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    03newparadigm of-public-administration-1210926079310700-8 03newparadigm of-public-administration-1210926079310700-8 Presentation Transcript

    • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS ANDPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS ANDPRACTICEIII. NEW PARADIGMS OF PUBLICADMINISTRATIONADMINISTRATIONGraduate School of Asia and Pacific StudiesUniversity of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN20082008
    • CONTENTSCONTENTSTHE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION1. REINVENTING GOVERNMENT2. THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)3 NEW PUBLIC SERVICE3. NEW PUBLIC SERVICE4. POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION5 GOVERNANCE5. GOVERNANCEwww.ginandjar.com 2
    • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE CULTURE ISCHANGING TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE INNOVATIVECHANGING TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE, INNOVATIVE,PROBLEM SOLVING, ENTREPRENEURIAL, ANDENTERPRISING AS OPPOSED TO RULE-BOUNDENTERPRISING AS OPPOSED TO RULE BOUND,PROCESS-ORIENTED, AND FOCUSED ON INPUTSRATHER THAN RESULTS.www.ginandjar.com 3
    • THE CURRENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEBATEC S S S O ‘ S SPLACES A NEW EMPHASIS ON ‘WHAT MATTERS ISNOT WHAT WE DO, BUT HOW PEOPLE FEEL ABOUTWHAT WE DO’ AND THAT ‘PROCESSES MATTER’ ORWHAT WE DO AND THAT PROCESSES MATTER ORPUT DIFFERENTLY, ‘THE ENDS DO NOT JUSTIFYTHE MEANS’.HERE ARE SOME OF THE NEW PARADIGMS INPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.www.ginandjar.com 4
    • THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONIN 1968, DWIGHT WALDO, SPONSORED ACONFERENCE OF YOUNG PUBLICCO C O OU G U CADMINISTRATIONISTS ON THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION.THE PROCEEDINGS WERE PUBLISHED AS A BOOK IN1971, TITLED TOWARD A NEW PUBLIC9 , O U CADMINISTRATION: THE MINNOWBROOKPERSPECTIVE.www.ginandjar.com 5
    • THE FOCUS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WASDISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONALDISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONALPHENOMENA AS EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENESS,BUDGETING, AND ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNIQUES.THE QUESTIONS IT RAISED DEALT WITH VALUES,ETHICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUALMEMBER IN THE ORGANIZATION THE RELATION OF THEMEMBER IN THE ORGANIZATION, THE RELATION OF THECLIENT WITH THE BUREAUCRACY, AND THE BROADPROBLEMS OF URBANISM, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIALPROBLEMS OF URBANISM, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIALCONFLICTS.www.ginandjar.com 6
    • FOR EXAMPLE, GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1980), IN HISNEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ARGUED IN BEHALFNEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ARGUED IN BEHALFOF SOCIAL EQUITY AS A GUIDING CONCEPT INADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL DECISION MAKING.HE WROTE THAT "IT IS INCUMBENT ON THE PUBLICSERVANT TO BE ABLE TO DEVELOP AND DEFENDCRITERIA AND MEASURES OF EQUITY AND TOCRITERIA AND MEASURES OF EQUITY AND TOUNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SERVICES ONTHE DIGNITY AND WELL BEING OF CITIZENS"THE DIGNITY AND WELL-BEING OF CITIZENS .www.ginandjar.com 7
    • SCHOLARS DURING THAT PERIOD EMPHASIZED THENEED TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONALNEED TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONALTOP-DOWN HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF BUREAUCRATICORGANIZATION. INDICTING THE OLD MODEL FOR ITSORGANIZATION. INDICTING THE OLD MODEL FOR ITSOBJECTIFICATION AND DEPERSONALIZATION OFORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS AND CALLING FOR MODELSBUILT AROUND OPENNESS TRUST AND HONESTBUILT AROUND OPENNESS, TRUST, AND HONESTCOMMUNICATIONS.www.ginandjar.com 8
    • MAIN AGREEMENTS OF THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATIONADMINISTRATION:1) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND PUBLIC AGENCIES ARENOT AND CANNOT BE EITHER NEUTRAL ORNOT AND CANNOT BE EITHER NEUTRAL OROBJECTIVE.2) TECHNOLOGY IS OFTEN DEHUMANIZING.)3) BUREAUCRATIC HIERARCHY IS OFTEN INEFFECTIVEAS AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY.4) BUREAUCRACIES TEND TOWARD GOAL DISPLACEMENTAND SURVIVAL.www.ginandjar.com 9
