Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society
Healthcare Conference –
March 11, 2013
Baltimore, MD
Ed Israelski
- Convener IEC/ISO ...
Outline
• Overview of the Human Factors Engineering
HFE Process for Medical Products
• Overview of Human Factors Standards...
Definitions
• Use Error
– Use error is repetitive and can be predicted. It can be minimized by
design and identified throu...
Human Factors Core Methods
4
Human Factors in the Design Control
Process
5
gu e 5 u a acto s t e es g Co t o ocess
Contextual
Inquiry
Literature
Review...
Summary: HFE Process for Medical Devices
• Systematic and Scientific process is required
– Contextual Inquiry
– User Inter...
Human Factors Standards
– ANSI/AAMI HE 75:2009 Human factors engineering—
Design of medical devices (Design Principles Sta...
Related Standards
8
ISO 14971:2007 Medical devices -- Application of risk management to medical
devices
ANSI/AAMI ES60601-...
International Usability Standards IEC/ISO - Updates
• IEC TR 60878:2001 -Graphical symbols for electrical equipment
in med...
Changes to IEC 62366:2007
• Normative standard (IEC 62366-1)
– Streamlined
– Harmonized with draft FDA HFE/UE Guidance (Ju...
IEC 62366:2007 Medical Devices – (Changes)
•5: Usability Engineering Process (UE/HFE Process)
5.1 Application Specificatio...
IEC 62366:2007 - Legacy Devices –
Draft Amendment- Annex K
• Evaluation of a USER INTERFACE OF UNKNOWN
PROVENANCE (UOUP). ...
IEC 62366:2007 Legacy Amendment- Annex K
• Evaluation of a USER INTERFACE OF UNKNOWN PROVENANCE
(UOUP)
• K.2 Usability eng...
Life Cycle Amendment to IEC 60601-1-6:2010
• IEC/ISO International HF Standards
– IEC 60601-1-6:2010 Ed 3. Medical electri...
ANSI/AAMI HE75: Human Factors
Principles for Medical Device Design
– Comprehensive design guidelines
• 465 pages in 25 sec...
HE75: Scope
16
• Organized in 3 General Areas (25 Sections)
• General Considerations and Principles
• Design Elements
• In...
HE 75 at a glance…
17
General Considerations Design Elements Integrated
Solutions
General UI Design
Principles
Managing Ri...
ANSI/AAMI HE 75:2009 – Human
factors engineering—Design of
medical devices – Update
• Work started to draft Updated HE-75 ...
Future Standards Work Items
• AAMI Human Factors Engineering Committee
– Post-market surveillance (event detection) and co...
FDA Increased Expectations for Human Factors
• CDRH HF Guidance Documents
• Applying Human Factors and Usability Engineeri...
FDA Increasing Expectations for HF
• New Revised Draft CDRH Guidance (June 22, 2011)
requires:
– Contextual Inquiry (Inten...
HFE/UE Report for FDA CDRH - Seven main components
22
HFE/UE Report - Seven main components
23
IEC 62366:2007 Process vs. FDA Report Deliverables
24
62366:2007 Process FDA Report Section
5.1:Application Specification
...
CDER HF Guidances
• CDER announced plans for more FDA guidances
relevant to Human Factors:
– Safety Considerations for Pro...
Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize
Medication Errors, DRAFT December, 2012- FDA CDER
26
Implications
• Bar is being raised for quality of Human Factors Engineering Work
– Internationally (Notified Bodies are be...
28
Contact Information:
Ed Israelski,
ed.israelski@yahoo.com
+1 847 382 9280
Thank You.
Questions?
