZM ukskau ffjrh >d;khmokuz lr.;a;la nejskswdrAhhka hqoaOh wdl@uKh uxfld,a,lEu m@pKav yd ieyeisl@shd1 ixialD;sfhys jsfYaI wx. lUqremsgsfha wrshfiak ysu,;rx.-9, ixia. n,xf.dv m@Z{djxi ysus yd ;siai sldrshjiuz,wkq, uQ|@Kd,h,fld<U,1964, 65 msgqj.2 wkqrdOmqr hq.fha fi,a,smsj,ska fy<sjk iudc f;dr;`re, wdrA. nS. Tosrsisxy,nodod w;sfrAlhosjhsk,Wmd,s m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 17.03 .1999, 17 msgqj.3 rsgs., jk wrK,iqiSud m@fndaOsk,fmfrArd nodod w;sfrAlh,osjhsk Wmd,s m@jD;a;sm;@ Siud.u,fld<U,26. 02. 2003, 1 msgqj.4 Ydia;@Sh jsjsO;ajhg wdjvuq, laf,davz @en@sisfhda (l`rshrA iZ.rdfjka Wmqgd .ekqkls),isZMusKbrsod,tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 20. 02 .2005, 60 msgqj.
  8. 8. Ndjs;hg .ksuska wkdrAhhka uZvskq,enQ nejsksn@dysuK iuzm@odh;`,o ms<snsUqjQfha wdrAhhkaf.afuu ldhsl yd udkisl jYfhka wkHhka fm<Sfuz ;;ajhhsldhsl mCIfhka fuu fm<Sfuzl@shdj,sh wd.usl uqyqKqj rska hd.h f,io udkisl mCIfhka fuu fm<Sfuz l@shdj,sh wd.usluqyqKqjrska wOsldrSuh pska;k h f,io wrA: oelajsKjrA;udk f.d,ShlrK l@shdj,sh;`,oksrAudKjdoh mokuzlr.;a pska;k wOsldrsh yd fya;`M,Ou!h mokuzlr.;a ksoyia pska;khw;r we;s jsjsO fjkialuz th ukdj wOHhkh lsrSu uZ.ska wmg jgyd .; yelsh1 tys සාරධර්ම jYfhka oelafjkafka ixialD;sh;`< wvx.` mdruzmrsl jsYajdi yd l`i,;df.dkak la mrmqfrka mrmqrg fkdkeiS yd fjkiafjuska meusKSuhs2fn#oaO ixialD;sh;`< wvx.`oekqu yd l`i,;djhka f.dkak yqfola mdruzmrsl muKlajQjlafkdjknejskatyshuz jsYajjShnjlaolakg ,efnzksoiqkla jYfhka ld,du iQ;@fhys wvx.` b.ekajuz flfrka jsYo flfrkakdjQ Sසාරධර්මhkays cd;s wd.uz l`, wdoS lsis|= iSudjlg fldgqfkdjkakdjQ iEufokdgu fmd|=fjzl@shd;aul lr hym;a M, fk,d.;yels wdldrfha b.ekajSula wka;rA.;h3 risl;ajh ms<snZo ixialD;sh ksid wfma l,d lD;s ljs isx|= kdgH idys;H leghuz uQrA;s wdoSjsjsO l,djka nsys fjz Y@S rdyq, ysushkaf.a ljS;ajh .ek l:dlrkjsg ck ljs .ek lshkjsgrisl;ajh ms<snZo ixialD;sh wmg isysfjhs4 ;`kafjkqj m@;sudk ixialD;sh kuz wmg‘fydZo’‘krl’.ek ta ms<snZo kS;srS;s prAhdjsOs lshdfok ixialD;shhsTzkEu ixialD;shl funZ|= fydZo krl lshdoSfuz l@u we; OrAu;d .ek Tngl,ska lSfjuq wm tla;rd wjia:djloS yeisrsh hq;` ms<sfj< OrAu;dj,ska ( m@;sudk; Norms )meyeos,s fjz fuz iudcSh OrAu;d (m@;sudk).ek m@lg udkj jsoHdZ{fhlajk f.@yeuziuzkrA“Folk Ways”(ck prAhd)hkkuska .@J:hla rpkd lf<ah “MORES” hk kuska yZ|=kajkq ,enQ fuz ckprAhdiudcfha OrAu;d (m@;sudk) wmg fufia yeisrSu hym;ah fufia yeisrSu whym;a hehs lshd fohsOrAu;d (m@;sudk) yereKqjsg wmg wfma cSjs;fhaoS‘fydZo’ ‘krl’lshd wfma prAhdrgdj iudchgwjYHlrk uZ.g fhduq lrk ;j;a wx. we; tajd .ek wmg miqj W.;yel fuysoSwjYHjkafka by; lS wx. ;`fkka ixialD;shla iukajs; jk nejz jgyd .ekSuh5 ;ukaf.a Yla;sh wkH ixialD;Skag jvd Wiia hehs ie,lSu iuyrekaf.a isrs;ls funZ|=;elSulg iudc jsoHdj fyda udkj jsoHdj bv fkdfohsta ta ixialD;s jsjOFjfhka tlsfkldfjkiaj mj;shs ;ukaf.a ixialD;sh muKla Wiiah is;d lghq;` lsrSu udkjflaJ|@Kjdoh(ETHNIOCENTRISM) jYfhka yZ|=kajkq ,efnz ;j;a ixialD;shla fyda tys wx.foi n,k wm taixialD;sh fyda hglSwx. my;a tajd f,i i,lkafka kuz wm udkj flaJ|@KjdoSka njgm;afjhs uska W.ekafjkafka lsishuz ixialD;shla ;j;a tllg l`ukdldr fhka fyda fjkiajSuusi Wiia fyda my;a f,i uqZMukskau ms<s.ekSu lsisfia;a l< fkdyels njhs6 ixialD;sh ks;r fjkia fjhs.wkqrdOmqr ld,fha wmg ;snQ ixialD;sh fmdf<dkakrehq.hjk jsg iEfyk f,i fjkiajsh7wo mj;akd ixialD;sh 19jk ishjfia wmg ;snQ ixialD;sfha1 ikaksfjzok f.da,ShlrKh, iuka; fyar;a, Ydia;@Sh, isZMusK brsod, tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u,fld<U,27 02. 2005, 57 msgqj.2 cela,df.a jsixfhdackh, k,Ska iajdrsi, l;sld ixjdo irKsh,oskusK,tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ aiud.u,fld<U 26. 02. 2005, 17 msgqj.3 ld,duiQ;@h iy pska;k ksoyi"ik;a flakdkdhlaldr"fn#oaO ixialD;sluOHia:dkh"keosud,"foysj," 2001" 4 msgqj4 .srd ixfoaY jsjrKh"ixZ{dmkh"l`ur;`Z.` uqksoiqka"fla tawdrshodi iy iud.u"fld<U"2506"2-22msgq5 iudc jsoHdj"iqjskS;d .`Kfialr"fld<U"1982" 3-8 msgq6 Sociology and Religion,Max Waber,London,1976,p.47 isxy, idys;Hfha iuzNjhg ;`vq|=ka we;euz fya;`"yqkaosrdfmd, r;kfcda;s ysus";rx."ixia f;rsmeyefidaudkkao ysus"jrosfj, foajtlaLs; ysus yd vnz,shq mS fiakdkdhl"wkq, uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1962"26msgqj
  9. 9. m@Odk ,CIKhhs.1th ljodj;a tlu ;ekl tlu wdldrhlska rZod fkdmj;shs f,dalfha iEuixialD;shla u fufia fjkilg Ndckh jQ Ndckhfjuska mj;sk wkd.;fhaoSo fjkia jkakdjQfoa fj;s fufia fjkia jSfuzoS wkH ixialD;s j,ska huz huz foa Wlyd .ekSu yd tajd wfmaixialD;shg m@fjzYlr .ekSu idudkH ,CIKhhs2 wkqrdOmqr ixialD;sfha iuyrjsg m@lgj fkdfmfkk yska|= fojsfoaj;djka ms<snZo jsYajdifmdf<dkakre hq.fha olakg ,efnhs yska|= fojs foaj;djka ms<snZo fuz weoys,s jsYajdi fldagzfgzhq.fhaoS o fld;ruz m@n,jSo hkak ta weoys,s jsYajdij,g m@n, f,i myr fouzka rps; nq|=.`Kd,xldrh jeks .@ka:hlska fmfkafuz weoys,s jsYajdi wmg wdfjzz fld;kskao$ yska|= ixialD;sfhawe;s jsIaKq BYajr ld,s jeks fojsfoaj;djqka wo wfmau fojsjrekanjg m;ajSwe; wfma mkai,aj,fuz fojs jrekaf.a foajd, we; yska|= ixialD;sfha wx. wfma ixialD;shg tl;`jQ yegs uska jgyd.; yelsh3 jsjsO ixialD;Skaf.ka meusfKk huzhuzwx. ;j;a ixialD;Ska;`,g we;`ZMjS taixialD;Skays uq,a nei .;a wx. njg m;ajSu idudkH OrAu;djls4 iudc jsoHdj ixialD;Ska;`< mj;akd iqjsfYaIdx. ;`kla .ek iZoyka lrhswdjD; jsjD;yd |@jHd;aul wx. yegshg y|=kajk fuz ;`k .ekoek.ekSu wmg jeo.;ahwdjD;(COVERT)ixialD;sh hkq ixialD;shl mj;akd woyia jsYajdi mqreIdrA:(idr Ou!)wdl,amhkdosh yd iuznJO jQ prAhdj kah5fuz prAhdjkawkqj lghq;` lrk wdldrh wmg jsjD;jfkdfmfkahuzlsis wiykhg m;ajQfjl` foajrEmhla ,Z. ksYaYnzoj hosk whqre is;uq taixialD;sh .ek fkdo;a wfhl`g fudyq fmfkkafka flfiao$ Tyqf.a isf;a we;s |=l ta |=lke;slr.kak Tyq lrk wdhdpkh fojshka ms<snZo Tyqf.a yeZ.Su fuz ish,a, wdjD; ixialD;s hl,CIKh Tyqf.a yeisrSuz rgdfjz wrA:h Tyq lshk fohska Tyqf.a l@shdj,ska fyda Tyq i;`fuj,uzj,ska jgyd .ekSu wiSreh6 ixialD;sfha fuz wdjD; iajNdjh f;areuz .ekSug kuz wm l,ska lSjdfia ta ixialD;sfhamj;akd 1 woyia (Conceptions) 2 jsYajdi(Cocksure) weoys,s(Belief) 3 idr OrAu(Values) 4 wdl,am (Attitudes) 5 iodpdrd;aul Ndjh(Morality) 6 m@;sudk (OrAu;d;Norms) ukdj wjfndaO lr.; hq;`h7 fuzjd jgyd.;a jsg ta ixialD;sfha cSj;ajk whf.a prAhdj ms<snZo wdjD; iajNdjhfmfkakg mgka .kshsidrOrAu ms<snZoj is|=flfrka kdjQ wOHhkhkaysoS ixialD;sfhys jsjsOme;slv ms<snZoj ukdj wjfndaOfldg ;snsh hq;`h.tjsg huz lsis idrOrAu ixl,amhl fydaixl,amhka lSmhl n,mEu ixialD;sl fCIa;@fhys flfia jHdma;j mj;skafkaoehs mqZM,a jYfhkahuzlsis ks.ukhlg meusKSug th jsYd, myiqjla fjhs.jsfYaIfhka ld,duiQ;@.; idrOrAums<snZoj fuysoS wOHhkh flfrk ksid thska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ idrOrAu uZ.ska Y@uK1 jsoHdfjz yd ixialD;sfh jsfhda.h"ng@kavz ri,a (l`rshrA iZ.rdfjka Wmqgd .ekqkls)"Ydia;@Sh"brsodisZMusK" tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"06 02 2005" 57 msgqj2 nq|= ms<sufha wisrsh,vnz,sjz.tuz.mS.nS jsfcAfldak,Ydia;@Sh,brsod isZMusK,tlai;a m@jD;a;m;@ aiud.u,fld<U,06. 02. 2005, 57 msgqj.3 ,xld b;sydih,cS. iS. Uekaosia, iSudiys; fld<U wefmd;slrSia iud.u,fld<U,1959,82-85 msg. q4 ixialD;sl .egSu yd uOHu mka;sl nqoaOsh,wurodi jSrisxy,;rx.,ixia.f;rsmeye fidaudkkaoysus,jrosfj, foajrlaLs; ysus yd vnz,sh.mS.fiakdkdhl,wkq, uq|@Kd,h,fld<U,62-84 msgq. q5 idulduS cSjs;hlg wjYH uqo,ao$ iqks,a udOj,isZMusK brsod,t;ai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U,27.02.2005, 14 msgqj.6 .@yfhda iy usksiai,c.;a udrisxy,isZMusK brsod,tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U,27.02.2005,11msgqj.7 Sociological Perspective,Elychinoy,New York,1968,p 7.