    • 5) COOPERATION, CONSENSUS, AND DEMOCRATICADMINISTRATION ARE MORE LIKELY THAN THE SIMPLEEXERCISE OF ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY TO RESULT INEXERCISE OF ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY TO RESULT INORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS.6) MODERN CONCEPTS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MUST BEBUILT ON POSTBEHAV-IORAL AND POSTPOSITIVIST LOGIC-MORE DEMOCRATIC, MORE ADAPTABLE, MORERESPONSIVE TO CHANGING SOCIAL ECONOMIC ANDRESPONSIVE TO CHANGING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, ANDPOLITICAL CIRCUMSTANCES. (MARINI 1971)www.ginandjar.com 10
    • THE OVERRIDING SPIRIT OF THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION WAS A MORAL TONEADMINISTRATION WAS A MORAL TONE.THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CAN BE VIEWED AS ACALL FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM BOTH POLITICAL SCIENCE(IT WAS NOT, AFTER ALL, EVER CALLED THE NEWPOLITICS OF BUREAUCRACY) AND MANAGEMENT (SINCEMAN AGEMENT ALWAYS HAD BEEN EMPHATICALLYMAN-AGEMENT ALWAYS HAD BEEN EMPHATICALLYTECHNICAL RATHER THAN NORMATIVE IN APPROACH).(H. GEORGE FREDERICKSON, TOWARD A NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, 1977).www.ginandjar.com 11
    • THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION NEVER LIVED UP TOITS AMBITIONS OF REVOLUTIONIZING THE DISCIPLINE.NEVERTHELESS THE MOVEMENT HAD A LASTING IMPACTNEVERTHELESS, THE MOVEMENT HAD A LASTING IMPACTON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THAT THEY NUDGEDPUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONISTS INTO RECONSIDERING THEIRTRADITIONAL INTELLECTUAL TIES WITH BOTH POLITICALSCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT, AND INTO CONTEMPLATINGTHE PROSPECTS OF ACADEMIC AUTONOMYTHE PROSPECTS OF ACADEMIC AUTONOMY.HOWEVER, THEY LATER INSPIRE THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANEW APPROACHES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SUCH ASTHE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE AND THE POSTMODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATION.www.ginandjar.com 12
    • REINVENTING GOVERNMENTREINVENTING GOVERNMENTBUREAUCRATIC MODEL DEVELOPED IN CONDITIONS VERYDIFFERENT FROM THOSE EXISTING TODAY.IT DEVELOPED IN A SLOWER PACED SOCIETY WHENIT DEVELOPED IN A SLOWER-PACED SOCIETY, WHENCHANGE PROCEEDED AT A LEISURELY GAIT.IT DEVELOPED IN AN AGE OF HIERARCHY WHEN ONLYIT DEVELOPED IN AN AGE OF HIERARCHY, WHEN ONLYTHOSE AT THE TOP OF THE PYRAMID HAD ENOUGHINFORMATION TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS.IT DEVELOPED IN A SOCIETY OF PEOPLE WHO WORKEDWITH THEIR HANDS, NOT THEIR MINDS.IT DEVELOPED IN A TIME OF MASS MARKETS, WHEN MOSTPEOPLE HAD SIMILAR WANTS AND NEEDS.www.ginandjar.com 13
    • AND IT DEVELOPED WITH STRONG GEOGRAPHICCOMMUNITIES –TIGHTLY KNIT NEIGHBORHOODS ANDTOWNS.TODAY’S ENVIRONMENT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT ARETODAY S ENVIRONMENT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT AREEXTREMELY FLEXIBLE AND ADAPTABLE.IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT DELIVER HIGH QUALITYGOODS AND SERVICESGOODS AND SERVICES,IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE RESPONSIVE TOTHEIR COSTUMERS, OFFERING CHOICES OFNONSTANDARDIZED SERVICES THAT LEAD BY PERSUASIONNONSTANDARDIZED SERVICES; THAT LEAD BY PERSUASIONAND INCENTIVES RATHER THAN COMMANDS; THAT GIVETHEIR EMPLOYEES A SENSE OF MEANING AND CONTROL,EVEN OWNERSHIPEVEN OWNERSHIP.IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT EMPOWER CITIZENSRATHER THAN SIMPLY SERVING THEM.www.ginandjar.com 14
    • MOST GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS PERFORMINCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE,INCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE,RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS, WITH“CUSTOMERS” WHO WANT QUALITY AND CHOICE.www.ginandjar.com 15
    • BY THE FINAL TWO DECADES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, AO C S O C U ,NUMBER OF FORCES—INTELLECTUAL, POLITICAL, ANDFISCAL—WERE MAKING THEMSELVES FELT WITHINGOVERNMENTS THESE FORCES INCLUDED THE EMERGENCEGOVERNMENTS. THESE FORCES INCLUDED THE EMERGENCEOF LARGE, HIGH PERFORMANCE CORPORATIONS,INNOVATIONS UNDERTAKEN TO REDUCE NATIONAL DEFICITS,,RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES, THE END OF THE COLDWAR, WITH ITS ATTENDANT REFOCUSING BY CITIZENS INMANY NATIONS ON DOMESTIC ISSUES A DECLINING FAITHMANY NATIONS ON DOMESTIC ISSUES, A DECLINING FAITH—A “TRUST DEFICIT“—IN THE GOVERNMENTS, AND NEWRESTRICTIONS ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS THAT LED TOTHEIR SEEKING NEW WAYS OF MANAGING.www.ginandjar.com 16
