*Define the M LearningAny sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies
*Objectives of using the Mobile Learning in DE: Available anywhere, anytime and any pace. Be two way and multi-media. Enhances knowledge. No time constraints . More independent. Content is adaptable to meet individual needs. Improved communication and organization. Easier access, Increases motivation.
*Features of the Mobile Learning Enables knowledge building by learners in different contexts. Enables learners to construct understandings. M-learning is convenient, in the sense that it is accessible virtually from anywhere. Mobile technology often changes the pattern of learning/work activity.
*Advantages of the Mobile Learning Relatively inexpensive opportunities, as the cost of mobile devices are significantly less than PCs and laptops Multimedia content delivery and creation options Continuous and situated learning support Decrease in training costs Potentially a more rewarding learning experience.
*Challenges of the Mobile Learning :Technical challenges include: Connectivity and battery life. Screen size and key size. Meeting required bandwidth for nonstop/fast streaming Number of file/asset formats supported by a specific device Content security or copyright issue from authoring group Multiple standards, multiple screen sizes, multiple operating systems Reworking existing E-Learning materials for mobile platforms Limited memory. Risk of sudden obsolescence.
*Social and educational challenges include Accessibility and cost barriers for end users. How to assess learning outside the classroom How to support learning across many contexts Contents security or pirating issues Frequent changes in device models/technologies/functionality etc. Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Conceptual differences between E- and M-learning
**How the Mobile Learning are used to deliver and support learning. Bluetooth: A short range wireless connection. This enables PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) to pass messages to and from other mobile devices. PDAs: Personal Digital Assistants have evolved to mini PCs able to carry out many of the basic functions of a larger PC using the Palm OS or MS Pocket PC operating system. MP3s: Audio file format that efficiently compresses files and enables them to be shared. CAMs: Video cameras now embedded into mobile phone and PDAs. WAP: An international protocol that allows users to access the internet via their WAP enabled mobile phones.
*Concerns raised by researchers and distance students/tutors about the Mobile Learning:Design: Designing for mobile learning becomes a critical Challenge. „How to enhance the experience without Interfering with it‟. And so designing for mobile learning becomes a critical challenge. „How to enhance the experience without interfering with it‟ was the title of Russell Beales (University of Birmingham, UK) workshop session."For lots of people, children particularly, education is not optional," he said. "It‟s something that they have to do, and they don‟t necessarily want to do it. Whereas one of the good things about technology is that it offers an opportunity for choice."Thus, said Peter Lonsdale (University of Birmingham, UK)we shouldn‟t cram existing activities onto mobile devices, but instead make use of different ways of organizing
learning communities: "Children want to learn," claimed Ann Jones (Open University, UK), "but what they want is choice over what to learn. You can stop a child from learning by just presenting a load of information."Evaluation How can we effectively measure learning in mobile Environments? How can we effectively measure learning in mobile environments? Josie Taylor (Open University, UK) ran a session exploring this, and the group discovered that evaluation overlaps with design. Mobile learning is often blended with other types of learning. A mobile device could act as a tool for thinking: for example, when learners know that everything is being recorded or is easy to record, this changes their behavior. Thus, argued Barbara Wasson (University of Bergen, Norway), we should focus on activities, and the dialectic relation between the learner and the technology, not on people or technology in isolation.
*Case studies/examples:*Carnegie Mellon University ProjectCarnegie Mellon University today announced the expansion of its Mobile& Immersive Learning for Literacy in Emerging Economies (MILLEE)project, which will gauge the effectiveness of mobile phone-based games for teaching English lessons to students in rural India.*Mobile Technology Applications in the Korean Higher Education“Mobile campus” has made students and faculty staff access authentic, updated information sources and communicate with each other anytime, and anywhere within the campus. In South Korea, All of Life Is Mobile more colleges and universities have moved to mobile learning environments A student used her cell phone to enter the main library at Sookmyung Women‟s University On campus, students touch their mobiles to the electronic box to mark their attendance. University of North Carolina at Wilmington takes benefits of the mobile learning.*Resource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLearning
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