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Human factors and ergonomics society 20120311

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Human factors and ergonomics society 20120311

  1. 1. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Healthcare Conference – March 11, 2013 Baltimore, MD Ed Israelski - Convener IEC/ISO JWG Joint Working Group on Usability - Co-Chair AAMI HFE Committee Looking ahead to new human factors standards and guidances for medical devices
  2. 2. Outline • Overview of the Human Factors Engineering HFE Process for Medical Products • Overview of Human Factors Standards and Guidances for Medical Products • Changes now in progress • Implications 2
  3. 3. Definitions • Use Error – Use error is repetitive and can be predicted. It can be minimized by design and identified through usability testing and hazard analysis. – Act or omission of an act that results in a different outcome than intended by the manufacturer or expected by the USER, which may result from a mismatch situation between USER, man-machine interface, task and/or environment. HE74:2001 The terms User Error and Human Error are no longer used officially Abnormal Use – Intentional act or intentional omission of an act by the RESPONSIBLE ORGANIZATION or USER of a MEDICAL DEVICE as a result of conduct that is beyond any further reasonable means of RISK CONTROL by the MANUFACTURER • Sabotage, Reckless Use 3
  4. 4. Human Factors Core Methods 4
  5. 5. Human Factors in the Design Control Process 5 gu e 5 u a acto s t e es g Co t o ocess Contextual Inquiry Literature Reviews Complaints Analysis Market Research Task Analysis User Profiles Use Environment Heuristic Review RISK ANALYSIS Usability Objectives Prototyping / Simulations Iterative Design Formative Usability Testing RISK ANALYSIS Cognitive Walkthroughs Expert Reviews Cognitive Walkthroughs Usability Testing RISK ANALYSIS Concept Phase Verification Design Output Design Input Validation Perform Studies & Analysis Design Requirements Design Specifications Test Output Against Input Test Against User Needs Production Units (or Equivalent) Summative Usability Testing Field Studies Design Control Activities Human Factors Activities
  6. 6. Summary: HFE Process for Medical Devices • Systematic and Scientific process is required – Contextual Inquiry – User Interface Specification – Usability Testing with iterative design • Design controls are specified by the FDA and recommended by international regulators. • A Design History File must be maintained. It is auditable. • Formal Risk Management is required to identify use errors that might lead to high levels of risk for patients and end users. • Verification is required to show that design outputs meet design inputs. • Validation of the user interfaces is required via usability testing against formal acceptance testing, which must reflect customer requirements. • Post market surveillance is required to track adverse events associated with a device and to formally track customer complaints via a CAPA corrective action preventative action plan. 6
  7. 7. Human Factors Standards – ANSI/AAMI HE 75:2009 Human factors engineering— Design of medical devices (Design Principles Standard) – ISO/IEC 62366:2007 Ed 1, Medical devices - Application of usability engineering to medical devices (Process Standard) – Annexes include: AAMI HE 74:2001 – IEC/ISO International HF Standards • IEC 60601-1-6:2010 Ed 3. Medical electrical equipment - Parts 1-6, General requirements for safety: Collateral Standard: Usability –Issued (Temporary bridge to IEC 62366:2007) – IECEE – TRF (Test Report Forms) for Usability Standards • Covers how to certify against IEC 62366:2007 and IEC 60601-1-6:2010 • Used by Notified Bodies and Certified Test Labs 7
  8. 8. Related Standards 8 ISO 14971:2007 Medical devices -- Application of risk management to medical devices ANSI/AAMI ES60601-1, 3rd ed. General safety & essential performance standard for medical electrical equipment IEC 60601-1-8: 2006 Collateral to IEC 60601-1:2005 on general requirements, tests and guidance for alarm systems IEC TR 60878:2003 Graphical symbols for electrical equipment in medical practice ISO 15223-1:2007 Medical devices – Symbols to be used with medical device labels, labeling and information to be supplied ISO 15223-2:2010 Medical devices - Symbols to be used with medical device labels, labeling and information to be supplied - Part 2: Symbol development, selection and validation