    • THESE KINDS OF SOCIAL TRENDS RESULTED IN ANEXPLOSION OF PUBLICATIONS IN THE EARLY 1990s THATCALLED FOR A NEW KIND OF GOVERNMENT REFORM THECALLED FOR A NEW KIND OF GOVERNMENT REFORM. THEMOST FAMOUS OF THESE CRITIQUES WAS THE NATIONALBEST SELLER REINVENTING GOVERNMENT: HOW THEENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT IS TRANSFORMING THE PUBLICSECTOR.(DAVID OSBORN AND TED GAEBLER, 1992)www.ginandjar.com 17
    • 1. CATALYTIC GOVERNMENT:STEERING RATHER THAN ROWING.COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT2. COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT:EMPOWERING RATHER THAN SERVING.3 COMPETITIVE GOVERNMENT:3. COMPETITIVE GOVERNMENT:INJECTING COMPETITION INTO SERVICE DELIVERY.4 MISSION-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT:4. MISSION-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT:TRANSFORMING RULE-DRIVEN ORGANIZATIONS5 RESULTS-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT:5. RESULTS ORIENTED GOVERNMENT:FUNDING OUTCOMES, NO INPUTS.www.ginandjar.com 18
    • 6 CUSTOMER-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT:6. CUSTOMER DRIVEN GOVERNMENT:MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, NOT THEBUREAUCRACY.7. ENTERPRISING GOVERNMENT:ERANING RATHER THAN SPENDING.8. ANTICIPATORY GOVERNMENT:PREVENTION RATHER THAN CURE.9. DECENTRELAIZED GOVERNMENT:FROM HIERARCHY TO PARTICIPATION AND TEAMWORK.10. MARKET-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT:LEVERAGING CHANGE THROUGH THE MARKET.www.ginandjar.com 19
    • THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)IN THE EARLY 1990s, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH TOPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BEGAN TO TAKE HOLD. LIKE THETRADITIONAL MANAGERIAL APPROACH AT ITS INCEPTION, THENEW APPROACH IS REFORM-ORIENTED AND SEEKS TO IMPROVEPUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCEIT STARTS FROM THE PREMISE THAT TRADITIONAL,BUREAUCRATICALLY ORGANIZED PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS"BROKE" AND "BROKEN“, AND CONSEQUENTLY THE PUBLIC HASLOST FAITH IN GOVERNMENT.MANAGERIALISM REFERS TO AN ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACHTO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, ONE THAT EMPHASIZES THE RIGHTSOF MANAGERS TO RUN THE ORGANIZATION AND THEAPPLICATION OF REINVIGORATED SCIENTIFIC-MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES.(LEMAY, 2002)www.ginandjar.com 20
    • A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTAPPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURESCLASSICAL 1900 ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED AS CLOSED SYSTEMSCLASSICAL 1900 ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED AS CLOSED SYSTEMS;STRESS ON EFFICIENCY, CONTROL AND THEBUREAUCRATIC FORMBEHAVIORAL/HUMANRELATIONS1930 EMPHASIS ON PEOPLE RATHER THAN MACHINES;CLOSE ATTENTION TO FACTORS SUCH AS GROUPDYNAMICS, COMMUNICATION, MOTIVATIONLEADERSHIP AND PARTICIPATIONQUANTITATIVE 1940 PROVISION OF QUANTITATIVE TOOLS TO SUPPORTMANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING; FOUND IN;MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, OPERATIONALMANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONSYSTEMSwww.ginandjar.com 21
    • APPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURESOPEN SYSTEM/CONTIGENCY1965 ORGANIZATIONS SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF INTERRELATED PARTSWHICH RELATE TO THE ENVIRONMENT; EMPHASIS ONFITTING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TO THE SPECIFICENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONPOWER/ POLITICS 1965 ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION-MAKING IS NOT GUIDED BYTECHNICAL RATIONALITY BUT IS DETERMINED BY POLITICALPROCESSES; A DOMINANT COALITION WILL BE THE MAJORLOCUS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWERQUALITYMOVEMENTS1955 STRONGLY PURSUED IN JAPANESE POSTWAR INDUSTRIALDEVELOPMENT AND MUCH LATER ADOPTED ELSEWHERE;CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT BY WORKING TOGETHER ANDCONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT BY WORKING TOGETHER ANDCLIENT FOCUS; TYPIFIED IN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT,BENCHMARKING, QUALITY CIRCLES AND ISO 9000MANAGERIALISM 1980 ADOPTION BY THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF PRIVATE SECTORMANAGERIALISM 1980 ADOPTION BY THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF PRIVATE SECTORMANAGEMENT PRACTICES; APPLICATION OF PUBLIC CHOICETHEORY AND NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMICS TO PUBLIC SECTORMANAGEMENTwww.ginandjar.com 22(TURNER AND HULME, 1997)