  10. 10. ixialD;sfhys l`uk wkHkH;dj hla ms<snsUq flfrkafkaoehs jgyd .ekSug fuuZ.ska jsYd,myiqjla ie,fihs. ld,duiQ;@h hkq Y@uK ixialD;sh ms<snsUq flfrk Y@uK ixialD;sfhysu lsishuz wlD;shlajeks h.tys .enzjQ ishZMu idrOrAu ksoyia pska;kh mdol lrf.k bosrsm;a fldg ;snSu uZ.skaY@uK iuzm@odfhys flaJ|@Sh mrudorAYh n@dyauK pska;k wOsldrfhka usoSu uQrA;su;a lr olajhs.n@dyauK iuzm@odh pska;k wOsldrh mrudorAYh lrf.k mej;s w;r Y@uK iuzm@odhmrudorAYh lrf.k ;snqfka psska;k ksoyi nejsks tnejska n@dyauK iuzm@odh uZ.ska bosrsm;alrkq ,enqjdjQ ishZMu idr OrAu Tjqka jsiska bosrsm;a lrkq ,enqfjz fuu pska;k wOsldrh mdollrf.kh.thg iudka;rj Y@uK iuzm@odh uZ.ska bosrsm;a lrkq ,enqjdjQ ishZMu idrOrAu Tjqkajsiska bosrs.ka lrkq ,enqfjz ksoyia pska;kh mdol lrf.kh. fuu wOHhkh uZ.ska W;aiy .efkkafka Y@uK iuzm@odh uZ.ska bosrsm;a lrkq ,enQ idrOrAupska;k ksoyi mdol lrf.k ld,duiQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a jS we;s wdldrh ms<snZo mqZM,a js.@yhlais|= lsrSuhs.ta iZoyd ixialD;sfhys jsjsO me;slv ms<snZo idlpzPd lsrSu w;HjYH fohlsixialD;sfhys jsjsO jQ me;slv ms<snZoj idlpzPd lsrSu uZ.ska Y@uK ixialD;sh;a ld,duiQ;@huZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ idrOrAu;a tlsfkl flfia ;`,kh jkafkaoehs wjfndaOlr.ekSumyiq jkafkah.Y@uK ixialD;sh ;`< .enzj we;a;djQ idrOrAuhkays uQ<sl wdlD;shlald,duiQ;@fhys .enzjk nj fmkajd oSu fuys wruqKhs.Y@uK iuzm@odh;`< .enzjk idrOrAu ;ald,duiQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ idrOrAu;a tlla jk muKg iudc jsoHd;aulixorANfhka fuys we;s jgskdlu f;reuz .ekSug funZ|= ;`,kd;aul wOHhkhla is|=lsrSuw;HjYH jQjls. ‘jsjD; ixialD;sh’ f;areuz .ekSu t;ruz wudre ke;iudc iuznJO;dj, oDYHudk wx.foi ne,Sfuka fuh jgyd .; yelsh iudc jsoHdkQl~,kuz ;Fjh ldrAhh Ndrh OrAu;d ydixia:d foi ne,Sfuka jsjD; prAhdjka wjfndaOlr .ekSug mqZMjka fjhs1 usksiqka tlsfkld yuqjkjsg ta whf.a ;Jjhka iuznJO;d ms<snZoj n,mdhs‘;;a;ajh’ fyda‘;rd;sru’ ta weZo me<Zo we;s iegsfhka lrk jevj,ska yeisfrk iegsfhka jgyd.;yelsh;;a;ajh fyda ;rd;sru ta whg iudcfha ysus;ek ,nk f.#rjh lSrA;s m@idoh lshdfohs ta ta;;a;ajhkag iudcfha jsjsOmdrsf;daIK ,efnzmdrsf;daIK (Reward) hkako fuu ;;ajh yd;rd;sru ms<snZo ju jQjlsusksiqkaf.a ishZM yeisrSuz yd iuzm@odhka wkHhkaf.aa ;;a;ajh ydiuznJO fjhs ussksiqka wkHhka flfrys olajk iuznJO;djka ;SrKh lrkq ,nkafka fuz;;a;ajh fyda ;rd;sru uZ.sks |@jHuh yd |@jHuh fkdjk jrm@ido lsishuz flfkl`g ,efnkafkafuz ;;a;ajh ksidh fuz ;;a;ajh <Z.g ixialD;sfha ldrAh Ndrh (Role) jeo.;afjz.`rejrfhla fyda,smslrefjla fyda uka;@Sjrfhla .;fyd;a tlS .`rejrhd ,smslrejd uka;@Sjrhd i;` tla;rdldrAhNdrhla fjhsljqreka ,smslrejd .`rejrhd uka;@sjrhdjQj;a fuz ldrAhNdrh ta .`rejrhdg,smslrejdg uka;@Sjrhdg tl yd iudkhf.orl jqjo fuu iajNdjh oel.; yelsh tysiajdusmqreIhd nsrsZo orejd i;` ldrAh Ndrhla fjhs2 nq|=kajykafiaf.a foaYkd w;r iajdusmqreIhdf.a ldrAhNdrh jsfYaI wx.lSmhlska jsia;rlrkq,efnz iajdusmqreIhd nsrsog lreKdjka; jshhq;`hwjZ{dfkdl< hq;`hwehg wjxljshhq;`h fjk;a ia;@Ska fkdme;sh hq;`hf.or fodr iajduS;ajh wehg ,ndosh hq;`hwehg wjYHweZ|=uz me<Z|=uz wdNrK wdosh iemhsh hq;`h fuz ish,a, iajduzmqreIhdf.a ldrAhNdrh wmgfmkajdfok w;r nsrsZol f.a ldrAhNdrh fufia jsia;r fjz nsrsZo ksjfia lghq;` ukdjixjsOdkh l< hq;`hiajdusmqreIhdf.a Z{d;Skag fydZoska ie,lshhq;`hs iajdusmqreIhdgසudc jsoHdj,iqjskS;d .`Kfialr,fld<U,1994,4 msgqj.1iudc jsoHdj,iqjskS;d .`Kfialr,fld<U,1994,7 msgqj.2
  11. 11. wjxljshhq;`hs(fjk;a iajdusmqreIfhla fkdme;Su) iajdusmqreIhdf.a Okh wdrCIdl<hq;`hsl@shdYS,Sj wk,iaj lghq;` l,hq;`hs1 iajdusmqreIhdf.a yd nsrsZof.a ‘ldrAhNdrh’ ukdj Tng uska jegfyhs orefjl`f.aldrAhNdrh o foudmshka yd orejka w;r iuznJO;d .ek ie,lSfuzoS fufia f;areuz .kq ,efnhsorejd ;u foudmshka fmdaIKhl< hq;`hsfoudmshka fjkqfjka bgql< hq;` j;dj;a bgql< hq;`hmruzmrdj f.k hdug ;udf.ao orejka we;sl< hq;`h foudmshka i;` foam< kv;a;` whs;slr.ekSfuzoS hym;a udrA.hla wkq.ukh l< hq;`h foudmsh wdoSka ush.shdg miq l<hq;`j;ams<sfj;a bIaGl< hq;`h2 nq|=iufha n,mEu ksid iudc iuznJO;d ;`< mj;akd ‘ldrAhNdrhka’b;d meyeos,sj ydir,j wE; w;S;fha isgu js.@ylrk ,oSwfma iudch hym;a iudchla jQfha iudcfhaa cSj;ajkusksiqka fuzjsjsO ldrAh Ndrhka yrsyegs yZ|=kdf.k cSj;ajSug jEhuz lsrSu ksidh ldrAhNdrhkayrsyegs bIaGlf<d;a bka ,efnk mdrsf;daIK w;r fuz cSjs;h yd iuznJO |@jHuh yd |@jHuhfkdjk mdrsf;daIKo urKskau;` hym;a cSjs;hla ,enSu ms<snZo mdrsf;daIKo fjhs3 jsjD; prAhdj jsoydmdk B<Z. ,CIKh OrAu;dhs(NORMS) hkq wfmaCIs; yeisrSuz rgdOrAu;d j,shhs mkai,lg hkjsg mdjyka .,jhs.Wps;f,i ierfihsyeisfrhsfufia tla;rdwfmaCIs; wkaouska yeisrSu ‘OrAu;d’ wkq.ukh lsrSuls funZ|= ta ta wjia:djkaysoS wfma yeisrSuzrgdj wfmaCIdlrK OrAu;d ke;sj wmg iudchla f.khd fkdyel iudc ixia:dhkq B <Z.g iudcfha jsjD; prAhdjka wmg fmkajdfok wx.hls iudcfhajsjsO mrudrA: bIaGlr .ekSug usksiqka jsiska fuz iudc ixia:d f.dvk.kq ,efnzukqIHhd ;`<uQ<sl wjYH;d /ila we; tajd bIaG lr.ekSfuz mrudrA:fhka iudc ixia:d f.dv kefZ.a mjq,wOHdmk ixia:dj wdrA:sl ixia:dj wd.usl ixia:dj yd foaYmd,k ixia:dj ukqIHhd jsiskaf.dv kZ.k iudc ixia:d myhsld,duiQ;@h ;`, fmkajdfokq ,nkafka b;d udkqIsl mokulau; msysgd isg fuu iudc ixia:d my iuZ. jsOsu;aj fukau ksjerosj wka;rAl@shd lrkdldrhfjz ukqIH iuznJO;d fuz iudc ixia:d ;`<ska m@lg jkafkahmjq,a ixia:dj ksoiqkla fldg.;yelshth ;`<ska msrsushd .eyeKsh w;r iuznJO;dj Z{d;Ska yd mjq, w;r iuznJO;djnsrsZo yd ieushd w;r iuznJO;dj orejka yd foudmshka w;r iuznJO;dj Z{d;Ska yd mjq,w;r iuznJO;d j jrA.h l`,h cd;sh yd mjq, w;r iuznJO;dj wdoS ixlSrAK iuznJO;drdYshla f.dvkefZ.a4 |@jHuh ixialD;sh hkq ixialD;sh yd iuznJO jQ |@jHuh foaj,a ms<snZo tl;` lr.;aoekquhs ukqIHhd f.a weZ|=uz me<|=uz fuj,uz WmlrK f.a fodr .DyNdKav ;dCIKsl WmlrKl,dYs,am idys;Hh hka;@iQ;@ wdoS yeu fohlau ms<snZo oekSu |@jHuh ixialD;shg wh;a jkafkahhf:dala; oekSfuka f;drjQ ta |@jHuh NdKavh muKla ixialD;sh f,i fkd.efkawE; w;S;fhacSj;ajQ wo olakg fkd,efnk usksia fldgif.a Yla;sh wm jsiska f.dv kZ.kq ,nkafka taixialD;sfhka wo wmg b;srsjQ |@jHuh fldgia wdY@fhksiuyrjsg tawh .,a.`ydj, wekaops;@hla folla wmg yuqjkqwe; ta whf.a wdydrmdk msikakg fhdod.;a Ndckj, kIaGdjfYaItlla folla mqrdjsoHd leKSuzj,oS fidhd.kakg mqZMjkfuz wdldrfhka ta w;S; ixialD;sh tn|=ixialD;shla Wreu lr.;a mqoa.,hka mrsyrKh l< |@jHuh ixialD;sl fuj,uz NdKav ;`<skaf.dv kZ.d .;yelsh ta |@jHuh fuj,uz NdKav wdoS ish,a, |@jHuh ixialD;sfha fldgiayegshg i,lkq ,efnz51 oS. ks. 3 is.d,l iq;a;,nq.c.uq.,308 msgqj.ud;d ms;d osid mqnznd wdprshd olaLsKd osid mq;a;odrd osidmpzPd us;a;dupzpd p W;a;rd odi luzuldrd fhgzGd WoaIx iuKn@dyauKd t;d osid kuiafihHw,u;af;d l`f, .syS2 oS. ks. 3 isZ.d,l iq;a;,nq.c.uq, 302 msgqj.l:Z{ap .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjfld Poaosid mgspzPdoS fyd;s3 oS. ks. 3 isZ.d,l iq;a;, nq.c.uq,290 msgqj.hf;d fLd .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjliai p;a;dfrd luzulsf,id mySKd fydka;s pl~ys Gfkys mdmx luzux k lfrd;s P p fYd.dkx wmdh uqLdks k fij;s fidtjx pqoaoimdmldm.f;d Poaosid mgspzPdos WNh f,dl jschdh mgsmkafkd fyd;ss fyd;4 oS. ks. 3 is.d,l iq;a;, nq. c. uq, 302-308 msgq5 ixialD;sfhys jsfYaI wx.,lUqremsgsfha wrshfiak ysus,;rx.,ixia.n,xf.dv m@Z{djxi ysus yd ;siaildrshjiuz"wkq, uq|@Kd,h"fld<U1964 67 msgqj
