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  • 1. Transportation Marija Lopaeva
  • 2. » Industry Overview: » Energy Use » Fuels and Fuel Economy Standards » Transportation Policy » Modes of Transportation- long distance and mass transit» New Technology: » Hydrogen Fuel Cells » Electric Vehicles » Hybrid Cars» Transportation Suggestions
  • 3. Energy Use For Transportation While transportation does use 27% of our energy resources, Compared to only 1 car for everythere are other areas where we 2 people in Canada. can reduce energy use.
  • 4. Industry OverviewFeetBicyclesRollerbladesSkateboardsSkis (in snowy places)
  • 5. Transportation in the United States -Canals for Ships -Railroad Tracks for Trains -Roads and Highways for Animals, Automobiles and Buses -Private Transit -Public Transit -Runways for Airplanes
  • 6. Fuels Used For Transportation Since the most commonly used fuel for transportation is petroleum, we need to find and alternative before “The Party’s Over”Richard Heinberg
  • 7. FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS Country Fuel Economy Standard United States 25mpg Japan 45mpg now 48 mpg by 2010 European Union 37 mpg now 44 mpg by 2008 Canada 25mpg now 32 mpg by 2010 China 29 now 37 mpg by 2008
  • 8. FUEL ECONOMY SOLUTIONS-Raise Fuel Economy Standard to be on par withother countries via CAFE Standards-Offer incentives for buying cars with good fueleconomy-increase taxes on auto makers who produce carswith low fuel economy-raise gas prices-enact a credit system as discussed in “Ending TheEnergy Stalemate”-offer more public transit options-create more hybrid cars
  • 9. Transportation PolicyRight now, the government funds80% to 90% of highway constructioncosts, and only 50% of mass transitcosts after a long process. To promotepublic transportation, this mustchange.
  • 10. Long Distance Travel (Cars) 1900: essentially no automobiles 1920s: due to paved roads and mass production of automobiles there was more travel by automobiles than be railroads
  • 11. Long Distance (Locomotives)-1920s saw a switch from steam poweredlocomotives to diesel and electric-The hybrid set-up eliminates the need for amechanical transmission-A fully loaded rail car is 15 times more energyefficient than the average automobile-Based on the amount of energy required to moveone passenger one km by train in the U.S. -a commercial airplane uses three times the amount of energy -an automobile with a single occupant uses six time that amount of energy
  • 12. Distant Future of Locomotives -Magnetic levitation train (maglev) -Very expensive to build and operate -Shanghai maglev at 20,000 passengers a day, $6/passenger will take around 30 years to pay off just the capital costs, not including track maintenance, salaries, and electricity -Still being studied to be built between large cities in California and Las Vegas -THEORY: create in vacuum-filled tunnels -Tunnels deep enough to pass under oceans train could top at around 5000 mph, making the trip between London and New York only 54 minutes)
  • 13. Shanghai Maglev
  • 14. Long Distance Travel (Airplanes) -1950s: airplane travel for commercial purposes began -1970s: fares become cheaper and more affordable for the average traveler -Consumed more fuel per passenger-mile -Consumption per passenger-hour was many times higher than the automobile -Today, the typical airline passenger experiences a mpg roughly equivalent to that of an automobile driver -Causes noise pollution -Kerosene -Only transportation form not significantly regulated to reduce environmental impact -Currently only small realistic improvements can be made—each saving 1-3% fuel
  • 15. Mass Transit-98% of urban areatravel is by car Modes of BTUs per Travel passeng-Mass-transit users er miletypically spend $200-$2000 per year for automobiles 5,000travel, considerablyless than car owners 19 people 2,300 on a train-The problem is carconstruction of mass- 19 people 1,000transit systems on a busrequires a large energyinvestment
  • 16. Light rail transit (LRT)-Less-massive than otherrail systems (street carsand trolleys)-Trolley is an electricstreetcar that draws powerfrom a live suspended wire-1998: state legislature inMinnesota approved $40million towards a light railproject in Minneapolis
  • 17. Trolleybus-Powered by two overhead electric wires, fromwhich it draws electricity using 2 trolley poles-Rubber tires have better roadway adhesionthan streetcar steel wheels on steel rails-Regenerative breaking-Dilemma: difficult to compete with efficienciesof light rail but are very flexible in uses andhave lower start up costs than conventionalbuses
  • 18. Buses-Buses are beginning to run more and more onbiodiesel and natural gas-Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver hasdeveloped and demonstrated the world’s firsthydrogen fuel cell-powered city transit bus-Compressed natural gas vs. hybrid buses vs.diesel buses
  • 19. Hydrogen Fuel Cells-Hydrogen is mostabundant element inuniverse, easy toproduce-Converts hydrogenand oxygen to water,heat, and electricity-used in “stacks” of 100+
  • 20. Hydrogen Fuel Cells-Less pollutants and emissions because not a combustion reaction-Safety is uncertain- H2 is highlyflammable, hazardous to ingest-Challenges include: cost; durability; size; air, thermal, and water management; heat recovery systems
  • 21. How It Works•H2 fed thru anode andlooses electrons•O2 fed thru cathode, gainselectron•Hydrogen atoms split intoprotons and electrons,protons pass thru membraneto cathode•Electron circulates fromanode to cathode via currentin flow plates•P+ and e- reunited w/ O2 tocreate water in cathode,heat, and electrical current
  • 22. Electric Vehicles-Energy from directconnection to land-basedgeneration plant-Chemical energy storedon board-Propelled by electricmotor Toyota Rav-4 EV: over 300 operating in US today,-Generator converts fuel collectively traveled overand repowers battery 1 million miles, reach 80 mph
  • 23. Pros-Saves money (gas)-Uses recyclablematerials-90% conversionefficiency-Better control-Regenerativebreaking-90% cleaner than The GM EV1gas-powered cars-Eliminate smog checks, tune ups, oilchanges, gears, torque converters, differentials
  • 24. Cons-Fragile-Sensitive tocontamination-Require externalreactants such ashydrogen-Batteries require The Nissan Altraunstable chemicalsand must be recycled
  • 25. Hybrid Cars-Mix between gasoline-powered car and an electric car-Rising fuel costs and better designs are making hybrids more and more competitive-Incremental cost more than standard equivalent is about $2,000-$3,000-U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides a tax credit of up to $3,400 for owners of hybrid cars to help make hybrids more competitive
  • 26. Hybrids» Hybrids have smaller, more efficient gas engines» Gas engines on conventional cars are sized for peak power requirement which is used by drivers less than 1% of the time» Regenerative breaking—hybrid cars capture some of the energy usually lost through heat when a car breaks and stores it in the battery
  • 27. Hybrids» The gasoline engine can be turned off at stop signs, doesn’t need to be on at all times.» Key components of the car like the air- conditioning can run off the battery» The best hybrids have made fuel economy gains of 30-80% while maintaining, and sometimes, increasing horsepower with no decline in weight or size
  • 28. Models of Hybrids Model MPG» 2 most widely owned hybrids in the U.S. are the Honda Insight and Honda 56 Toyota Prius. Insight» Toyota Motor Corp. Toyota Prius 55 wants hybrids to make up 25 percent of its U.S. sales by early in the next decade. Honda Civic 48 Hybrid Ford Escape 34 Hybrid
  • 29. Transportation Suggestions » Promote use of hybrids » Research safer and more efficient ways to implement new technology in passenger vehicles » Encourage use of mass transit in urban areas through government funding and community planning » Discourage flights for travel <200 miles » Close the 30-40% gap between government subsidies of highways and mass transit » Stronger CAFE standards