    • THE TERM "NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT" (NPM) WASTHE TERM "NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT" (NPM) WASCOINED IN 1989 BY CHRISTOPHER HOOD TORETROSPECTIVELY CHARACTERIZE THE “QUITEQSIMILAR ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES" OFAUSTRALIA, CANADA, NEW ZEALAND, THE UNITEDKINGDOM AND (WITH A DIFFERENT EMPHASIS) THEKINGDOM, AND (WITH A DIFFERENT EMPHASIS) THEUNITED STATES OF THE 1970s AND 1980s.IN KÖNIGS TERMS NPM IS A POPULARISED MIXTUREOF MANAGEMENT THEORIES, BUSINESS MOTIVATIONPSYCHOLOGY AND NEO-LIBERAL ECONOMY (1997,219)219).www.ginandjar.com 23
    • IT CALLED FOR AMONG OTHERS: PUTTINGCUSTOMERS FIRST MAKING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONSCUSTOMERS FIRST, MAKING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONSCOMPETE, CREATING MARKET DYNAMICS, USINGMARKET MECHANISMS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS,MARKET MECHANISMS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS,EMPOWERING EMPLOYEES TO GET RESULTS,DECENTRALIZATION DECISION MAKING POWER,STREAMLINING THE BUDGET PROCESS,DECENTRALIZATION PERSONNEL POLICY, ANDSTREAMLINING PROCUREMENTSTREAMLINING PROCUREMENT.www.ginandjar.com 24
    • TODAY, THE NPM IS BECOMING THE DOMINANTMANAGERIAL APPROACH.ITS KEY CONCEPT-SOMEWHAT EVOLUTIONARY ADECADE AGO- ARE NOW THE STANDARD LANGUAGEOF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONOF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.TERMS SUCH AS "RESULTS ORIENTED", "CUSTOMERSFOCUSED" "EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT"FOCUSED", "EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT","ENTREPRENEURSHIP", AND "OUTSOURCING", HAVEDOMINATED THE MAINSTREAMDOMINATED THE MAINSTREAM.www.ginandjar.com 25
    • CHRISTOPHER HOOD (1991), CHARACTERIZE NPM‘sPRINCIPAL THEMES TO INCLUDE:A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON POLICY TOWARD ANA SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON POLICY TOWARD ANEMPHASIS ON MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE;A SHIFT AWAY FROM RELIANCE ON TRADITIONALBUREAUCRACIES TOWARD LOOSELY COUPLED, QUASI-BUREAUCRACIES TOWARD LOOSELY COUPLED, QUASIAUTONOMOUS UNITS AND COMPETITIVELY TENDEREDSERVICES;A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPMENT ANDINVESTMENT TOWARD COST-CUTTING;ALLOWING PUBLIC MANAGERS GREATER "FREEDOM TOMANAGE" ACCORDING TO PRIVATE SECTOR CORPORATEPRACTICE ANDPRACTICE; ANDA SHIFT AWAY FROM CLASSIC COMMAND-AND-CONTROLREGULATION TOWARD SELF-REGULATION.www.ginandjar.com 26
    • MANY SCHOLARS ATTRIBUTE THE ASCENDANCY OFTHE NPM MOVEMENT TO THE RISING ANDTHE NPM MOVEMENT TO THE RISING ANDENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT OF GOVERNMENT.ACCORDING TO NICHOLAS HENRY (2004), THE NEWACCORDING TO NICHOLAS HENRY (2004), THE NEWPUBLIC MANAGEMENT IS AN EXPANDED VIEW OFREINVENTING ENTREPRENEURIAL GOVERNMENT.www.ginandjar.com 27
    • ACCORDING TO HENRY, THE ROOT THE NEW PUBLIC,MANAGEMENT IS COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING SIXIDEAS:GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND IMPROVE THEGOVERNMENT SHOULD BE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND IMPROVE THEQUALITY OF ITS SERVICE.GOVERNMENT SHOULD COLLABORATE AND WORK WITH OTHERGOVERNMENT AND THE NONPROFIT AND PRIVATE SECTORS TOGOVERNMENT AND THE NONPROFIT AND PRIVATE SECTORS TOACHIEVE SOCIAL GOALS.GOVERNMENT SHOULD JUDGE ITS PERFORMANCE WITH MEASURABLERESULT.GOVERNMENT SHOULD IMPROVE ITS ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE PUBLICINTEREST, WHICH SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD IN TERMS OF LAW,COMMUNITY, AND SHARED VALUES.GOVERNMENT SHOULD EMPOWER CITIZENS AND PUBLIC EMPLOYEESALIKE.GOVERNMENT SHOULD ANTICIPATE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS.www.ginandjar.com 28
    • TOONEN (2001) DEVISED AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF NPM,AS:A BUSINESS-ORIENTED APPROACH TO GOVERNMENT;A QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE ORIENTED APPROACHA QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE ORIENTED APPROACHTO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT;AN EMPHASIS ON IMPROVED PUBLIC SERVICEDELIVERY AND FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIVENESS;AN INSTITUTIONAL SEPARATION OF PUBLIC DEMANDFUNCTIONS PUBLIC PROVISION AND PUBLIC SERVICEFUNCTIONS, PUBLIC PROVISION AND PUBLIC SERVICEPRODUCTION FUNCTIONS.www.ginandjar.com 29