  12. 12. |@jHuh ixialD;sh .ek l;d lrkjsg huz huz fidhd .ekSuz(DISCOVERY).ek wu;ll< fkdfya m<uqfjkau .skaor fidhd .ekSu b;d jeo.;a fidhd .ekSuls |@jHuh ixialD;sh(oekSu) .skaor fidhd .ekSu ksid mshjr lSmhla bosrshg .sfhah iudcfha mj;akd fohla h<su;` fldg w,q;a jsosyg wrA:j;a lr.ekSu fun|= fidhd.ekSuz jYfhka i,lkq ,efnzksmojSuz(Inventions) hkq mj;akd fohla fufia my< lr .ekSug jvd w,q;ska hula ksrAudKh lr.ekSuhksmojSuz yd fidhd .ekSuz ksid usksia ixialD;ska n,j;a fjkialuzj,g Ndckh fjuskabosrshg hk wdldrh ukdj jgyd .kakg mqZMjk1 ixialD;sh fmd|=jYfhka .;ajsg ;@sjsO ldrAhdj,shla bIaGlrhs m<uq fjkau ixialD;shukqIHhdg ;udf.a mrsirhg wkqj iliajkakg bv,ndfohs jrAIdj fkdue;s ld,fha c,h ,nd.kakg wfma me/kafkda jsYd, jejz ;ekQy ta jejz j,ska ,enqk c,fhka jrAIdj fkdue;s ld,fhalDIslrAudka;fhys fh|=ky Tjqka mrsirhg wkqj iliajQ yegs jejz j,ska msrS.sh wE; w;S;fhaixialD;sh n,kjsg fmfka2 ixialD;sfha fofjks ldrAhh ukqIHhdg wkH ukqIHhka yd iqjfia cSj;ajSug WmdhudrA.yd l@u ilialroSuhs usksyd .eyeksh jsjdyh yd mjq, jeks ixialD;sl Wml@u uZ.ska tl;`jSu.ek is;d n,kak m@ckk wdYdj h:dldrfhka l@uj;aj l@shdjg keZ.Sug;a bka nsysjk orejkaksis whqreka fmdaIKhfldg jevs oshqKqlsrSug;a wdrCIdj fyda iqrCIs;nj mjq, yd jsjdyWml@u uZ.ska ukqIHhdg ,efnz3fuz ldrAhh jvd;a jsOsu;a whqrska bgqlr .ekSu msKsi mjq,keue;s l`vdu iudc ixia:dj ilialrf.k ;sfnz. ixialD;sfha ;`kafjks ldrAhh ;udfkdokakd f,dalhla .ek ukqIHhd jsYajdi yd weoys,suZ.ska ms<sfh, lsrSuhs cSj;aj isgshoS;a uereKdg miq;a ush.sh wh yd iuznJOjk ukqIHhdfkdokakd f,dalhla we; iqj lrkakg ners wikSmhla ye|=Kqjsg wm lrkafka l`ulao$huzlsisweoys,s jsYajdi u; msysgd lghq;` lsrSuh uska wmg ,efnk iekiSu yd ;Dma;sh b;d jsYd,hurKh hkq l`ulaoehs okakd lsisfjla wmw;r ke; i;ajhdg urKnsh yd iudk ;j;anshlakuz ke;af;ahkuq;a wd.u yd iuznJOjQ fuz weoys,s jsYajdi ;`<ska urKhg we;s nshiEfyk |=rlg ;`rkajS cSjs;hg uqyK fokakg wmg bv,efnz‘wd.u’ixialD;sh jsiska we;slrkqtla;rd ixia:djls4 fn#oaOixialD;sh.ek mfhH!IKfhys fhfok jsoHdrA:Ska jsiska jsjsOixialD;s (CounterCulture) ms,snZo ;`<kd;aulj yeoErSu w.hlrkq,efnz huzlsis ixialD;shl cSj;ajkakdjQmsrsila m@Odk ixialD;shg wkql~,;dj fkdolajuska tla;rd wiykhla ksid ta ixialD;shgm@;sjsreoaO ixialD;sh la wkqu; lrkqfka kuz ta msrsi jsfrdaO ixialD;shla we;a;ka njg1 fuz m@;sixialrKj,g ienE lrA;D flfkla TzkE"YIS m@Nd;a rKisxy"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusKtlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"26 02 2005" 17 msgqj2 wkqrdOmqr hq.fha fi,a ,smsj,ska fy,sjk iudc f;dr;`re"wdrA nS tosrsisxy"nododw;sfrAlh"osjhsk"Wmd,s m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"17 03 1999"17 msgqj3 oS. ks. 3"w.a.Z{aZ{ iq;a;"nq c uq"158-160 msgq fu:qkx Ouzux iudodh jsiqx luzukaf; mfhdfck;S;sfLd jdfigzGd fjiaid fjiaidfFjj wlaLrx Wmksnzn;a;x4 Magic Science Religion and Other Essays,Bronislaw Malinowsi,London,Oxford Press,1948.fuu.@J:fhys wd.u wNspdr iy mqrdjD;a; ms<snZo udkj jsoHd;aul woyia wka;rA.;hCoral Garden andtheir Magic : A Study of the methods billing the Soil and of Agricultural Rites in the TrobiandIsland,Bronislaw Malinowsi,New York,American book Co.,1935.wd.u ue,sfkdjqialsf.a js.@yhgfhduqjQfha wd.fuz cSjs;h yd iuznJO iqjsfYaIs wjia:djka wkqidrfhksfuu iqjsfYaIS wxY wd.uslcSjs;fhaoS b;d jeo.;a ;ekla orhstu iqjsfYaIS wxYkuz iudc taldnoaO;djhg ndOd muqKqjkakdjQwNsfhda.d;aul jkakdjQ ps;a;fjz.Sh jYfhka mSvdldrS ;;ajhkah iudch;`< we;sfjkakdjQ wd;;shffp;isl l,ne.Eksh ldkaidj wdoS ;;ajhka iudc cSjs;h jHdl~,;djhg m;alrkq ,nhs fuu;;ajhka tkuz jHdl~, ;;ajhka we;sjkakdjQ jsjsO wjia:d we; Wm; jevsjsh meusKSu jsjdyh urKhwdoS wjia:dj, yg.kakd cSjs;h ms<snZo wrAnqo fuysoS jsfYaI ;ekla .kSue,sfkdjqials ksrSCIKhl<wdldrhg iEu iudchlu fuz wkaoug vSjs;fha wrAnqoldrS wjia:djka jsjsO wd.usl j;ams<sfj;a jsiskajglrf.k mj;S Tyqg wkqj urKh mqoa.,slcSjs;fha nrm;, foordhdula we;slrkq,nhs mqoa.,hka w;r mj;akd oevsiuznJOh ksid flfkl`ushhdfuka miqj uy;a ffp;isl luzmkhla we;sfjhs urKh iuznJOfhka we;sjk fujeks jHdl~,l,lsreKq ;Fjhka wd.usl j;ams<sfj;a uZ.ska iukh lr.ka kd nj ue,sfkdjqialsg fmkSf.dia we;
  13. 13. m;afjkafkahfuySoS m@Odk ixialD;sfha yrh Tjqkajsiska m@;slafIam lrkakgmqZMjkwefursldfjz‘ysms ixialD;sh’fujeks jsfrdaOS ixialD;shla nj lshfjzTjqka cSj;ajkiudcfha ishZMu yrhka m@;slafIaml< ysmsfhda w,q;aiudch la w,q;a yrhlawe;sj nsyslrkakgudkne,Qyta ksidu TjQyq jsfrdaO ixialD;shlg wh;ajQy ‘ixialD;sh’ hk ixl,amh .ek l:dlrkjsg ‘WmixialD;sh’(Sub-Culture) .eko hulaoek.ekSu jeo.;ah jsYd, fyda m<,a ixialD;shl cSj;ajk fjkia jQ udos,shl cSjk rgdjlawe;s fldgi Wm ixialD;shla we;swh jYfhka yZ|=kaj;siEu ixialD;shlgu wNHka;rsljYfhka jsjsOd ldr prAhdjka we;s wfkaljsO iuQy wkaa;rA.;jwe;taiuQyj,cSj;ajk whtlsfkldg fnfyjska fjkia kjSk woyia yd prAhd we;a;kahuy ixialD;sh;`< jsjsOdldrfhkamj;akd fujeks Wm ixialD;Ska /ila olakg ,efnzhuz ixialD;shla;`< olakg ,efnk WmixialD;sl ,CIK iEfyk m@udKhla uy ixialD;sfha tjka ,CIK yd ieifZoa kuz uyixialD;sh;a Wm ixialD;sh;a w;r lsis|= .egSula yg fkd.kshs iuyrjsgl Wm ixialD;Ska f.ka uyixialD;shg lsisu ;rAckhla fyda wNsfhda.hla ke;swjia:d olakg we; Wm ixialD;shla f.dv kefZ.kjsg ;ukagu jsfYaI NdId js,dYhla OrAu;d(m@;sudk) fyda idrOrAu yd cSjkrgdjla(iodpdrphH!d) f.dvkZ.d.ekSug bv we;.wdrAhixialD;sh ;`< fyda wkdrAh ixialD;sh;`< ;j;a Wm ixialD;s lSmhla olakg we; jsfrdaOSixialD;sho Wm ixialD;s j.!fhau tlafldgils fjkilg we;af;a jsfrdaOSixialD;sh m@OdkixialD;sh iuZ. tlg cSj;a fkdjSuhsth uy ixialD;sh iuZ. W.@f,i .efghsiuyrjsg tnZ|=jsfrdaOS ixialD;shl jHjydr jkni wkHhkag f;areuz.; fkdyelsh taidudcslfhda muKla tani jgyd .ks;sTjqyq YdrSrsl ydks is|=lsrSuz w.hlr;swmrdOlsrSug nshla fkdolajk w;r th;u ixialD;sfha wx.hla njg m;alr .ks;s1 ixialD;sl ,e.au (Cultural Lag) hk ixl,amh fuysoS jeo.;afjzixialD;shliuyr wx.bj;aj fjkiajS jrAOkhjk w;r ;j;a wx.fjkiafkdjS ta wdldrfhkau mj;Skuz t;ek we;af;aixialD;sl,e.auls ixialD;sl ,e.au mj;skafka fuz wxY flfryshixialD;shl ,e.au ms<snZoisoaOdka;h bosrsm;alf,a js,shuz wea T.anrAka (Wilium F. Ogburn) keue;s iudcjsoHdZ{hdhfuz wkqj T.anrA.a fuys ixialD;sl ,e.au ms<snZo ksoiqkla fn#oaO ixialD;shweiqrska js.@y lrhs ixialD;sl ,e.au ms<snZo ksorAYkhla T.anrA.a jsiska fmkajdoS we;af;a wdrAh ixialD;shfyj;a ffjosl ixialD;sh uZ.ska fufyhjkq ,enQ n@yauK iuzm@odh;a wkdrAh fyj;a m@;sffjosliuzm@odh uZ.ska fufyhjkq ,enQ Y@uK iuzm@odh;a weiqrskswdrAh ixialD;sh Ndr;fhys ia:dms;jkafka wkdrAh ixialD;sh Ndr;fhys ld,hla ;siafia mej;shdg miqjh tuksid wdrAhhkagwkdrAh ixialD;sfhys huz huz ixialD;sldx. hgm;a lr ;u ixialD;sh Ndrlfhys ia:dms;lrkakg iEfyk igkla lrkakg is|=jsh fuz hgf;a fN#;slj yd wOHd;ausl jYfhka wkdrAhhka mrhd Tjqka uevmj;ajdf.k lghq;`lrkakg wdrAhhka W;aiy l<;a wdrAhhkag wkdrAhhkaj uqZMukskau uev meje;ajsh fkdyels jshiajNdjfhkau idulduS iduh b;d w.hl< wkdrAhhka f,day Ndjs;fhka wdhqO yd WmlrKwdosfhka wdrAhhkag jvd ;dCIKh w;ska bosrsfhka isgS ixialD;shla jqj;a rgj,a wdl@uKhlruska >d;kh ffjrh msrS tfy;a f,day Ndjs;h wdhqO yd WmlrK Ndjs;h w;skawkdrAhhkag jvd b;du;a fkdoshqKq ;dCIKh Ndjs;h w;ska my< ugzgul issgs wkdrAhhkagwdrAhh ixialD;sh fN#;sl jYfhka wdl@uKh fldg uy;a jskdYhla is|=lsrSu wiSre lreKlafkdjSh 2 wfkla w;g wkdrAh ixialD;sh oshqKq k.r ie,iquzl@u jdrsudrA. l@u .ukd.uk myiqluzjdhqiukh l< ldur iys; uy,a f.dvke.s,s oshqKq c,k, moaO;shlska iukajs; ikSmdrCIl1 udkj jsoHdfjz ,dxlSh m;`, jsksjsos fofk;"pska;l udrisxy"Ydia;@Sh"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"13 02 2005" 58 msgqj2 ffjosl hq.fhka fn#oaO hq.hg"jehsfyafka mZ[aZ[df,dal ysus"weuz vS .`Kfiak iyiud.u"fld<U"1964" 5 msgqj
  14. 14. jeisls,s leisls,s moaO;s iys; b;du;a iqfLdamfNda.S cSjs;hla .;l< kd.rsl ixialD;shla jshta lsis|= myiqlula fkd,;a wdrAh ixialD;sh ;ekska ;ekg huska rgj,a wdl@uKfhys fh|=kq.@duSh iNH;ajh flaJ|@ lr.kakd,o fkdoshqKq ixialD;shla jsh 1miql,l wdrAhhka wkdrAhhixialD;sh md.df.k ish ixialD;sh oshqKq lr.ekSfuz wNs,dIfhka wkdrAh ixilD;sfhys.enzj we;a;djQ huz huz ixialD;sldx. ish ixialD;shg wjfYdaIKh lr.;a;o wkdrAhixialD;sfhys tajd yg.ekSug fya;`j jQ uQ<sl m@Njhka ksjeosj .@yKh lr.kakg wiu;ajSufya;`fjka tajd ixialD;sl ,e.aula f,i osiajsks fuz fol w;r tn|= fjkila we;af;a ‘ixialD;sl,e.au’ksidhT.anrAka fuysoS |=gqfjz wdrAh ixialD;sh;`, wkdrAh ixialD;sldx.hkaysfkd.e,fmknj jk ixialD;sl,e.au ms<snZo b;djeo.;a ksorAYkhls fn#oaO ixialD;sh .ek wOHhkh lrkakdjQ mrAfhaIlhska ;j;a jeo.;a ixl,amhlajkixialD;sl ifudaOdkh (Cultual Intergration).ek oek.; hq;`hixialD;shl we;`<;ajk jsjsOwxf.damdx. jk oCI;d jsYajdi weoys,s pdrs;@ jdrs;@ OrAu;d(m@;sudk) yd mqreIdrA:(idr OrAu)prAhdjka (iodpdr yeisrSuz) wdoS fuz ish,a, ljodj;a tlsfklg fjkiaj ;ksj mej;sh hq;`fkdfjz2 tajd ixialD;sfha wjfYaI wx. iuZ. tlajkaj neZoS mj;Sfufia tnZ|= wxf.damdx.tlajkaj neZos mej;Su ta ixialD;sfha jrAOkhg b;djeo.;ah m@d.a-lrAudka;uh fydaiduzm@odhsl iudcj, l`vd iuQyj,ska ta iudc iukajs;jQ ksid ixialD;sfha jsjsO wx. ukdjtlg neZoS ;snsKs3 ixialD;sl jsirKh (Diffusion) hkqfjka woyia lrkafka ;ukag wd.ka;`l ixialD;shlska huz huz wx. ;ukaf.a ixialD;shg meusK thg tldnoaO jkakdjQ wdldrhhs4 jsirKhiuyrjsg rglg b;d jdisodhl l@shdj,shla jkq we;.tx.,ka;fha ldrAusl jsma,jh jrAOkhjQfha lrAudka; jsma,jfha wx. uq,isg w;a oel fhda.HjQ;a wfhda.HjQ;a iEu wxYhlau w;ayodne,Sfuks crAuksh lrAudka; jsma,jfha idrj;a wx. tx.,ka; w;aoelSuz ;`<ska f.k ;u rfgzoshqKqjg fhdod .;af;a jsirKfha m@;sM,hla f,ih tx.,ka;h w;ayodn,d idrA:ljqkq wx.muKla ;u rfgz lghq;` iZoyd fhdod .ekSug crAukshg yelsjsh/,ama ,skagka keue;sudkjjsoHdZ{hd mjik wkaoug TzkEu ixialD;shlg ishhg wkQjla wx. jsirKh ksid ,enqKqtajdh ta ixialD;sfhau Wm; ,nd my<jk wx. we;af;a ishhg oyhla muKh fn#oaO ixialD;sh .ek ys;k TzkEu wfhl`g fuh fld;ruz i;Hhlaoehs jegfykqwe;bkaoshd kq ixialD;sj,ska wmg fl;ruz wdNdIhla ,ensKso$fn#oaO ixialD;sh fnfyjskauyev.eyqfka fn#oaO idr OrAu ;`<sks fn#oaO idr OrAu ,xldjg meusKsfha Ndr; fn#oaOixialD;sh;`<sks miq.sh wjqre|= fooyia mkaiSh;`< wfma fn#oaO ixialD;sh Ndr; fn#oaOixialD;sfhkq;a fjk rgj, fn#oaO ixialD;sj,skq;a iY@slf,i fmdfydr,nd jsirKh jQwkaou ms<snZo l;dka;rh b;d jsps;@ cklh5 ixialD;sl iuzmrAlh(Acculturation) kuska y|=kajk ;j;a ixl,amhla we;6huzlsis |=rAj,iuQyhla fyda iudchla n,j;aixialD;shl fyda iudchl n,mEu hg;g flfia fyda wdjsgn,j;a ixialD;sfha wx. ,CIK |=rAj, ixialD;shlg n,md Bg tla fjhsfuh ixialD;sl1 ffjosl hq.fhka fn#oaO hq.hg"jehsfyafka mZ[aZ[df,dal ysus"weuz vS .