  9. 9. International Usability Standards IEC/ISO - Updates • IEC TR 60878:2001 -Graphical symbols for electrical equipment in medical practice • CD to be issued in 2013 – Additional Symbols from ISO, IEC added • Reorganized Categories of Symbols • ANSI/AAMI/IEC 62366:2007 Ed 1, Medical devices - Application of usability engineering to medical devices • Legacy Amendment CDV issued in 2012. Goal is to issue mid-2013 • Rewrite/Update started in June, 2011. (Completion targeted for 2015) • Two parts – IEC 62366-1 Normative Standard (Concise) – CD Nov, 2012 – IEC 62366 -2 Informative Standard (HFE/UE Tutorial) – Working Draft 9
  10. 10. Changes to IEC 62366:2007 • Normative standard (IEC 62366-1) – Streamlined – Harmonized with draft FDA HFE/UE Guidance (June, 2011) – Improved and simplified terminology • Use Specification (not Application Spec) • User Interface Specification (not Usability Spec) – More thoroughly integrated with Risk Management (ISO 14971) – Controversy over the name – HFE, UE or UE/HFE • Informative tutorial (how to do) information moved to TR technical report (IEC TR 62366-2) • More informative annexes • More examples with illustrations 10
  11. 11. IEC 62366:2007 Medical Devices – (Changes) •5: Usability Engineering Process (UE/HFE Process) 5.1 Application Specification (Use Specification) 5.2: Frequently Used Functions (Part of Primary Operation Functions) 5.3 Identify Hazardous Situations (Hazard Related Use Scenarios) 5.3.1 Identify characteristics related to safety 5.3.2 Identify known or foreseeable hazards 5.4: Primary Operating Functions 5.5: Usability Specification (User Interface Specification) 5.6 Usability Validation Plan 5.7 User Interface Implementation 5.8 Usability Verification (Formative Usability Evaluation) 5.9 Usability Validation (Summative Usability Evaluation) •6: Accompanying Documents •7: Training/Training Materials 11
  12. 12. IEC 62366:2007 - Legacy Devices – Draft Amendment- Annex K • Evaluation of a USER INTERFACE OF UNKNOWN PROVENANCE (UOUP). THREE SCENARIOS: o MEDICAL DEVICES on the market that were not developed using the USABILITY ENGINEERING PROCESS of IEC 62366:2007 (so called legacy MEDICAL DEVICES); o MEDICAL DEVICES that have changes to the USER INTERFACE and that were not originally developed using IEC 62366:2007; and NOTE Only the unchanged portions of the USER INTERFACE are considered UOUP. o MEDICAL DEVICES that incorporate an off-the-shelf component that itself was not developed using the USABILITY ENGINEERING PROCESS of IEC 62366:2007. • Legacy UOUP process to be carried over to updated 62366 as well • Comments to CDV to be resolved in April, 2013 12
  13. 13. IEC 62366:2007 Legacy Amendment- Annex K • Evaluation of a USER INTERFACE OF UNKNOWN PROVENANCE (UOUP) • K.2 Usability engineering process for user interface of unknown provenance – K.2.1 Application specification (Intended Use) – K.2.2 Frequently used functions – K.2.3 PRIMARY OPERATING FUNCTIONS (Tasks that could lead to Harm) – K.2.4 Review of post-market information (Complaints, recalls, CAPA) – K.2.5 HAZARDS and HAZARDOUS SITUATIONS caused by USABILITY problems (Use Risk Analysis e.g. Use FMEA) – K.2.6 RISK CONTROL (If Residual Risk is not acceptable- Use HFE/UE process) 13
  14. 14. Life Cycle Amendment to IEC 60601-1-6:2010 • IEC/ISO International HF Standards – IEC 60601-1-6:2010 Ed 3. Medical electrical equipment - Parts 1-6, General requirements for safety: Collateral Standard: Usability –Issued (Temporary bridge to IEC 62366:2007) • Draft Amendment to remove erroneous Lifecycle reference to IEC 62366 • Excludes: – Post Production Monitoring for Usability – Maintenance of the USABILITY ENGINEERING PROCESS. • CDV Comments to be resolved in April, 2013 14
  15. 15. ANSI/AAMI HE75: Human Factors Principles for Medical Device Design – Comprehensive design guidelines • 465 pages in 25 sections – Special issues related to medical practices and process giving context to best design practices – FDA sponsored companion book to HE 75 published by CRC/Taylor and Francis – 850 pages – Handbook of human factors in medical device design, (2010) Gardner-Bonneau, D, Weinger, M.B.and Wiklund Michael (Eds) 15
  16. 16. HE75: Scope 16 • Organized in 3 General Areas (25 Sections) • General Considerations and Principles • Design Elements • Integrated Solutions • Specific Design Guidance & Recommendations • Authors are Human Factors Experts • Vast HF Literature is Distilled and Summarized • Intended to Save Design Time • Specific Numbered Guidance Statements are Included • Extensive References are Provided