    • A LINKAGE OF PUBLIC DEMAND PROVISION ANDA LINKAGE OF PUBLIC DEMAND, PROVISION, ANDSUPPLY UNITS BY TRANSACTIONAL DEVICES(PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT, INTERNAL CONTRACTMANAGEMENT CORPORATIZATIONMANAGEMENT, CORPORATIZATION,INTERGOVERNMENTAL COVENANTING ANDCONTRACTING, CONTRACTING OUT) AND QUALITYMANAGEMENT;MANAGEMENT;WHEREVER POSSIBLE, THE RETREAT OF(BUREAUCRATIC) GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS INFAVOR OF AN INTELLIGENT USE OF MARKETS ANDFAVOR OF AN INTELLIGENT USE OF MARKETS ANDCOMMERCIAL MARKET ENTERPRISES (DEREGULATION,PRIVATIZATION, COMMERCIALIZATION, ANDMARKETIZATION) OR VIRTUAL MARKETS (INTERNALMARKETIZATION) OR VIRTUAL MARKETS (INTERNALCOMPETITION, BENCHMARKING, COMPETITIVETENDERING).www.ginandjar.com 30
    • NEW PUBLIC SERVICENEW PUBLIC SERVICEJANET V. DENHANDT AND ROBERT B. DENHANDTPOSTULATE THAT WHILE THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENTHAS BEEN TOUTED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE OLDHAS BEEN TOUTED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE OLDPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, IT ACTUALLY HAS MUCH INCOMMNON WITH THE MAINSTREAM MODEL OF PUBLICADMINISTRATION SPECIFICALLY A DEPENDENCE ON ANDADMINISTRATION, SPECIFICALLY A DEPENDENCE ON ANDCOMMITMENT TO MODELS OF RATIONAL CHOICE.SO WHILE THERE ARE CLEARLY DIFFERENCES BETWEENTHE OLD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE NEW PUBLICMANAGEMENT, THE BASIC THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OFTHESE TWO "MAINSTREAM" VERSIONS OF PUBLICADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY ARE IN FACT VERYMUCH ALIKE.www.ginandjar.com 31
    • IN CONTRAST TO THESE MAINSTREAM MODELS OF PUBLICIN CONTRAST TO THESE MAINSTREAM MODELS OF PUBLICADMINISTRATION OR PUBLIC MANAGEMENT THAT AREROOTED IN THE IDEA OF RATIONAL CHOICE, THEY SUGGESTOO O O C O C , SUGG SAN ALTERNATIVE CALLED THE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE.THEY BASE THEIR THEORY ON CONTEMPORARY PRECURSORSINCLUDING (1) THEORIES OF DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP. (2)MODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY, (3)ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLICORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION, AND (4) POST MODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATION.www.ginandjar.com 32
    • DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIPCITIZENS LOOK BEYOND THEIR SELF-INTEREST TO THELARGER PUBLIC INTEREST ADOPTING A BROADER AND LONG-LARGER PUBLIC INTEREST. ADOPTING A BROADER AND LONGTERM PERSPECTIVE THAT REQUIRES A KNOWLEDGE OFPUBLIC AFFAIRS AND ALSO A SENSE OF BELONGING, ACONCERN FOR THE WHOLE AND A MORAL BOND WITH THECONCERN FOR THE WHOLE, AND A MORAL BOND WITH THECOMMUNITY WHOSE FATE IS AT STAKE.PUBLIC SPIRIT NEEDS TO BE NOURISHED AND MAINTAINED,AND THAT CAN BE AIDED BY CONSTANT ATTENTION TOPRINCIPLES OF JUSTICE, PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ANDDELIBERATION.www.ginandjar.com 33
    • CONSISTENTLY WITH THIS PERSPECTIVE, KING AND STIVERS(1998) ASSERT THAT ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD SEECITIZENS AS CITIZENS (RATHER THAN MERELY VOTERSCITIZENS AS CITIZENS (RATHER THAN MERELY VOTERS,CLIENTS, OR "CUSTOMERS"), SHOULD SHARE AUTHORITY ANDREDUCE CONTROL, AND SHOULD TRUST IN THE EFFICACY OFCOLLABORATIONCOLLABORATION.MOREOVER, IN CONTRAST TO MANAGERIALIST CALLS FORGREATER EFFICIENCY, KING AND STIVERS SUGGEST THATPUBLIC MANAGERS SHOULD SEEK GREATER RESPONSIVE-NESSAND A CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN CITIZEN TRUST.www.ginandjar.com 34
    • MODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETYMODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETYCITIZENS FELT GREAT FRUSTRATION AND ANGER THAT THEYCITIZENS FELT GREAT FRUSTRATION AND ANGER THAT THEYHAD BEEN PUSHED OUT OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM BY APROFESSIONAL POLITICAL CLASS OF POWERFULL LOBBYISTS,INCUMBENT POLITICIANS CAMPAIGN MANAGERS AND A MEDIAINCUMBENT POLITICIANS, CAMPAIGN MANAGERS AND A MEDIAELITE. THEY SAW THE SYSTEM AS ONE IN WHICH VOTES NOLONGER MADE ANY DIFFERENCE. THEY SAW A SYSTEM WITHITS DOORS CLOSED TO THE AVERAGED CITIZEN (MATHEWSITS DOORS CLOSED TO THE AVERAGED CITIZEN (MATHEWS,1994). AS A CONSEQUENCE, CITIZENS FELT ALIENATED ANDDETACHED.HOW ARE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AFFECTED BY AND HOWHOW ARE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AFFECTED BY AND HOWDO THEY AFFECT COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY?www.ginandjar.com 35