`Kfiak iyiud.u"fld<U"1964 5-7 msgq2 uyfmdf<dfjz h:drA:h iy fojshkaf.a iuzm@odh".`Kisrs jSriQrsh"Ydia;@Sh"isZMusK brsod"tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"13 02 2005"57 msgqj3 Action Theory and Human Conditions,Talcott Parsons,New York,Free Press,1978.ge,afldgz Amdikaia wjOdrKh l< wkaoug fm@df;ia;ka;@ l@sia;shdks yd hqfojz hk wd.uzj,ska ,enqKq w.hka ydyrhkaf.ka wefursldkq iudch talrdYs jS we;tu tlai;ajSu;`, wd;au jskh yd fm#oa.,slFjh ;oskauolakg we; lf;da,sl jqj;a fm@df;ia;ka;@jqj;a hqfouzjqj;a Tjqka wefursklajdoSkahwefursldkqjdoh(Americanism) f.dvkeZ.Sug wjYH idrOrAu yd yrhka jsjsOdldrjQ wd.uz jsiska imhdoS we;4 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iyifydaorfhd"fld<U 1997"26 msgqj5 ffjosl hq.fhka fn#oaO hq.hg"jehsfyaf;a mZ[aZ[df,dal ysu"weuz vS.~Kfiak iyiud.u"fld<U"1964"72 msgqj6 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tkajScStafyauka; l`udr"weiaf.dvf.a iyiud.u"fld<U"1997"28 msgqj
  15. 15. iuzmrAlh kuska yeZoskafjz1 jsirKfhaoS ixialD;sh huz huz foa iafjzpzPdfjka b,a,d .kshs2fuyssoS th ndysr n,mEula ksid is|=fjhs jsirKh fukau ixialD;sl iuzmrAlho is|=jkafkatla;rd wkaoul prKhla wkqqjh jsirKhg fyda iuzmrAlhg m;a jkakdjQ ixialD;shla wks;aixialD;sfhka iEu fohlau ta iZoyd f;dard fkd.kshs3 wkdrAh ixialD;sfhka wdrAh ixialD;sh flf;la ixialD;sldx. wjfYdaIKh lr.;a;;awkdrAh ixialD;sl i;`jQ pska;k ksoyi yd i;r n@yaujsyrKh u; mokuzjQ wjsysxidjwjfYdaI Kh lr.;af;a ke; ixialD;sl iuzmrAlfhaoSo mj;akd iajNdjh fuhuh |=rAj,ixialD;sldx. iys; iudch m@n, ixialD;sldx. iys; iudcfha oshqKq;u ixialD;sldx. ,nd.kakg WkJ|=jkq we;m@n, fkdjk wfkla wx. f;dard.kafka huz huz uQ,OrAu wkqj jrKShl@uhlgh ffjosl ixialD;sh uZ.ska m@;sffjosl ixlD;sfhys ;snqKq iuyr wx. ffjoslixialD;shg tlalr.;a w;r iuyr wx. w;ayer oukq ,ensksi;r n@yau jsyrKhmdollr.;a fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZo bka|= ksuzk jdiSkaf.a wdl,amh fkd;el~ ffjoslfhdahd.fhys fhfouska m@dK>d;fhys ksr;fjuskau tauZ.skau fudaCIh me;Suo fujeks is|=jSuls4 m@;sffjosl ixialD;sh i;`jQ iu:OHdk l@u Ndjs;fhka wgiuj;a Wmojd jkfhys fjfikbis kdu fhka ffjosl iQ;@hkays lshefjk wIaGiudm;a;s ,dNS ;jqia fldgzGdYhla .ekownqoafOda;amdo ld,hkays mjd ;ks ;ksju jsoiqka jvd nqoaO;ajhg m;aj yqol,dj jsiQmfianq|=jre ms<snZojo lshefjz5fuu mfiys nq|=jre m@;sffjosl fyj;a bka|=ksuzk ixialD;sfhafYa@IaGFjh fudkjg lshdmdk ms<sUsnq fjzffjosl iQ;@hkays fndfyda fihska fujeks nq|=jreyZ|=kajd we;af;a uqks hk kdufhks6 fuu uqksjre wyiska .ukalrknj ffjoslhka olajdwe;af;a bjish fkdfyk BrAIHdjlskanj tlS iZoykays .enzjk fidamdydih wkqj fmfkawx.Sri hk fh|=u nq|=jre yeZoskajSu iZoydjHjydr lrk,o b;dmqrdK jpkhlsnq|=kajykafia yeZoskajSu msKsi mdrsNdIsl mohlaf,iNdjs;dlrk fuu jpkh ffjosl iQ;@hka ys uqksjre yeZoskajSu msKsiu jHjydrlr ;sfnz7fuuuqksjre b;d ksyZvjQ osjshla .;l< Y@uK fldgilanjo olajd ;sfnz isoaOdrA: fndai;dkkajykafiaf.a Wm; is|=jk wjia:dfjys mjd ud;dx. kue;s mfianq|=jrfhla cSjudkju jevisgSnjiZoykaj we;fndOsiFjhka jykafia Wmkanj oek.;a Wkajykafia ;ukaf.a wdhqYla;shwjikanj oekf.k msrsksjs nj fmd; mf;ys iZoykafjz8 fu#k j@;h fyj;a uqksj; ffjosl iudchg m@jsYaGjQfha fulS uqksjrekaf.awNHka;riajrEmh ndysrska wkqqlrKh lrkakg ffjoslhka W;aiqljSu;a iuZ.hbka|=ksuzkixialD;sfhys .enzjkakdjQ by; olajk ,o wdOHd;ausl oshqKqjg bjy,a jQfha Tjqka w;rm@p,s;j mej;s fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh Tjqka fkduZoj ,nd.;a nejsks.uqksj;9 fyj;a1 The Family Among the American Aborigin:A Sociological Study,B Malinowski,LondonUniversity Press,London,19132 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHdj m@fjzYh"tka jScS fyauka; l`udr"weiaf.dvf.a iyifydaorfhda"fld<U"28 msgqj3 Magic,Science Religion and Other Essays,B Malinowski,London Unicersity Press,London, 19654 ffjosl hq.fhka fn#oaO hq.hg"jehsfyafka mZ[aZ[df,dal ysus"weuzvS.`Kfiak iyiud.u"fld<U"1964" 34 msgqj5 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"n,xf.dv wdkkao ffu;@sh ysus"iuhjrAOkuq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1986" 11 msgqj6 iD.afjzoh"flaiS iqla;h"136uqkfhd jd;rYkd msYx.d jif; u,d uq7 The Golden Bouh:A Study Magic and Religion,Sir James George Frazer,Vol 12,LondonPress,London,1911-1915 ffjoslhka w:!jka fjzoh yeZoskajSu iZoyd wx.Sri hk moh mjd jHjydrhg f.k we;af;a thg .relsrSug jvd th tla;rd whqrlska Wmydid;aulj ie,lSug nejz fmfkatu fjzofhysu jevodhluka;@lshkakka w:!jka hk kdufhkao wjevodhl uka;@ lshkakka wx.Sri hk mofhka yeZoskajSfuka by;olajk,o woyi ;yjqrefjz8 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"iuhjrAOk uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1986"11msgqj fuu ud;dx. kue;s mfianq|=jrhkajykafia rc.ykqjr bis.s,s mjzfjys jsiQ nj;a ;ukaf.awdhqld,h ksujSfuka miq ysuj;f;ys uydm@md; mrAj;hg jev msrsksjs nj;a iZoykafjz9 uydksoafoai md,s" nq c uq" 82 msgqj
  16. 16. fu#kj@;fhys wNsjDoaOsh msKsi fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndjs;dj ms<snZoj fjku yeoErSulal<hq;` ;rugu th mqZM,ah.m@;sffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< uqks ixl,amh jHdma;j mej;ssk. swe;af;kau fuh wffjosl ixl,amhls.fuz fya;`j ksidu ffjoslfhda uqks ixl,amhgffjrl<y.f,#lsl cSjs;hg m@shl< nuqfKda wOHd;au .fjzIKfhys ksr;jQ uqksjrekagoafjzIl<y. kQ;k iudch .ek l,amkdlrkjsg jdKscFjh (Commercialization) ksid is|=jk ixialD;sl fjkiajSu flfrys fndfyda mrAfhaIlhkaf.a WkJ|=j fhduqjS ;sfnzngysr lrAudka;uhiudcj, n,mEu ksid wjfYaI rgj, fuz fjki is|=jkafka hwfma iudcfha fuz ndysr n,mEuksid is|=jk ixialD;sl fjkialuz l,amkdlr ne,Su jeo.;ah1m@n, ckikaksfjzok udOHjkmqj;am; iskudj rEmjdysksh yd fmd|= oekajSuz l@u ksid jdKscFjh wfma f.a we;`,gu meusKwe; jdKscuh yqjudreju; wo iEufohlau rZodmj;S jdKscuh yqjudrejg uq,a;ek ,efnkjsg wrA: l@uh iuZ. uqZM uy;a iudc l@uho jsmrAhdihg m;afjhs w;S;fhaoS tla;rd wkaoulskafuh is|=jknj wu;l fkd l<hq;`h pSk mrAishka .@Sl frdau wrdns msksishkajre yd ysJ|=jrejdKscuh l@shdj,Ska uZ.ska bosrshgwd wdosu cd;Ska jQywo fjkilg we;af;a ta jdKscuhl@shdj,shg jvd ikaksfjzok wdos fhka m@n, njg m;ajQ lrAudka;uh l@shdj,sh iy oshqKqjQ;dCIKh yd iuznJO jdKscuh ixialD;shla f,dalfha iEu rglu ixialD;Skag wNsfhda.lsrSuh ixialD;sh .ek l:dl< /,ama ,skagka wmg jeo.;a ixl,am;`kla y|=kajd |=kafkah jsYajuh(Universals) ixialD;sl pdrs;@ bka m<uqjekakh.fuz pdrs;@ jsYajuhjkafka tajd f,dalfha iEucd;shlgu fmd|=jQksidh B<Z.g ,skagka l:dlf<a jsl,am pdrs;@(Alernatives).ekh Y@uKixialD ;sfhys yd n@yauK ixialD;sfhys ixialD;sl pdrs;@ i,ldne,sh yelshfuz wdldrfhkaixialD;sl pdrs;@ f;dard .ekSfuka jHjydrhg ths.;`kafjksj jsfYaI ixialD;sl pdrs;@(Specialities) we; n@dyauK ixialD;sfhys m@dK>d;h hd.h kuska iudc.; lr;sfnz fuzixialD;sl pdrs;@ wxYh Tjqkag jsfYaI jQjls.Y@uK ixialD;sfhys wkHhka iuZ. iyfhda.fhkaiuZ.sfhka cSj;ajSu wjsysxidj fu;a;d ixl,amh fyda i;rn@yau jsyrKh kuska iudc.;lr;sfnz fuz ixialD;sl pdrs;@h Tjqkag iqjsfYaIS jQjls fuz wdldrfhka huzlsis jsfYaIiuQyhlaiuZ. iuznJOjQ ixialD;sl pdrs;@hla we;akuz th jsfYaI ixialD;sl pdrs;@j,gwh;ah2 by; oelafjk wdldrfhka ixialD;sh iuznJOfhka jsia;r lsrSug is|=jQfha idrOrAuljrdld rfhka ixialD;sh flfrA n,mdkq ,nkafkaoehs wjfndO jSu iZoydhfndfydajsg idudkHjHjydrfhaoS සාරධර්මo ixialD;shg iuznJOlr සාරධර්ම"iodpdrh yd ixialD;shhkjpk;`fkka woyiajkafka tlu wrA:hnj fndfydafokd Wml,amkh lr;sfuzksidhukqIHw.hkaf.a is|=jkfjkiajSu ixialD;sfha is|=jk msrsySulaf,i Tjqkajsiska wF:!l:khlrkq,nkafka fuzksid ixialD;sh yd සාරධර්ම3 hkjpkfol iudkdrA:fhys,d fmd|= ck iudch ;`<Ndjs;d flfrAmqrdKfha bkaoshdfjz ;snQ wkdrAh ixialD;sh bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh f,iyeoskafjzTjqka iajfoaYsl ck;djhsY@uK iuzm@odh mejf;kafka fulS wkdrAh ixialD;shflaJ|@fldgf.khs wdl@uKslhska jYfhka neyerska meusKs msrsi jQfha wdrAh ixialD;shg wh;ack;djhs n@dyauK iuzm@odh mejf;kafka fulS wdrAh ixialD;sh flaJ|@fldgf.khs4 w;S;fhaoS wkdrAh ixialD;sh kuska yeZoskafjk iajfoaYsl ixialD;sh yd wdrAhkdufhkayeZoskafjk jsfoaYsl ixialD;sh w;r is|=jkakdjQ .egqu ksid wkdrAh ixialD;sh hgm;aj f.diawdrAh ixialD;sh m@n,Fjhg m;a jshfuu .egqu is|=jk wjia:djjk jsg wkdrAh ixialD;sh1 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS tafyaul`udr"weia f.dvf.a iyifydaorfhda"fld<U"1997" 92 msgqj2 iudc jsoHdj"iqjskS;d .`Kfialr"weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u"fld<U"1994" 41 msgqj3 tu 58 msgqj4 ffjosl idys;Hh"fcA ;s,lisrs"iSudiys; tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"1958"110 msgqj