  17. 17. HE 75 at a glance… 17 General Considerations Design Elements Integrated Solutions General UI Design Principles Managing Risk of Use Error Basic Skills and Abilities Anthropometry & Biomechanics Environmental Considerations Usability Testing Signs, Symbols, Markings User Documentation Packaging Design Cross-Cultural/ Cross- National Design Alarm Design Displays Controls Design Connectors/ Connections Software User Interfaces Accessibility Considerations Use of Automation Home Health Care Considerations Workstation Design Mobile Devices Design of Hand Tools Design for Post-Market
  18. 18. ANSI/AAMI HE 75:2009 – Human factors engineering—Design of medical devices – Update • Work started to draft Updated HE-75 Edition 2 – New sections including: Medical apps, Auditory Displays, Combination Products, Robotics, Training, Virtual Reality, Wearable Devices, Simulation, Telemedicine, Medical Info Systems, Maintenance – Correct/Update current sections 18
  19. 19. Future Standards Work Items • AAMI Human Factors Engineering Committee – Post-market surveillance (event detection) and complaint analysis for use error- TIR HE_1 • CDV issued and comments being resolved (expect to be issued mid-2013) – Contextual Inquiry/Observational Research Standards – draft completed – Human Factors Engineering integration into Design Controls – New Work Item • IEC MT 25 on Usability – Accompanying Documents Symbols usage proposed – Addressed HF issues in IEC 60601-1 Amendment 1 (Finalized in Nov, 2011) – Update to IEC TR 60878:2003 Symbols – Additional Symbols and Categories 19
  20. 20. FDA Increased Expectations for Human Factors • CDRH HF Guidance Documents • Applying Human Factors and Usability Engineering to Optimize Medical Device Design , DRAFT June 22, 2011 • Medical device use safety: Incorporating HFE into risk management, July 18, 2000 • CDER HF Related Guidance Documents • Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors, DRAFT December, 2012 • Design Considerations for Devices Intended for Home Use, DRAFT December 12, 2012 20
  21. 21. FDA Increasing Expectations for HF • New Revised Draft CDRH Guidance (June 22, 2011) requires: – Contextual Inquiry (Intended Use, Task Analysis, UI Description) – Known Use Errors (Complaints, CAPA, MDR’s) – Use Error Risk Analysis Required – Summary of Formative Usability Evaluations and Design Modifications – Validation of Usability • Rational (Users, Use Environment, Simulated Use vs. Clinical Evaluation) • Tasks Prioritized by Risk Analysis • Sample size (15 minimum, 25 for infusion pumps) • Learning decay addressed by delay between training and usability testing • Explain All Task Failures (Safety Critical Tasks Require No Task Failures with Negative Clinical Impact) • Subjective Assessment of Safety (Especially for close calls) – Conclusions (Residual Risk) 21
  22. 22. HFE/UE Report for FDA CDRH - Seven main components 22
  23. 23. HFE/UE Report - Seven main components 23
  24. 24. IEC 62366:2007 Process vs. FDA Report Deliverables 24 62366:2007 Process FDA Report Section 5.1:Application Specification Sec 1: Users, Use scenarios, Environments 5.2: Frequently Used Functions Sec 1: Uses.. 5.3 Identify. Hazardous Situations -5.3.1 Identify Characteristics related to safety -5.3.2 Identify Known or foreseeable hazards Sec 3 and 4: Known Risks and Task / Risk Prioritization 5.4: Primary Operating Functions Sec 1, Uses; Sec 4, Tasks… 5.5: Usability Specification Sec 1, Uses; Sec 6: Sim. Use Validation 5.6: Usability Validation Plan Sec 6, Simulated Use Validation 5.7: User Interface Implementation Sec 2, User Interface description 5.8: Usability Verification Sec 5, Formative Evaluations & Design Mod 5.9: Usability Validation Sec 6, Simulated Use Validation
  25. 25. CDER HF Guidances • CDER announced plans for more FDA guidances relevant to Human Factors: – Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors, DRAFT December, 2012 • Study User Profiles and Use Environment • Perform Risk Analysis – Use-FMEA recommended • Perform Simulated Use Testing – Additional Planned Guidances • Good labeling/packaging HF practices – Examples of poor HF in labeling and packaging (things to avoid) • Drug naming practices 25
  26. 26. Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors, DRAFT December, 2012- FDA CDER 26
  27. 27. Implications • Bar is being raised for quality of Human Factors Engineering Work – Internationally (Notified Bodies are better informed) • Legacy Devices being addressed • Improved IEC 62366 (harmonized with FDA for consistency) – US FDA expects more • FDA Recognizes major HFE/UE Standards ( HE-75, IEC 62366, etc) • CDRH New Draft Guidance on Medical Devices • CDER Draft Guidances for all Medical Products • Combination Products • Packaging/Labeling • Naming 27
  28. 28. 28 Contact Information: Ed Israelski, ed.israelski@yahoo.com +1 847 382 9280
  29. 29. Thank You. Questions?
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