    • FIRST, WHERE STRONG NETWORKS OF CITIZEN INTERACTIONAND HIGH LEVELS OF SOCIAL TRUST AND COHESION AMONGCITIZENS EXIST PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN COUNT ON THESECITIZENS EXIST, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN COUNT ON THESEEXISTING STOCK OF SOCIAL CAPITAL TO BUILD EVEN STRONGERNETWORKS, TO OPEN NEW AVENUES FOR DIALOGUE AND DEBATE,AND TO FURTHER EDUCATE CITIZENS WITH RESPECT TO MATTERSAND TO FURTHER EDUCATE CITIZENS WITH RESPECT TO MATTERSOF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE (WOOLUM, 2000).SECOND, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN CONTRIBUTE TOBUILDING COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL CAPITAL SOME ARE ARGUINGBUILDING COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL CAPITAL. SOME ARE ARGUINGTODAY THAT THE PRIMARY ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORIS THAT OF BUILDING COMMUNITY (NALBANDIAN, 1999). OTHERSARGUE THAT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN PLAY AN ACTIVE ROLEARGUE THAT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN PLAY AN ACTIVE ROLEIN PROMOTING SOCIAL CAPITAL BY ENCOURAGING CITIZENINVOLVEMENT IN PUBLIC DECISION MAKING.www.ginandjar.com 36
    • BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING BROAD-SCALEEFFORTS IN CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, JOSEPH GRAY AND LINDACHAPIN (1998) COMMENT, "CITIZENS DONT ALWAYS GETCHAPIN (1998) COMMENT, CITIZENS DON T ALWAYS GETWHAT THEY WANT, BUT INCLUDING THEM PERSONALIZES THEWORK WE DO-CONNECTS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TO THEPUBLIC AND THIS CONNECTION LEADS TO UNDERSTANDINGPUBLIC. AND THIS CONNECTION LEADS TO UNDERSTANDINGFOR BOTH CITIZENS AND ADMINISTRATORS". SUCH ANUNDERSTANDING ENRICHES BOTH GOVERNMENT AND THECOMMUNITY.www.ginandjar.com 37
    • ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATIONOVER THE PAST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS PUBLICOVER THE PAST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS, PUBLICADMINISTRATION THEORISTS HAVE JOINED OTHERDISCIPLINES IN SUGGESTING THAT TRADITIONALHIERARCHICAL APPROACHES TO SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONARE RESTRICTIVE IN THEIR VIEW OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR,AND THEY HAVE JOINED IN A CRITIQUE OF BUREAUCRACYAND A SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TOMANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONMANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION.COLLECTIVELY, THESE APPROACHES HAVE SOUGHT TOFASHION PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS LESS DOMINATED BYISSUES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL AND MOREISSUES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL AND MOREATTENTIVE TO THE NEEDS AND CONCERNS OF INTERNALAND EXTERNAL CONSTITUENTS .www.ginandjar.com 38
    • IN MOST ORGANISATION PEOPLE HAVE RELATIVELY LITTLEIN MOST ORGANISATION, PEOPLE HAVE RELATIVELY LITTLECONTROL OVER THEIR WORK. IN MANY CASES, THEY ARE EXPECTEDTO BE SUBMISSIVE, DEPENDENT, AND LIMITED IN WHAT THEY CANDO SUCH AN ARRANGEMENT ULTIMATELY BACKFIRES AS IT LIMITSDO. SUCH AN ARRANGEMENT ULTIMATELY BACKFIRES, AS IT LIMITSTHE CONTRIBUTIONS EMPLOYEES CAN MAKE TO THEORGANIZATION (ARGYRIS, 1962).IN ORDER TO PROMOTE INDIVIDUALS GROWTH AS WELL ASIN ORDER TO PROMOTE INDIVIDUALS GROWTH AS WELL ASIMPROVED ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE, ARGYRIS SOUGHT ANAPPROACH TO MANAGEMENT IN WHICH MANAGERS WOULDDEVELOP AND EMPLOY “SKILL IN SELF-AWARENESS IN EFFECTIVEDEVELOP AND EMPLOY SKILL IN SELF-AWARENESS, IN EFFECTIVEDIAGNOSING, IN HELPING INDIVIDUALS GROW AND BECOME MORECREATIVE, [AND] IN COPING WITH DEPENDENT-ORIENTED …EMPLOYEES”EMPLOYEES .www.ginandjar.com 39
    • OTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONSTRUCTINGOTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONSTRUCTINGMORE HUMANISTIC ORGANIZATIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTORWERE MADE BY THE GROUP OF SCHOLARS COLLECTIVELYKNOWN AS THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (ASKNOWN AS THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (ASDISCUSSED EARLIER) , ESSENTIALLY THE PUBLICADMINISTRATION’S COUNTERPART TO THE LATESIXTIES/EARLY SEVENTIES RADICAL MOVEMENTS IN SOCIETYGENERALLY AND IN OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES.THE PROPONENTS OF NEW PUBLIC SERVICE RECALL SOME OFTHE PROPONENTS OF NEW PUBLIC SERVICE RECALL SOME OFTHE IDEAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION WITH RESPECT TO THE ISSUE OFORGANIZATION HUMANISMORGANIZATION HUMANISM.www.ginandjar.com 40