  17. 17. l,dYs,am";dCIKh" cSjkm@;smodj wdoS ixialD;s hlg wh;aiEu wx.hlau mdfya fnfyjskaoshqKq;Fjhl mej;sks1 kuq;a wdrAh ixialD;sh tys iEu ixialD;sl wx.hlskau wkdrAh ixialD;shg fojkjkugzgulska mej;`kskuq;a wdrAh ixialD;sh rgj,a wdl@uKh lsrSu ;ukaf.a cSjkm@;smodjlr.;aixialD;shla jQnejska hqoaO Yla;sh w;ska wkdrAh ixialD;shg jvd bosrsfhka isgSu TjqkagwkdrAh ixialD;sh ish .@yKhg k;`lr.ekSug fkduZo msgsjy,lajshwkdrAhfhda jkdySudkqIslFjfhkao iEu .;s.`K hlskau wdrAhhkag jvd b;d bosrsfhka isgS fnfyjska YsIaGiuzmkak ukqIHfldgzGdYhla jsh wkdrAh hkaf.a cSjk m@;smodj f.dvkeZ.S ;snqfKa lDIslu!hflaJ|@ fldg f.k nejska iEfyk ;ruz jsfjslh o ,enkq nejska l,dYs,am" pska;kh fuz jk jsgf,dalfha YsIagiuzmkak wkalsis|= ixialD;sh la w;am;a lrf.k fkdisgS ;ruz jsYd,oshqKq;;ajhlg m;ajS;snsks2 wdrAh ixialD;sh miqnsuz lr.kakd,o n@dyauK pska;kh W;aiqljQfha usksidf.a is;SfuzYla;sh fudgfldg oeuSughsthg fya;`j pska;k Yla;sh Wiia;,hlg meusKshfyd;awksjdrAhfhkau ;ukaf.a ixialD;sh m@;sfCIamjk ;;ajhlg m;ajS ;ukaf.a idudcsl ;;ajh ydn,h ke;sjS hknj fudjqka jgyd f.k isgSnejskshd.h"hZ{h yd n,sns,smQcd uZ.ska>d;kixialD;shla;`< ffjrh"iudch mx;sjYfhka fnod md,khlsrSuuZ.ska l<lsrSujmqrjuskalghq;`lsrSu fudjqkaf.a l@shdms,sfj; jshfuz ;;ajh ;yjqre lr.ekSu Wfoid wdjD;udislFjhlska lghq;`lsrSug usksid fhduqlrjSu"ndysr wOsldrSuh n,hka3 uZ.ska pska;k ksoyimd,khlsrSu iZoyd wd.usl b.ekajSuz fhdod.ekSu n@dyauK pska;kfha m@Odk,CIK jsh fuu oevs iudc urAOkldrS ;;ajh fkdbjiQ wkdrAh ixialD;sfha ksoyiapska;;hska n@dyauKb.ekajSuz ksrAoh f,i jspdrhg ,lalrkakg jshfuz ld,h jkjsg tnZ|= ksoyia pska;lhska ihfofkl` Y@uK iuzm@odh ;`,ska we;sjS uy;a m@isoaOshg m;ajS ;snsKsfudjqka IgzYdia;Djrekdufhka yeZoskajSug wm mqre|=jS isgsuqtl, iudc ixialD;sl jd;djrKh fuz whqrska mj;soaoShwkdrAh ixialD;sh ;`,skau Y@uK iuzm@odh ;`,skau mekkeZ.`kdjQ fYaIaG Ydia;Dkajykafia jknq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a b.ekajSuz iudchmqrd jHdma;jS hkafka4 wfkl`;a Y@uK iduzm@odhslhskaf.a b.ekajSuzfukau nq|=rcdKkajykafiaf.a b.ekajSuz oflaJ|@.; jkafka ksoyiapska;kh msnsojSu yrydhwfk;`;a IgzYdia;Djreka yqfola n@dyauKb.ekajSuzj,g jsreoaOj hdfuka muKla yd tu b.ekajSuzj, fodia oelajSfuka muKla ishlghq;a; yudrl< w;r ta fya;`jka tu wd.usl b.ekajSuz wiuzmQrAK tajdjshirAjiuzmQrAKcSjk m@;smodjla tauZ.ska yZ|=kajdfkd|=ks5 kuq;a nq|=rcdkkajykafif.a b.ekajSuz n@dyauK b.ekajSuz jsfjspkh lruska muKlafkdkej;S" tajdg ish wrA:l:k bosrsm;a lsrSug;a"ta wrA:l:k jsoHd;aul pska;khla u;msysgdisg bosrsm;a lsrSug;a"tjd irAj iuzmQrAKf,i yd w;sYh m@dfhda.sl ;;ajhkaf.ka hqla;jl@shdjg keZ.Sug;a" mrsmQrAK cSjk m@;smodj la bosrsm;alsrSug;a"hk fulS ishZMlghq;` idrA:l1 tu 126 msgqj2 ffjosl hq.fhka fn#oaO hq.hg"jehsfyafka mZ[aZ[df,dal ysus"weuzvS.`Kfiak iyiud.u"fld<U"1964"10 msgqj3 w. ks. iv,w;a;ldr iq;a;"nq c uq" 94 msgqjudyx n@dyauK tjx jdosx tjx osgzGsx woaoixjd wiafid isxjdl:xys kdu ihx wNslalukaf;d ihx mgslalukaf;d tjx jlaL;s kF:s w;a;ldfr kF:s mrldfr;s4 w. ks. 1 ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqt: ;`uzfy ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzkud mruzm rdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgliuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;la flk ud lsosgzGs ksCOdklaL;shd ud NnznrEm;d h ud iufKd fkd .rE;s5 tu ld,duiQ;@h;`< oijsO wOsldrhka m@;sfCIamfhka muKla fkdkej;S mxpYS, m@;smodj ;@sjsO l`Y,yd wl`Y, uQ,hka I;r n@yau jsyrK lu!M, jsmdl ms<snZo i;rjeoE/uz kh jsNd.hla tf,dj fukaufuf,dj jYfhka udkisl iykh Wodlr.kafka flfiao"udkisl YsCIKh we;slr.ekSug;a fm#reIjO!kh msKsi ;a bjy,ajkakdjQ WmfoaYkd;aul ufkdjsYaf,aIKSh isoaOdka; yd iudc jsoHd;auloDIaGsfldaKfhka tajd Wmfhda.sjk whqre ms<snZoj jsYd, oekquz moaO;shla wka;rA.;h
  18. 18. lr.ekSug Wps; udkisl miqnsula fyj;a jsjD; udkisl ugzgula f.dvkeZ.Sug;a fhduqjS;snsKs1 fuz uZ.ska wdrAh ixialD;sfha .enzjQ w;sYh wudkqIsl wx.fjkia lr,Sug;a"fmd|=idrOrAuShpska; khlg ck;dj fhduqlrjSug;a nq|=r|=kag yelsjshld,duiQ;@h uZ.ska moku jefgkqfhatnZ|= idr OrAu pska;khlghs2we;a;jYfhkau ld,duiQ;@fhys .enzjkqfha wkdrAh pska;kfhaWiia m@cd;ka;@Sh ,CIKhstfukau Y@uK iuzm@odh i;`jQ woSk pska;k OSrFjh uQrA;su;alrkakdjQ udkqIsl ,CIK ld,du iQ;@h;`< .enzfjz NsCIQkajykafia,dyg iajNdjfhkaWreujkakdjQ pska;kOSrFjh ,enqfka fujeks iQ;@foaYkd Wkajykafia,d jsiska ksrka;rfhkaumrsYS,kh l< ksidh3 pska;kfha ldrAhNdrh ixialD;sh osYd.; lrjSuhs4Bg idr OrAu iodpdr yeisrSuz iudcm@;sudk (OrAu;d) wjYH m@;H iuzm;a;sfhka Wmldr flfrA ixialD;sh iudc ixorANh;`<l@shd;au l jkaklanejz fuz idlpzPdj wdruzNfhaoSu mejiqfjusfn#oaO ixialD;sho tfiauhthfn#oaO hkqfjka jsfYaI fldgolajkafka nq|= oyfuys olajk yr moaO;shg wkqj iliajS we;sksidh tnejska fn#oaO idr OrAu hkqfjka yZ|=kajkq ,nkafka mqoa.,hd ;`<;a iudch;`<;am@dfhda.slnjg m;al< hq;`hehs nqoaO foaYkdfjka fmkajd ;sfnk yr moaO;shhs ta yr moaO;shg wkqj cSjs;h yev.iajd .ekSu fn#oaO iodpdrhhs tuksid idr OrAums<snZo idlpzPd fjzoS fn#oaO wdpdr OrAu iuznJOlr.ekSu wksjdrAhfhkau is|=jsh hq;`fjhsfn#oaO iodpdr OrAuhkaf.ka f;drj idrOrAu fyda fn#oaO ixialD;shla .ek l;dl<fkdyelshtfukau fn#oaO සාරධර්ම ms<snZoj idlpzPdfjzoS jsjD; udkisl iajNdjhl wka;rA.;Wmfhda.SNdjh .eko i<ld ne,Su jeo.;ahwdjD; ukilska i;Hh oelsh fkdyels nejsks5 wdpdr jsoHdj fyj;a wdpdrOrAu idudkHfhka i<lkq ,nkafka udkj .;smej;`uz mrudrA:wNsm@dhhka cSjkl@u iy ixia:d hk fuzjdfhys,d lrkq,nk we.hquz ms<snZo jsurAYkhlajYfhks ienjskau lsishuz ck iudchl wdpdrjsoHd;aul we.hquzhkq ljfrAo$ tajd jHjydrhgm;ajwe;af;a ukao$hklreKq fidhd nef,kqfha iudcSh jsoHdj uZ.sks tlS jsIhhkays l@ufjzohkawkqj hdfuka lsishuz jsfYaI ck iudchlg ixialD;sl lKavdhuzj,g wd.usl moaO;shg wh;awdpdrOrAuh wdkqN~;sl jYfhkaf.k yeoErsh yelsfjhs ;j;a w;lska n,kl,ays wdpdrOrAuhhkq iodpdrd;aul m@Z{ma;sh jYfhka wrA:h yd iodpdrd;aul we.hqu ms<snZo uskquzoZvqiuznJOfhka we;euz fmd|=m@Yakj ,g ms<s;`reiemhSug h;akorK odrAYksl jsurAYk l@uhlaf,io yeZoskajsh yelsh6 odrAYksl wdpdr jsoHdj iuznJOfhka we;s m@fjzY fol w;frys fjkila iuld,SkorAYkfhys oelafjz m<uq m@fjzYfha oelafjkqfha udkj l@shdjkag wh;a iodpdrd;aul we.hquziuznJO yrs jeros fydZo krl hq;` whq;` hk fuzjd w;r mj;sk uQ<sl fjkialuz ljfrAoehsyZ|=kd.ekSug h;ak orkakdjQ m@dudKsl jsurAYk jsOshls7 fojk m@fjzYh jkqfha wOs wdpdrOu!h kuska yZ|=kajk jsYaf,aYSh yd ;drAlslwOHhkl@uhla i<ld ne,Sfuks.fuysoS is|=flfrkqfha iodpdrh yd iuznJO mohkays wrA: meyeos,slsrSuiodpdr ixl,am js.@ylsrSu iy wdpdrd;aul NdIhkaj, wvx.` ;drAlsl ,CIK jsia;r lsrSuiZoyd h;ak oerSuhs81 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq2 tu3 tu4 iudc jsoHdj"iqjskS;d .`Kfialr"weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U" 1994" 58 msgqj5 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq6 ixialD;sh yd iudch"wkqrdO fifkjsr;ak"f,alayjqia bkafjiagzukagz iud.u"fld<U"1971"14-54msgq7 us:Hdj jkaokdudk lrk mYapd;akQ;kjdoh"ta vS mS l,iQrsh"Ydia;@Sh"isZMusK brsod"tlai;am@jD;a;m;@ iud.u"fld<U"19 12 2004 "57 msgqj8 tu
