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Ppt for power plant

  1. 1. BY RAMANATHAN.R/AP/EEE
  2. 2. UNIT-1 THERMAL POWER PLANT
  3. 3. THERMAL POWER PLANT
  4. 4. TURBINE
  5. 5. Cross section view of turbines
  6. 6. COOLING TOWERS
  7. 7. Working block diagram of thermal power plant
  8. 8. UNIT-2 HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS
  9. 9. Pelton Wheels Suited for high head, low flow sites. The largest units can be up to 200 MW. Can operate with heads as small as 15 meters and as high as 1,800 meters.
  10. 10. Reaction Turbines • Combined action of pressure and moving water. • Runner placed directly in the water stream flowing over the blades rather than striking each individually. •L ower head and higher flows than compared with the impulse turbines.
  11. 11. Kaplan Turbine The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially, through the wicket gate, and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin. The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy
  12. 12. Francis Turbines The inlet is spiral shaped. Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the runner. This radial flow acts on the runner vanes, causing the runner to spin. The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be adjustable to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions.
  13. 13. Layout of hydro electric power plant
  14. 14. Hydro power plant
  15. 15. UNIT-3 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
  16. 16. Layout of nuclear power plant
  17. 17. Inside a Nuclear Reactor •Steam outlet  •Fuel Rods  •Control Rods 
  18. 18. Nuclear Reactor works • 235U fissions by absorbing a neutron and producing 2 to 3 neutrons, which initiate on average one more fission to make a controlled chain reaction •Normal water is used as a moderator to slow the neutrons since slow neutrons take longer to pass by a U nucleus and have more time to be absorbed •The protons in the hydrogen in the water have the same mass as the neutron and stop them by a billiard ball effect •The extra neutrons are taken up by protons to form deuterons •235U is enriched from its 0.7% in nature to about 3% to produce the reaction, and is contained in rods in the water •Boron control rods are inserted to absorb neutrons when it is time to shut down the reactor •The hot water is boiled or sent through a heat exchanger to produce steam. The steam then powers turbines.
  19. 19. Nucleons more tightly bound in Fission Product Nuclei – Gives 200 Mv Energy per Fission
  20. 20. UNIT-4 GAS AND DIESEL POWER PLANTS
  21. 21. DIESEL POWER PLANT
  22. 22. UNIT-5 NON CONVECTIONAL POWER GENERATION
  23. 23. OTEC (OCEAN THERMAL POWER PLANT)
  24. 24. How Does it Work •Carnot Efficiency (T1-T2)/T1: in transferring heat to do work, the greater the spread in temperature between the heat source and the heat sink, the greater the efficiency of the energy conversion. •As long as the temperature between the warm surface water and the cold deep water differs by about 20°C (36°F), an OTEC system can produce a significant amount of power with a maximum Carnot Efficiency of about 6.7%
  25. 25. Advantages •Low Environmental Impact The distinctive feature of OTEC energy systems is that the end products include not only energy in the form of electricity, but several other synergistic products. •Fresh Water The first by-product is fresh water. A small 1 MW OTEC is capable of producing some 4,500 cubic meters of fresh water per day, enough to supply a population of 20,000 with fresh water. •Food A further by-product is nutrient rich cold water from the deep ocean. The cold "waste" water from the OTEC is utilised in two ways. Primarily the cold water is discharged into large contained ponds, near shore or on land, where the water can be used for multi-species mariculture (shellfish and shrimp) producing harvest yields which far surpass naturally occurring cold water upwelling zones, just like agriculture on land.
  26. 26. WIND POWER PLANT
  27. 27. TIDAL POWER PLANT
  28. 28. Advantages The energy is free – no fuel needed, no waste produced Not expensive to operate and maintain Can produce a great deal of energy Disadvantages Depends on the waves – sometimes you’ll get loads of energy, sometimes almost nothing Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong Some designs are noisy. But then again, so are waves, so any noise is unlikely to be a problem Must be able to withstand
  29. 29. Environmental Impact•Noise pollution •Displace productive fishing sites •Change the pattern of beach sand nourishment •Alter food chains and disrupt migration patterns •Offshore devices will displace bottom-dwelling organisms where they connect into the
  30. 30. Geothermal Energy •Earth emits some 44TW of energy. Not homogeneously  •As a rough rule, 1 km3 of hot rock cooled by 1000C will yield 30 MW of electricity over thirty years. •The heat flux from the center of the Earth can fulfill human energy demands (Joules are there, by techniques….)