    • ALL THOSE ARGUMENTS, AND THE CURRENTDISCOURCES ON POST MODERN ADMINISTRATIONDISCOURCES ON POST MODERN ADMINISTRATIONCONTRIBUTE TO THE NEW APPROACH IN PUBLICADMINISTRATION: THE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE.www.ginandjar.com 41
    • POSTMODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATIONADMINISTRATIONPOSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONPOSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORY CAN BE MOST EASILY UNDERSTOODAS THE ANTITHESIS OF POSITIVISM ANDTHE LOGIC OF OBJECTIVE SOCIAL SCIENCE.www.ginandjar.com 42
    • MODERNISM IS THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE THROUGHREASON, AND KNOWLEDGE THUS DERIVED IS SIMPLYASSUMED TO BE FACTUAL AND THEREFORE TRUEASSUMED TO BE FACTUAL AND THEREFORE TRUE.EQUALLY IMPORTANT, THE AGE OF REASON REJECTEDKNOWLEDGE BASED ON SUPERSTITION OR PROPHECY ANDKNOWLEDGE BASED ON SUPERSTITION OR PROPHECY ANDREPLACED IT WITH KNOWLEDGE BASED ON SCIENCE. ALLMODERN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES AND FIELDS OF SCIENCEARE ROOTED IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND IN ANARE ROOTED IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND IN ANEPISTEMOLOGY BASED ON THE OBJECTIVE OBSERVATIONOF PHENOMENA AND THE DESCRIPTION, EITHER,QUANTITATIVELY OR QUALITATIVELY, OF PHENOMENA.www.ginandjar.com 43
    • POSTMODERNISTS DESCRIBE MODERN LIFE ASPOSTMODERNISTS DESCRIBE MODERN LIFE ASHYPERREALITY, A BLURRING OF THE REAL AND THEUNREAL POSTMODERNISTS CLAIM THAT A FUNDAMENTALUNREAL. POSTMODERNISTS CLAIM THAT A FUNDAMENTALBREAK LITH THE MODERN ERA HAS OCCURRED RECENTLY.MASS MEDIA, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, AND TECHNOLOGYARE NEW FORMS OF CONTROL THAT CHANGE POLITICSAND LIFE. BOUNDARIES BETWEEN INFORMATION ANDENTERTAINMENT ARE IMPLODING AS ARE BOUNDARIESENTERTAINMENT ARE IMPLODING, AS ARE BOUNDARIESBETWEEN IMAGES AND POLITICS. INDEED, SOCIETY ITSELFIS IMPLODING.www.ginandjar.com 44
    • MODERNITY IS ALSO CHARACTERIZED IN POSTMODERNITYAS PARTICULARLY AUTHORITARIAN AND UNJUST. MUCH OFPOSTMODERN LANGUAGE HAS TO DO WITH THE ABUSE OFGOVERNMENTAL POWER, INCLUDING BUREAUCRATICPOWER KEY SUBJECTS IN THE POSTMODERN LEXICON AREPOWER. KEY SUBJECTS IN THE POSTMODERN LEXICON ARECOLONIALISM, ILLCLUDING CORPORATE COLONIALISM,SOCIAL INJUSTICE, GENDER INEQUALITY, AND THEDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH BETWEEN THE DEVELOPED ANDSO-CALLED THIRD WORLD.www.ginandjar.com 45
    • FINALLY, MODERNITY, IN THE POSTMODERNPERSPECTIVE, IS PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITHOBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT;POSTMODERNITY IS MORE CONCERNED WITH VALUESAND THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH THAN INAND THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH THAN INCHARACTERIZATIONS OF KNOWLEDGE.(FREDERICKSON & SMITH, 2003)www.ginandjar.com 46
    • TO POSTMODERNISTS, MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONBASED ON ENLIGHTENMENT LOGIC IS SIMPLY MISGUIDED.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORISTS EMPLOYING THEPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORISTS EMPLOYING THEPOSTMODERN PERSPECTIVE ARE PARTICULARLY CRITICAL OFTHE FIELDS APPARENT PREOCCUPATION WITH RATIONALISM(ESPECIALLY MARKET-BASED RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY) ANDTECHNOCRATIC EXPERTISE.IN CONTRAST POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONIN CONTRAST, POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORISTS HAVE A CENTRAL COMMITMENT TO THE IDEA “OFDISCOURSE,“ THE NOTION THAT PUBLIC PROBLEMS ARE MORELIKELY RESOLVED THROUGH DISCOURSE THAN THROUGHLIKELY RESOLVED THROUGH DISCOURSE THAN THROUGH"OBJECTIVE" MEASUREMENTS OR RATIONAL ANALYSIS(McSwite, 1997).www.ginandjar.com 47( , )