  19. 19. fn#oaO orAYkfhys tk wdpdr jsoHd;aul ixorANh ngysr odrAYkslhska jsiska bosrsm;alrk by;lS m@fjzYu; oevsj msysgd js.@yl< fkdyelsjqjo ta yeu oDIaGs fldKhlau wkqjiodpdrd;aul jYfhka fnfyjska jeo.;ajQ woyia fn#oaO pska;kh;`< we;,`;ajk nj lsjyelshs1 iodpdrd;aul pska;kh ms<snZo b;sydifhys nq|=oyu psria:dhsfukau w;suy;a jQjeo.;alulska hq;` fufyhla bgql<yels pska;khla nj meyeos,sh nq|=oyfuys wdruzNljljdkqfjys fukau miq ld,Sk jO!kfh ysoSo wdpdrjsoHd;aul WkJ|=j tys uq,a;ekla f.k ;sfnzfnfyjskau fmdaIs; wre;a nr iodpdrd;aul jpk ud,djlska ie|=uz,oaols nq|=oyu iodpdrhms<snZo jsYsIaG m@udKslmokula tys we;sw;r iodpdrodY!kslhkag yd iodpdrixl,amhkaf.ajO!khflfrys wjOdkh fhduqlrk whg w;sYhskau jeo.;a jk u;jdohkao tys we;`<;afjz2 Ndr;Sh pska;k b;sydih jsuiSfuzoS fmfkkafka iodpdrd;aul m@;sixialrKjHdmdrhliajrEm fhka nq|= oyu l@shdlr we;snjhs l@s mQ 6jk ishjfiys Ndr;fhys mej;s Y@uK ydn@dyauKhk WNh iuzm@odhhkaf.a us:HdjsYajdi j;ams<sfj;a yd hd.fydau lrkakkag tfrysjnq|=iufhys iodpdruh jsfjzpk iDcqju t,a, jsh3 pSk yd gsfngz uQ,dY@hkays iqrCIs;j mj;sk fjk;a fn#oaO iuzm@odhhka yd iudka;rjQf:arjdo .@J:dj<shg wh;a iq;@ msgldka;rA.; OrAu lreKq foi wjOdkh fhduqlrkjsgnq|=oyfuys wdpdr jsoHd;auljk m@;sYaGdmkh lsrSu iZoyd we;s jsYajikSh uQ<dY@hla jYfhkatu Ou! lreKq ie<lsh yelsfjz fn#oaO wdpdrOrAu moaO;sfhys ms<s.kq ,nk uQ<sl woyiaf,dalh ms<snZo fn#oaO oDIaGsh;a h:diajNdjh ms<snZo fn#oaO kHdh;a iuZ. iuSmj neZoS mj;S4 nq|=oyfuz ksrAfoaY flfrk cSjk ud.!h jkdyS ukqIH iajNdjh yd jsYajfhys fukau ukqIHbrKfuys iajNdjhka ms<snZojo tys ms<s.ekSu jsYajdi flfrka ygf.k we; tla;rdwdldrhl we.hSuzYS,S yd m@dfhda.sl lshuka fn#oaO OrAu .@J:;`< we;`<;afjz tlS m@ldYkudkj l@shd yd prAhd Ndjs;hka yd cSjs; .;siajNdjhka ;lafiarelsrSu we;euz udkisl .`KOu!j.dlr .ekSu iZoyd ksrAfoaYlsrSu iZoyd huz wdldr hl jsYsIaG cSjk ksIaGdjla lrd mqoa.,hkafhduqlsrSu yd iuznJOh5 fn#oaO wdpdr OrAufhys idr OrAuhkays ixorANh f.dvkZ.kq ,nkafka fulSm@dfhda.sllshuka udrAfhks nq|=oyfuz we;`,;a mru ksIaGdj m@udK yd wka;rA ksIaGdjlska hq;` wx.lSmhlska iZoyka jqkq YdlaId;a lrK hlska iukajs;h hkak fn#oaO b.ekajSuhsjsuqla;shhkq|=l fyj;a w;Dma;slr ;;ajfhka mqoa.,hd uqojd.ekSuhsta jf.au jsuqla;shhkq tla;rdwjfndaOhls m@;sfjzOhlsksielju fuz;`< wdpdrjsoHd;aul jgskdluz .enzj mj;S6 fuys fulS m@;sfjzOh iuzudZZ{dK fyj;a ksjeros oekqu m@Z{dj h:dN~;Z{dK oiaikhfyj;a ixialdr OrAuhkaf.a h:diajNdjh ms<snZo oekqu fyj;a m@;sfjzOhhs.fuz wjia:dj jkjsgmqoa.,hd iodpdr mrsmQrAK Fjhg m;ajS yudrh7 ta jkdyS ry;a mqoa.,fhl`f,i yeZoskajsh yels ;;ajhg m;aflfrk mqoa., fm#reIfhawe;sjkakdjQ iodpdr mrsjrA;khla fjz8 |=laL ksfrdaOh m@drm@dma;sh m@Z{dj ,enSu hk fuz ish,a,1 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,duiq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq2 nq|=ka jod< OrAuh" j,afmd< rdyq, ysus" fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh" foysj,"1997 51 msgqj3 tu 21 msgqj4 tu m@ia;djkdj xv-xvii msgq5 nq|=ka jod< OrAuh"j,afmd< rdyq, ysus"fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"1997" 126 msgqj6 tu 25 msgqj7 u. ks. 111" uydp;a;drSxil iq;a;" nq c uq 218 msgqj iuzud osgzGiai NslaLfjz iuzud ixlmafmdmfyd;s iuzud ixlmamiai iuzud jdpd mfyd;s iuzud jdpiai iuzud luzukaf;d mfyd;ss iuzudluzuka;iai iuzud wdcSfjd mfyd;s …iuzud Z[dKiai iuzud jsuq;a;s mfyd;s8 nq|=ka jod< OrAuh"j,afmd< rdyq, ysus" fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"1997"60 msgqj
  20. 20. ish,a, iyNd.S fyj;a tljsg is|=jk isoaOSkahnq|=oyfuys ksrAjdKdjfndaOh f,iskajsia;rlrkafka fulS ;@sjsOwx.hkaf.ka hqla; mrudrA: uh wOs.uhhs1 fuz W;alDIaG ;;ajh YdlaId;alsrSu mokuz lrf.k nq|=iufhys ish,qu idr OrAu ydm@;sudk f.dvkeZ.S we; iS,"iudOs"m@Z{d"wkspzp"|=laL"wkd;au"lrAuh"fya;`M,jdoh jeks uQ<slb.ekajSuz mokuz lrf.k fn#oaO idr OrAu yd m@;sudk f.dvkeZ.S we;snj fmfka2 nq|=oyu iodpdrd;aul l@shd yd prAhd iZoyd we;euz l@shd udrA. ksrAfoaYlrkjd muKlafkdj iodpdr jsksYaphka yd meKjSuz tla;rd |=rlg ;rAlkhlsrSfuys,do WkJ|=fjziodpdrd;aul m@Yak iuznJOfhka jQ uQ<sl ;rAlk iajrEmhg WodyrK jYfhka bosrsm;al,yels jeo.;a ksoiqka lSmhlau merKs iQ;@ OrAu;`< olakg ,efnz fuz w;rska ld,du iQ;@h jeo.;atlls3 flaimq;a; .uzjeis ld,du kuska yeZoskafjk ck fldgila fj; nq|=rcdKkajykafiajevul<jsg Tjqkaf.a m@Odk meusKs,a, jQfha ;ukafj; meusfKk fkdfhl`;a Y@uKn@dyauKhska tlsfklg yd;amiskau fjkia iodpdrd;aul Wmfoia kHdh bosrsm;a lrkq ,nknjhs fufia bosrsm;alrk jsixjdoS Wmfoiaj,ska ;uka ms<s.; hq;af;a ldf.a l`uk WmfoaYhoehs;SrKhla lr.; fkdyelsj wkaoukaoj isgsknj Tjqyq lshd isgshy4 fuz .egZMj weiQ nq|=rcdKkajykafia fun|= jd;djrKhla;`< Tjqkaf.a jspslspzPdjidOdrK nj mejiQy nq|=rcdKkajykafia mr;ka;@ jQ iodpdr ix.@yhla bj;,eug Wmfoia|=kaw;r Tjqkaf.a ;rAl nqoaOsh weiqfrka yrs fyda jeros ;SrKh lsrSug Wmia:uzNlfjz hehsWkajykafia is;~ iaj;ka;@ jQ iodpdr usKquz oKavla bosrsm;a lr;s5 fuz wjia:dfjz Wka jykafia tjlg mej;s iodpdr jsksYaphka(ks.ukhka) yd iuznJOm@;sIaGdjka 10la m@;sfCImlr;s iodpdrd;aul yd Z{dKjsNd.d;aul oDIaGsfldaKfhkan,kjsgoS fuu iQ;@fha f,dl` jeo.;a lula mj;S fuysoS Wkajykafia m@;sfCIml< m@;sIaGd10kuz wkqiaijh fyj;a Y@jKfhka mej;tk woyia"(ud wkqiaifjzk) mdruzmrslj mej;tkwoyia"(ud mruzmrd h) fm<fmd;a iuzm@odfhka mejf;k woyia"(ud msgliuzmodfkak) fufiajS,qhkqfjka lgskalg mejf;k woyia"(ud b;slsrdh) ;rAlf.dapr jQ lreKq"(ud ;lal fya;`)tla;rd wdldrhl Y@e;sh fyj;a wOsldrh u; mokuzjQ Y@uKhkajykafia wmf.a .re lghq;af;ls hkak u; nei.;a woyia" (iufKda fkd .re) u;`msgska n,dnei.kakd,o kHdhd;aulks.uk"(ud kh fya;`) fuh fuz wdldrhhs ixl,amkslj t<eUqkq ks.uk"(udwdldrmrsjs;laflak) NjH fyj;a is|=jshyels hehs Wml,ams; woyia"‘iuzNdjs;dj’ hkqfjkajsoHd;aulj t<Ush yels ks.uk mjd fuhg wvxZ.`h (ud nnzN rEm;dh) l,a;shd ;uka nei f.k isgsk oDIaGsjdohg .e,fmk woyia"(udoDIaGskscA COdklaL;a;shd) hk lreKq 10hs6fulS lreKq 10 Tiafia t<Ush yelsjkakdjQ ks.ukwod< jsIh m@ia;`;h ksisf,i jsurAYkh lsrSulska f;drj wiuzmQrAK f,i t<fUk ks.uknejska"nq|=rcdKka jykafia by;lS lreKq 10hu if;HCIK l@shdj,sfhys ,d fkdiq|=iq nj1 w. ks. 1" ld,duiq;a;" fn# iuz" ixia 638 msgqj"" hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd: bfu Ouzudwl`I,d bfu Ouzud idjcAcd bfu Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+ .rys;d bfu Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdhixj;a;ka;S;a w: l`uzfy ld,dud mcfyhHd:2 nq|=ka jod< OrAuh" j,afmd< rdyq, ysus" fn#oO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"1997" 65 msgqj3 w. ks. 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,duiq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq4 ld,du Ou!h" nU/kafoa isrs iSj,S ysus" iuhjrAOk uq|@Kd,h" 1961" 33 msgqj5 tu6 w. ks. 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msg t: ;`uzfy ld,dud ud wkqiaifjk qud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkk ud ;lal fya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflk ud osgzGskscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKd fkd .rE;s
  21. 21. mejiQy ;jo if;HCIK l@shdj,sfhys,d ;ud jsiskau yrs jeros l`ulaoehs ;ukau oek.;.lawe;snj fuysoS nq|=rcdKka jykafia jod<y1 ld,dufhks usksfil`;`< f,daNh yg.;a l,ays f;ms l`ula is;jqo$th yg.kqfha Tyqf.ahym; iZoydo iajduSkS ydksh iZoydh ;jo ld,dufhks usksfil` f,daN iy.;j f,daNfhkanrs;jQ l,ayS m@dK>d; fkdlrhso$wkqka oE fkd.kSo$mrodr fiajkfha fkdfhfoao$uqidniafkdlshdo$ os.`l,la wkrA:jg yd |=lg m;ajsh yels l@shdjka lrd wkHhka jqjofkdmuKqjdo$iajduSkS" Nd.Hj;`ka jykai fyf;fuz ta ish,a, lrhs fuysoS nq|=rcdKkajykafiaoafjzYh yd fudayh iuznJOfhkao fulS lreKq kej; olaj;s2 fuu lreKq meyeos,s lsrSu wjidkfhaoS f,daN fodai fuday ffp;isl OrAuhka iodpdrd;auljYfhka ifodia .;snjo tajd |=rskau |=r,sh hq;`njo ld,dufhda jgyd .ks;stfiau Tjqyq tuwl`Y,hka kqjKe;s whjsiska jrAcs; nj;a tn|= prs; iajNdjhka f.ka fufyhjkq ,en lghq;`lsrSu |=lg muqKqjk nj;a wjfndaO lr.ks;s flfiaj;`|= iaj;ka;@j iodpdrd;aul ks.ukhkagt<USfuzoS nqoaOsu;`ka jsiska wjYHfhkau ie<lsh hq;` m@;sIaGdjla mj;sk nj nq|=rcdKkajykafial,amkd l<y3 fun|= nqoaOsu;`ka jsiska wkq.ukh lsrSug ;SrKh lrkq ,nk l@shdj,sh uZ.ska we;sjkakdjQi;`g fyda fkdi;`g flfrys Tjqkaf.a wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;`fjzucACOsu ksldfha ndyS;sl iywuzn,gzGsl rdyqf,dajdo iQ;@hkag wkqj flfkl` jsiska huzlsis l@shdjla yrs fyda jerosf,i;SrKh lsrSfuzoS"tu l@shdfjz jsmdl i;H fyda NjH jYfhka ldrlhdg fiau l@shdjg f.d|=rejkmqoa.,hd flfryso n,mdk wdldrh ie,ls,a,g .; hq;` nj wjOdrKh fldg we;4 lsishuz l@shdjla lsrSug fmr ;uka lrkakg hk l@shdfjz iajrEmh;a bka huz huz M,jsmdlhka lrd muqKqjkakdjQ m@jK;d ms<snZoj;a flfkl`g l,a;nd is;sh yelshsfuysoS;ukaf.a fukau uyck;djf.ao w;aoelSuz mokuzlr.; yelsfjz5 fya;`M, kHhdhg wkqj md,kh jkakdjQ f,dlhl udkj l@shdjkao fya;`M, iuznJO;djgwe;`<;afjz iajdOSk jqj;a ksh;jdos jqj;a f;dard.ekSu ms<snZo m@Yakh mfil ;snshoS iuyrl@shd;`< huz wdldrhl m@;sjsmdl yg.ekajSfuz l@usl m@jK;djla mj;sk nj oelsh yelshstaksid huz wjia:djl l@shdjla lsrSug ;SrKh lsrSug fmr tu l@shdfjka Woa.;jsh yels m@;sM,hfufkys lrk f,i nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;u Y@djlhkag Wmfoia |=kay6 l@shdjla lrkakg fmrd;`j l@shdj lrk w;r;`frAoS l@shdj ksujQ miqj hk wjia:d ;`fkaoSthska Woa.; jshyels M,jsmdl ms<snZoj iqmrSCIdldrS jSug W.kajdwe; mqoa.,hd lrk l@shdjTyqg;a furudg;a WNh mCIhgu;a ydkslr m@;sM, Wod lrkjdkuzz th wl`Y, l@shdjla hehsfm#reIh ySk lrk l@shdjla hehs ;SrKh l<hq;`fjz uSg m@;smCIj ;uka lrk l@shdj1 w. ks. 