  31. 31. Geothermal Energy Sources Hot Water Reservoirs: hot underground water. Large number, but best suited for space heating Natural Steam Reservoirs: Steam comes to the surface. This type of resource is rare in the US. Geopressured Reservoirs: Brine saturated with natural gas (overpressurized). This type of resource can be used for both heat and for natural gas.
  32. 32. DRY STEAM: steam moves through turbine and condenses to form water which acts as heat source FLASH STEAM: extremely hot water is turned or “flashed” into steam from a decrease in pressure, steam drives turbine to produce heat energy BINARY CYCLE: hot water goes through heat exchanger, heats up another fluid such as isobutane in a closed loop system, second fluid now boils at lower temperature than hot water and turns to steam much faster, steam drives turbine => most commonly used (steam = rare)
  33. 33. MAGNETO HYDRO DYNAMICS (MHD) SYSTEM
  34. 34. Contents Introduction Need of MHDs Principle Of MHD Power Generation Types of MHD SYSTEM Open Cycle MHD System Closed Cycle MHD System Diffrence between Open Cycle and Closed Cycle MHD System 8. Advantages OF MHD System 9. Disadvantages of MHD System 10. Applications 11. Conclusion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
  35. 35. Introduction Magneto HydroDynamic (MHD) system is a nonconventional source of energy which is based upon Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction, which states that energy is generated due to the movement of an electric conductor inside a magnetic field.
  36. 36. Concept given by Michael Faraday in 1832 for the first time.  MHD System widely used in advanced countries.  Under construction in INDIA.
  37. 37. Need of MHDs At present a plenty of energy is needed to sustain industrial and agricultural production, and the existing conventional energy sources like coal, oil, uranium etc are not adequate to meet the ever increasing energy demands. Consequently, efforts have been made for harnessing energy from several non-conventional energy sources like Magneto Hydro Dynamics(MHD) System.
  38. 38. Principle Of MHD Power Generation Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction : When an electric conductor moves across a magnetic field, an emf is induced in it, which produces an electric current .
  39. 39. Lorentz Force on the charged particle (vector), F = q(v × B) where,  v = velocity of the particle (vector)  q= charge of the particle (scalar)  B = magnetic field (vector)
  40. 40. Comparison between a Turbo generator and a MHD generator
  41. 41. Types of MHD SYSTEM (1)Open cycle System (2)Closed cycle System (i)Seeded inert gas systems (ii) Liquid metal systems
  42. 42. OPEN CYCLE MHD SYSTEM
  43. 43. HYBRID MHD STEAM PART OPEN CYCLE
  44. 44. CLOSED CYCLE MHD SYSTEM
  45. 45. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OPEN CYCLE AND CLOSED CYCLE SYSTEM Open Cycle System     Closed Cycle Working fluid after generating electrical energy is discharged to the atmosphere through a stack . Operation of MHD generator is done directly on combustion products . Temperature requirement : 2300˚C to 2700˚C. More developed. System  Working fluid is recycled to the heat sources and thus is used again.  Helium or argon(with cesium seeding) is used as the working fluid. Temperature requirement : about 530˚C. Less developed.  
  46. 46. NEED FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  The MHD channel operates on extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic and electric fields .  So, numerous technological advancements are needed prior to commercialization of MHD systems .  Search is on for better insulator and electrode materials which can with stand the electrical, thermal, mechanical and thermo-chemical stresses and corrosion.
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES OF MHD SYSTEM   Conversion efficiency of about 50% . Less fuel consumption.  Large amount of pollution free power generated .  Ability to reach full power level as soon as started.  Plant size is considerably smaller than conventional fossil fuel plants .  Less overall generation cost.  No moving parts, so more reliable .
  48. 48. DISADVANTAGES OF MHD SYSTEM      Suffers from reverse flow (short circuits) of electrons through the conducting fluids around the ends of the magnetic field. Needs very large magnets and this is a major expense. High friction and heat transfer losses. High operating temperature. Coal used as fuel poses problem of molten ash which may short circuit the electrodes. Hence, oil or natural gas are much better fuels for MHDs. Restriction on use of fuel makes the operation more expensive.
  49. 49. APPLICATIONS  Power generation in space craft.  Hypersonic wind tunnel experiments.  Defense application.
  50. 50. CONCLUSION The MHD power generation is in advanced stage today and closer to commercial utilization. Significant progress has been made in development of all critical components and sub system technologies. Coal burning MHD combined steam power plant promises significant economic and environmental advantages compared to other coal burning power generation technologies. It will not be long before the technological problem of MHD systems will be overcame and MHD system would transform itself from non- conventional to conventional energy sources.
  51. 51. THANK YOU !!

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