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdjcdfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud l`i,d bfu Ouzud wkjcAcd bfu Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mami;a:d bfu Ouzud iu;a;diudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhHd:2 tu ,qoafOd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,d f,dfNk wNsN~f;d mrshdoskakpsf;d mdKuzms yka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruz;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx ix fyd;s oS> r;a;x iudofmawys;dh |=laLdhd;s3 w. ks. 1 ;sl ksmd;h uydj.a. ld,duiq;a; nq c uq 337-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud bfu Ouzudl`i,djd wl`i,djd;s$wl`i,d Nkaf; idjcAcd jd wkjcAcd jd;s$ idcAcd Njkaf; jsZ[aZC|+ .rys;djdjsZ[aZC|+mami;a:d jd;s$jssZ[aZC|+.rys;d Nkaf; j4 u. ks. 11wuzngzGsld rdyqf,dajdo iq;a; nq c uq 132 msgqj hfoj Fjx rdyq, ldh luzux l;a;`ldfudwfydis ;foj f;ldh luzux mpzpfjlaLs;nznx hkakQ fLd wyx box ldfhk luzux l;a;`ldfud nox fuldh luzux w;laldjHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH mrjHdndOdms ixj;af;hH WNh jHndOdh ms ixj;af;hH ixj;awl`I,x boc ldh luzux |=laLqodhx |=laL jsmdlx5 w. ks. 1 wdOsmf;hH iq;a; n# iuz ixia 534 msgqj k;a:s f,dafl rfydkdu mdmluzux ml`nznf;d w;`;df; mqrsi cdkd;s ipzpx jdhosjd uqid6 w. ks. 1 ;sl ksmd;h uydj.a. ld,duiq;a; nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lx uxZ[a[: ld,dud bfuz Ouzudl`i,djd wl`i,djd;s$wl`i,d Nkaf;a idjcAcd wkjcAcdjd;s$idjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+.rys;djdjsZ[aZC|+mamiF:djd;s$jsZ[aC|+.rys;d Nkaf;
  22. 22. ;ukag;a furudg;a WNh mdrAYjhgu;a bIaG m@;sM, Wodlrk tlla kuz ta l`Y,lrAuhlayegshg;a 1 fm#reIhjO!kh lrkakla yegshg;a ;SrKhl< yelsfjz by;ksoiqk uZ.ska meyeos,sj fmkShk lreKla kuz iodpdrd;aul m@ixidj hqla;shqla; nj oela jSfuzoS tys m@;sjsmdl.ek ie,lSu wjYHnj fmkajd fohsta ksid iodpdrd;aul ;rAlkfha oS fn#oaO wdpdr OrAuhm@;sM,d;auljdoS wdl,amhg wkql~,jk nj lsjyels hehs uydpdrAh mS nS fm@auisrs iZoyka lrhs fn#oaO m@;sM,d;auljdoS wdl,amh jsiska l,hq;` yd fkdl,hq;` l`ulaoehs ;SrKh lsrSfuzoSl@shdfjz CIKslnj fukau os.` ld,Sk m@;sM, flfryso wjOdkh fhduqflfrAjsfYaIfhka mqoa.,l@shdjka tys lu!M, wkqj w.hk ;ekaysoS ta iZoyd ydkslr fkdjshyels wkaouflfrysnq|=rcdKkajykafia ishwjOdkh fhduq lr;s2 f;fuz ;udg fodIdfrdamKhlrk wdldrfha l@shdjkaysfhoSu(wF:dms wF:dkx Wmjo;s) fuhngysr oY!kfha l;dlrk iodpdrd;aul yDoh YdCIshg iudkhfuysoS wmf.a wjOdkhg fhduqjshhq;` ;j;a jeo.;a nqoaO foaYkdjla we;“kF:s f,dfl rfyd kdu mdmluzux ml`nzn;s wF:d;smqrsi cdkdNs ipzpx hosjd uqid”( mskaj; Tn oek.kak uu lrmq foa we;a;o fndreo lsh,d)3 huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` ;ukacSj;ajk iudcfha kqjKe;a;kaf.a .rANdjg,lajk huz l@shdjlalrhskuz (wkqjscAcjsZ[aZ[ .ryx;s);u iudch;`<u Tyq ms<sl`<g ,lafjz lrKSh iQ;@fhyso fuzwoyiu oelafjz (jsZ[aZC|+ mfr WmjfohHqx) ;jo huziudchl iodpdrd;auljYfhka.rAys;jQl@shd ;ykuzflfrk kS;s rS;so tajdlvlsrSug jsreoaOj iuzu;jQ ovqjuz moaO;shlao ;snsh yelsh tfy;a tn|= l@shdjkaf.a jsmdluZ.ska we;sjk idrAj;@sl nj;a fkdfmfka we;euz iqjsfYaI prAhdjkaysoS idjoHnj ms<snZo yeZ.Suzksh;ju yg fkd.kakg bv ;sfnz huz jrola lsrSfuzoS flfkl`;`< jro ms<snZo yeZ.Sfuka fm,Sufyda f;fuz ;udg fodaIdfrdamKhla lr.ekSu fnfyjska rZod mj;skafka flfkl` orkiodpdrckl wdl,amh u;hs fuh idudcsl ffk;sl m@foaYhg wod,h fuu wjia:dfjzoS wx.`;a;r ksldfha ;sl ksmd;fha iZoyka lrk wdOsmf;hH Ou! ;`kms<snZojo wjOdk fhka ie,ls,a, fhduqlsrSu jeo.;ah fuu wdOsmf;hH Ou! ;`kkuzw;a;dOsmf;hH"f,daldOsmf;hH yd Ouzud Osmf;hH hkakhs4 fuuwdOsmf;hH Ou!;`k fn#oaO idr OrAuhkaf.a moku yegshg ms<s.;yelsfjziodpdrd;aul l@shd weZ.hSug ,lalsrSfuzoSo fuzTiafia lreKq i,ldnef,a5yeu iudchlauiudchlau yeu kS;smoaO;shlau tlu wdldrfha ls@hdj tlu f,iska fy,dolskafka fyda tajdgtlu wkaouska oZvqjuz kshu lrkafka fyda ke;nq|=rcdKkajykafia jsiska wl`i, jYfhka i,lk,o we;euz l@shdjka idjoHhehs fkdi,lkakd jQ ck iudc mj;sknj wmg is;d.;yelshstfyhska tn|= iudcj, ta l@shdj,g n,mdk ffk;sl iajrEmfha fyda iudc.rAys;iajrEmfha fyda oZvqjuz fkdfhfokq we; flfiaj;`|= nq|=rcdKkajykafia wjOdkh fhduqlrk ;j;a jeo.;a lreKla we;thkuzf,dal iuzu;h u;fkdj iajNdjOrAufha olakgwe;s fya;`M, kHdh hkau; mokuzjQ kHdhuOrAuhka f,i i,lk lreKqh fuhska woyia lrkafka fjklsisjlaa fkdj lrAu kHdhhuhsnq|=oyug wkqj mqoa.,hdf.a u;`Njhg mjd n,mdk lrAuh yd tys M,jsmdl w;r iuznJOhlawe;61 w. ks. 1 wdOsmf;hH iq;a; fn# iuz ixia 530 msgqj wdroaO fLd fu jsrshx Njsiai;s fid w;a;dkxfpjwOsm;sx lrsFjdwl`i,x mcy;s l`i,x Ndfj;s idjcAcx mcy;s wkjcAcx Ndfj;s iqoaOx w;a;dkxmrsyr;s box jqpap;s NslaLfj w;a;dOsmf;hHx2 w. ks. 1 wdOsmf;hH iq;a; fn# iuz ixia 528 msgqj ;SKsudks NslaLfj wOsmf;hHdks l;udks;SKs$ l;udksw;a;dOsmf;hHx f,daldOsmf;hHx OuzudOsm f;hHx3 tu 534 msgqj4 tu 528 msgqj5 tu6 w. ks. iv ksnzfnzOsl iq;a; nq c uq 208 msgqj l;fudp NslaLfj luzudkx ksodk iuzNfjd MiaifidNslaLfj luzudkx ksodk iuzNfjd
  23. 23. foajjdoS wd.uzj, mru fojsfhl` jsiska ksrAus; yd md,s; jsYajfha h:d ms<sfj< ms<s.kakdmrsosu nq|= oyfuys lrAujsmdlh uZ.ska md,kh ijsZ{dkl meje;aul h:d mgsmdgshla we;ehsms<s.efka1 fuh h:d N~;fhys iajNdjh ms<snZoj fn#oaO ms<s.ekSuls iodpdr jsfYaI;doelajSfuzoS nq|=oyu prAhdfjz m@;sM,j,g m@uqLia:dkh foknj l,skao iZoyka lf<uq nq|=oyfuys iZoykajk mqkrANj iuznJO b.ekajSu yd jsYajdih mqoa.,hdf.a iodpdrd;aulyeisrSuz osrs.ekajSu iZoyd jeo.;afjztfia jkafka l`ula ksido usksia yeisrSuzj, jevs fldgilawd;audrA:h uZ.ska jsksYaphjk fyhsks urKskau;` huz wdldrhl meje;aula ke;hk WpzfPAojdoSwoyi nq|=oyu jsiska i,lkq ,nka fka mqoa.,hdf.a iodpdr cSjs;h j.lSuz rys; iajNdjhlgm;alsrSug ;`vqfokakla yegshghs2 mqoa., l@shdjl jgskdlu wkqj ;SrKh lsrSfuzoS nq|=oyujeo.;a lreKq folla flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrjhs 1. wfmaCIs; l@shdj iDcqj fyda jl@j ksjk yd iuznJOjkafkao yd th flfkl`f.a ixidrsl meje;afuz;;ajh wNsjO!kh lrkafkao hkakhs3 fn#oaO wdpdr Ou!hlu!h yd ms<snZo b.ekajSu yd iuznJOjkafka uskafojeks lreK wkqjhs.lu!ho fuysoS mokuz lr.kS 2. mqoa., yd f,dal iajNdjh ms<snZoj iduzm@odhsl u;s u;dka;r m@;sfCIamlrk nq|=oyu ta fjkqjg mgspzp iuqmamdo Ou!h4 fyj;a fya;`M,jdoh bosrsm;alrhs usksia j.!hdf.a talSh Ndjh;a usksidf.a iajdOSk;;ajh;a pska;k ksoyi;a nq|=oyuska;yjqre flfrAmqoa.,hd yd iudch w;r mj;sk wfkHdkH neZoSuzyd n,mEuz biau;` fldgfmkajk nq|=oyu mqoa., wNsjDoaOshg iudch;a iudc wNsjDoaOshg mqoa.,hd;a wfkHdkHjYfhka n,mdk wkaou WmldrSjk wdldrh jsoyd olajhstaksid mqoa., iudc WNhmdrAYjfhauiudk wNsjDoaOshg fhd.H jk wdldrfha idr OrAu moaO;shla ilialsrSug nq|=oyu uZ.fmkajhs rd. oafjzI fuday hk mqoa., fm@arK ;`fkka usksid fufyhjkq ,enqjo usksidiajpzPJo;dj fhka hq;` nj nq|=oyu fmkajdfohs jsl,am follska fyda jevs .Kklska tllaf;dard .ekSugo fydZo krl f;dard fnzrd .ekSugo usksidg yelshdj we;hk mokuu; nq|=oyumsysgdmj;S usksid f.a iajdOSkFjh;a pska;k ksoyi;a ms<s.ekSu uZ.ska fuz moku jvd;awjOdrKhfldg nq|=oyu olajdisgS5 iajpzPJo;djla fkdue;skuz usksidg |=lska usZoSug iirska tf;rjSug yelshdjla ,efnkafkake; fn#oaO සාරධර්ම f;dard fnzrd .ekSfuzoS usksidi;` fuzyelshdj Wmfhda.Slr .ekSugnq|=oyu wkqn,fohs fn#oaO සාරධර්ම .ek yZ|=kd.ekSfuzoS tys moku .ek jsuiSu msKsiWmfhda.Slr.;hq;` uskquzoZvq nq|=oyfuz bosrsm;a flfrA6 wuzn,gzGsl rdyqf,dajdo iQ;@fha fuz .ek idlpzPd flfrknj uSg by;o idlpzPdfldgwe;ta wkqj fn#oaO idr OrAuj,g moku jS we;af;a l`i,dl`i, ixl,amhhs;ud we;`ZM ishZM1 w. ks. iv ksnzfnzOsl iq;a; nq c uq 208 msgqj fpz;kdyx NslaLfj luzux jodus fp;hs;ajd luzux lfrd;sldfhk jdpdh ukid2 u. ks. 11 ud,qxlH mq;a; iq;a; nq c uq 158 msgqj kF:s oskakx kF:shsgzGx jF:s yq;x jF:s iqlg |=lalgdkxluzudkx M,x jsmdfld jF:s whx f,dfld kF:s mfrd f,dfld kF:sud;d kF:s ms;d k:s i;a;d f,dfldUzmmdl;sld kF:s f,dfl iuKn@dysuKd iuzu.a.;d iuzud,gsmkakd fh buZ[ap f,dalx mrZ[ap f,dalxihx wNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjd mfjoka;s3 i. ks. 11 k.r iq;a; nq c uq 166 tjfuj ljdyx NslaLfj woaoix mqrdKx u.a.x mqrdKx u.a.xmqrdKZ[acix mqnznflys iuzud iuznqoafOys wkqhd;x l;fudp fid NslaLfj mqrdK u.af.dmqrdKZ[acfid mqnznflys iuzud iuznqoafOys wkqhdf;d whfuj wrsfhd wgzGx.sfld u.af.d4 u. ks. 1 uyd;Kayd ixLh iq;a; nq c uq 616 msgqj wjscAcdh;afjj wfii jsrd. ksfrdfOd ixLdrksfrdfOd ixLdr ksfrdfOd ixLdr ksfrdOd jsZ[aZ[dK ksfrdfOd jsZ[aZ[dK ksfrdOd kdurEmksfrdfOd…… .cd;s ksfrdOd crdurK fidl mrsfoj |=laL fodukiaiqmdhdid ksrecACOka;s5 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nqc uq337-338 msgq hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdjcfhhHd: bfu Ouzud wl`I,d bfu Ouzud idjcAcd bfu Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+ .rysld bfu Ouzud iu;a;d wl`iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dud mcfyHd:6 tu t: ;`uzfy ld,dud ud wkqiaifjk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkk ud ;lalfy;` ud khfya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;la flk ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKd fkd.rE;s
  24. 24. fokdgu hym; msKsi fya;`jk foh muKla fn#oaOidr Ou! jYfhka i,lkafka tys oelafjkksrAKdhl j,g wkqjh1 mqoa.,hdg hym; whym; l`ulaoehs f;dard fnzrd .ekSfuzoS w;S; w;aoelSuz mqrAjdorAY wdoshWmfhda.S lr.; yelsfjz uSg wu;rj ;j;a huz huz idOl fuz iZoyd bjy,afldg .;yelshtfy;a fuz w;r wu;r lsis|= idOlhlg jy,a jS hym; whym; jsksYaph fkdl<hq;`njld,du iQ;@fhaoS biau;`fldg we;swkaou fuysoS isysm;alr .ekSu jeo.;afjzld,du iQ;@fhaoSfm#oa.,slju iaffjrSj fuu ks.ukhg mqoa.,hdg t<eUsh yelsnj wjOdrKh fldgwe;2 fuu mqZM,a m@dfhda.sl uskquzoZvq Wmfhda.Sfldg f.k idr OrAu jsksYaphlrk nq|=oyu mqoa.,wNsjDoaOshg iudc m@.;shg iuia; m@cdjf.a hym;g fya;`jkakdjQ idr OrAu rdYshla ms<s.kSmkais,aj, wka;rA.;j ;sfnkafka tn|= idrOrAu myls.m@dK>d;fhka je<lSu uQ<sl idrOrAuhls lsis|= m@dKsfhl` >d;kh fkdl< hq;`h hkak fn#oaO b.ekajSuhs3 lsishuz fjk;a iuhjdohlska fuu OrAuh W.kajkjdkuz ;ukajykafiaf.a wkque;sh Bg,efnknj Wkajykafia olajd isgs;s wkai;` foh fkd.ekSu iduhg iqyo;djlg wfkHdkHiyfhda.hg fnfyjska Wmldrjk idr OrAuhls ;`kafjks is,amohg mokuzjS ;sfnkafka iudc cSjs;fha l`vdu tallh jk mjq,a cSjs;hidulduSj ia:sridrj mj;ajdf.khdug Wmldrjk idrOrAuhlsuqidnia fovSu wdosfhkaje<lSu;a u;a|@jH Ndjs;hg f.d|=re fkdjSu;a mqoa.,hd yd iudc h w;r fukau m@.;shgbjy,ajk idr OrAufhdah mqoa., prAhdj yd neZ|=kq fiiq wxYj,g n,mdk fn#oaO idr OrAurdYshla we; l,dfCI;@h yd iuznJOj idrOrAu f.kne,qj;a ridiajdoh yd iuznJO idrOrAuf.kne,qj;a meyeos,sj fmfkkafka fuz ishZMu wxYhkays idrOrAu by;ska oelajQ kHdhd;auluskquzoKavg wkqj ieZ.jS we;s njhs l,dj uZ.ska flfrkafka mqoa.,hd hym;g fhduqlrjSuhsmqoa., ika;dkh wmjs;@lrkwd;audrA:lduS nj fl@daOh oafjzYh rd.h ;`kSfldg mrdrA:h ohdj lreKdj WfmaCIdjmqoa.,hd;`< we;slrjSuhsfn#oaO idrOrAu uZ.ska ridiajdo kh oshqKqflfrkafka OdrAusljsfkdaohla myka ixfjz.hla N`la;sjsZoSug bv ie,eiajSuhs wdrA:sl fCIa;@hg n,mdk idrOrAujqjo l@shd;auljkafka mqoa., yd iudc iqNisoaOsh we;sfldg mqoa.,hd yd iudch iqLs; uqos;lsrSuhs plalj;a;s iSykdo iQ;@h l~goka; iQ;@h fuz nj ukdj meyeos,s lrhs irAj idOdrK wdrA:sll@uhla nsys fldg cd;sl Okh yd ksIamdokh ishZMfokd w;r fnoS hkmrsos wdrA:slhyev.eiajSug ;a iQrdlEu j<lajd Y@udNsudkh we;sfldg Y@uhg kshu we.hqula ,ndoSug;afn#oaO idrOrAu bjy,ajk nj b;d meyeos,s fjz41 u. ks. 11"wuzn,gzGsl rdyqf,dajdo iq;a;"nq c uq 132 msgqhfoj Fjx rdyq, ldhluzux l;a;`ldfudwfydis ;foj f; ldh luzux mpzpfjlaLs;nznx hkakQ fLd wyx nox ldfhk luzux l;a;`ldfud box fuldh luzux w;ljHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH mrjHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH mrjHdndOdhms ixj;af;hh WnhjHdndOdh ms ixj;af;hH wl`I,x box ldh luzux |=laLqodhx |=laL jsmdlx2 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nqc uq337-343 msgq hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdjcdfkhHd: nfuz Ouzud wl`i,d nfuz Ouzud idjcAcd nfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;diudoska kd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: l`uzfy ld,dud mcfyhHd:…t: ;`uzfy ld,dud udwkqiaifjk ud mruzmrdh …….bfuz Ouzud l`I,d bfuz Ouzud wkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud ksZ[aZC|+mami;a:d bfuzOuzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhHd: ;d3 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq cuq337-343 msgq mqrsi mq.a.f,d f,dfNak wNsN~,qoafOdmkdhx ld,dud f;d mrshdoskakps;af;d mdKuzms yka;….|=gzfGd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,d fodafiak swNsN~f;d mrshdoskakps;af;d mdKuzms yka;…..uq<afyd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,d fudfyk swNsN~f;d mrshdoskakps;af;d mdKuzms yka;s4 oS. ks. 111"plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;"nqcuq110-102 msgq mfKd k yka;nzfnd woskakx kdod;nznxldfuiq uspzPd k prs;nznd uqid k Ndis;nznd ucAcx k md;nznx h:dN~;x p N`Z[ac:d;s prs
  25. 25. fn#oaO wdpdr OrAu ish,a,la iZoyd mdol jkafka fuz idr OrAuh fuz idrOrAu wdpdrOrAuhkaf.a o< fmd|= iajrEmhhstu fmd|=ixl,am meyeos,sfldg js.@yfldg l@shdjg kefZ.kwhqre keZ.shhq;` whqre oelajSu yeZoskafjkafka wdpdr OrAu hkqfjks idr OrAu fmd|= uQ<sliajrEmhhswdpdr OrAu tys jsldYs; mqZM,a iajrEm hhswfkla w;g සාරධර්ම ps;a; ixl,amf,i;a wdpdr Ou! tys iudc jsoHd;au l iajrEmh f,i;a js.@ylrkakg ms<sjkfuysoS සාරධර්මyd wdpdr Ou!hkaf.a we;s wfkHdkH inZo;dfjzz ijrEmh iudc jsldYfhaoS w;sYhskau bjy,ajkakla njg m;afjzidudkHfhka TzkEu iudchla jsldYh jSfuzoS m<uqfjkau mtsjrA;khg,lajkqfha සාරධර්ම ixl,amka fjhs WodyrKhla jYfhka .;fyd;a jevsysgshkag ie,lSu W;`uz .`Khlshkfuh fn#oaO idrOrAuhls jevsysgsfhda kuz ljryqo$ Tjqkag ie,lSu flfia l<hq;`o$ie<lsh hq;af;a wehs$wdoshms<snZo jsia;r whs;s jkafka wdpdr OrAu .Khghs fydZo us;`rka weiqrelsrSu hym;s hkak idrOrAuhls fydZo us;`rkaf.a ,CIK krl us;`rkaf.ka Tjqka fjka lr.kakd wkaou fydZo us;`rka weiqrelsrSfuka ,nk m@;sM, wdosh b;d ishquzf,i js.@yfldg meyeos,slsrSfuka idr OrAuh wdpdrOrAuhla njg m;alr.kq ,efnz mqoa., cSjs;h fukau iudc cSjs;ho idrA:l lr.ekSugiycSjkfhka lghq;`lr .ekSug fujeks kHdhd;aul OrAuhla uZ.ska Wmfoia wjYHh tu ldrAhh flfrkafka idrOrAu uZ.sks tfyhska cSjs;h yev.iajd.kakg idrOrAuyZ|=kdf.k lghq;` lsrSu b;du jeo.;ahjsfYaIfhkau ffoksl cSjs;fhaoS uqyqKmdkakgis|=jkfkdfhl`;a m@Yak ksrdlrKhlr .ekSug fn#oaO idrOrAu Wmfhda.Slr .;yelshWodyrKhla jYfhka .;fyd;a ;ukag .e<fmk nsrshla fidhd.ekSug ;uka w.hk idr OrAuuZ.ska uZ. fmkajSula ,ensh hq;`h1 we;a;jYfhka u jsjyjSug wfmaCIdlrk fofofkl` fn#oaOhska jYfhka l<hq;af;afofokdjsiska w.hk idrOrAu .e<fmaohkak fidhdne,Suhs fuz w;ska i<ldnef,kl< fn#oaOidr OrAu yZ|=kd .ekSu idr OrAu j,g fhda.H;dj hym;anj f;dard fnzrd .ekSu ta iZoydWmldrSjk nj fn#oaO ksrAKdhl fyj;a usKquzoZvq yZ|=kd.ekSu msKsi b;d wjYHnj meyeos,sfjz fn#oaO සාරධර්ම ms,snZoj idlpzPdlrk jsg fndfyda nyq,j lshefjk ixl,amhla jkqfhamqZ[aZ[ iy l`i, ixl,amhhs2fuys mqZ[aZ[ hkak idudkHjHjydrfhaoS msk hkqfjkaoyeZoskafjzfndfydafokd is;kafka msk ke;skuz mqZ[aZ[h ms<snZoj yd l`Y,h ms<snZoj3 js.@yjqkqiQ;@foaYkdfjka fjka jYfhka ;@smsglh;`< wka;rA .; jknjhstfia fyhska hfula mqZ[aZ[h ydl`i,h .ek iZoyka lsrSfuysoS wjYHfhkau tu iQ;@ foaYkd muKlau Bg wod< lr.; hq;`hhk u;hoevsj or;s ux.,iQ;@h" ji,iQ;@h"jH.a>mcAciQ;@h" isZ.df,dajdoiQ;@h"wKkiQ;@h"mrdNjiQ;@h"lrKShfu;a;iQ;@h" fu;a;dksixiiQ;@h jeks iQ;@foaYkd taiZoydl,a;nd iQodkuzfldg ;ndf.k isgs;stf,iu wNS;j is;Sug Wmfoia|=ka iQ;@foaYkdjlaf,ild,duiQ;@ho iQodkuz fldg ;ndf.k isgskjd jskd bka mrsndysrjQ wfkla hula ld,duiQ;@fhyswvx.`o keoao hkak.ek oek.ekSugj;a Wkka|=fkdfj;s tnejska ta ;;ajh hgf;a hfula ld,duiQ;@fhka js.@yjkakdjQ mqZ[aZ[ yd l`i, ixl,am4ms,snZo Tng isf;kafka l`ulaoehs jsuiqfjd;a wksjdrAfhkau tawh lshkafka ld,du iQ;@fhystnkaola jsia;rlr fkdue;s njhsld,du iQ;@hys tu jpk ta wdldrfhkau fkdue;snjwe;a;lskuq;a nq|=kajykafiaf.a we;euz foaYkdjka msrslaiQl< huzlsisfohla jHxckjYfhkafkdmjidwrA:jYfhka th jsYf,aIKhlr we;s wjia:djka nyq, jYfhka oel.; yelsjkqwe;ld,du iQ;@h uekjska msrslaid ne,qjfyd;a tys wka;rA.; jkqfha uqZMukskau fn#oaO l`Y,1 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka vS cta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iyifydaorfhd"fld<U" 1997"67 msgqj2 w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdjcfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud l`i,d bfuz Ouzud wkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mami;a:d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;diudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhHd:d;s3 tu4 tu

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