    • THE IDEAL OF AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE SEES ADMINISTRATORSTHE IDEAL OF AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE SEES ADMINISTRATORSAND CITIZENS AS ENGAGING FULLY WITH ONE ANOTHER, NOTMERELY AS RATIONALLY SELF-INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS BEINGBROUGHT TOGETHER TO TALK BUT AS PARTICIPANTS IN ABROUGHT TOGETHER TO TALK, BUT AS PARTICIPANTS IN ARELATIONSHIP IN WHICH THEY ENGAGE WITH ONE ANOTHER ASHUMAN BEINGS.THE RESULTING PROCESS OF NEGOTIATION AND CONSENSUSTHE RESULTING PROCESS OF NEGOTIATION AND CONSENSUSBUILDING IS ONE IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS ENGAGE WITH ONEANOTHER AS THEY ENGAGE WITH THEMSELVES, FULLYEMBRACING ALL ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN PERSONALITY NOTEMBRACING ALL ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN PERSONALITY NOTMERELY RATIONAL, BUT EXPERIENTIAL, INTUITIVE, ANDEMOTIONAL.POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DERIVES ITS COREIDEAS FROM SOME CONCEPTS AND ASSUMPTIONS OF THE NEWPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.www.ginandjar.com 48
    • THROUGH APPROACHES SUCH AS THESE SCHOLARS HOPEDTHROUGH APPROACHES SUCH AS THESE, SCHOLARS HOPEDTO BUILD ALTERNATIVES APPROACHES TO THE STUDY ANDPRACTICE OF PUBLIC ADIMINISTRATION, ALTERNATIVESC C O U C S O , SMORE SENSITIVE TO VALUES (NOT JUST FACTS), TOSUBJECTIVE HUMAN MEANING (NOT JUST OBJECTIVEBEHAVIOR) AND THE FULL RANGE OF EMOTIONS ANDBEHAVIOR), AND THE FULL RANGE OF EMOTIONS ANDFEELINGS INVOLVED IN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANDAMONG REAL PEOPLE.www.ginandjar.com 49
    • GOVERNANCEIN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, HIERARCHICALGOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANTGOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANTORGANIZATIONAL MODEL USED TO DELIVER PUBLICSERVICES AND FULFILL PUBLIC POLICY GOALS.PUBLIC MANAGERS WON ACCLAIM BY ORDERING THOSEUNDER THEM TO ACCOMPLISH HIGHLY ROUTINE, ALBEITPROFESSIONAL, TASKS WITH UNIFORMITY BUT WITHOUTPROFESSIONAL, TASKS WITH UNIFORMITY BUT WITHOUTDISCRETION.TODAY, INCREASINGLY COMPLEX SOCIETIES FORCEPUBLIC OFFICIALS TO DEVELOP NEW MODELS OFPUBLIC OFFICIALS TO DEVELOP NEW MODELS OFGOVERNANCE.www.ginandjar.com 50
    • THE TRADITIONAL, HIERARCHICAL MODEL OFGOVERNMENT SIMPLY DOES NOT MEET THE DEMANDS OFTHIS COMPLEX, RAPIDLY CHANGING AGE.RIGID BUREAUCRATIC SYSTEMS THAT OPERATE WITHRIGID BUREAUCRATIC SYSTEMS THAT OPERATE WITHCOMMAND-AND-CONTROL PROCEDURES, NARROW WORKRESTRICTIONS, AND INWARD-LOOKING CULTURES ANDOPERATIONAL MODELS ARE DEEMED TO BEPARTICULARLY ILL-SUITED TO ADDRESSING PROBLEMSTHAT OFTEN TRANSCEND ORGANIZATIONALTHAT OFTEN TRANSCEND ORGANIZATIONALBOUNDARIES.www.ginandjar.com 51
    • IN MANY WAYS, TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGESAND THE MEANS OF ADDRESSING THEM ARE MORENUMEROUS AND COMPLEX THAN EVER BEFORENUMEROUS AND COMPLEX THAN EVER BEFORE.PROBLEMS HAVE BECOME BOTH MORE GLOBAL ANDMORE LOCAL AS POWER DISPERSES AND BOUNDARIESMORE LOCAL AS POWER DISPERSES AND BOUNDARIES(WHEN THEY EXIST AT ALL) BECOME MORE FLUID.ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL SOLUTIONS HAVE GIVEN WAY TOCUSTOMIZED APPROACHES AS THE COMPLICATEDPROBLEMS OF DIVERSE AND MOBILE POPULATIONSINCREASINGLY DEFY SIMPLISTIC SOLUTIONSINCREASINGLY DEFY SIMPLISTIC SOLUTIONS.www.ginandjar.com 52
    • • PARADIGM SHIFTGLOBAL POLITICALGLOBALNATIONALPOLITICALECONOMICLOCAL CULTURE/VALUES)www.ginandjar.com 53
    • GLOBALIZATION UNDERMINE TRADITIONAL DOMESTICPOLITICAL AUTHORITYGLOBAL ECONOMY, MARKET, CAPITALPRIVATIZATIONHOLLOWING OUT OF THE STATEOVERIDE THE ABILITY OF NATIONALGOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMSGOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMSACCOUNTABILITY TO THE INTERNATIONALMARKET AND STANDARDxTRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITYwww.ginandjar.com 54
    • QUESTION: DO GOVERNMENTS KNOW WHAT THEYARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM?ARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM?THE DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT HAS A LONGHISTORY. BUT SELDOM HAVE THE FORMS OFS O U S O O S OGOVERNMENT BEEN UNDER GREATER CHALLENGE.DISSATISFACTION AND DISILLUSIONMENT ABOUTPOLITICAL SOLUTIONS ARE RIFE.www.ginandjar.com 55
    • POLITICALPOLITICALDEMOCRACYSTRUCTURE ANDVALUES OFPUBLICSOCIETALTRANSFORMATION PUBLICADMINISTRATIONTRANSFORMATIONTECHNOLOGICALTECHNOLOGICALPROGRESSwww.ginandjar.com 56
    • IN A CLIMATE OF SOCIAL VALUES THAT STRESSPARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, BUREAUCRACIESWITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OFWITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OFAUTHORITY AND CONTROL ARE ANACHRONISTIC.(PFEFFER AND SALANCIK, 1978)POLITICAL DEMOCRACY, SOCIETALTRANSFORMATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSTRANSFORMATIONS, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSHAVE MODIFIED THE STRUCTURES AND VALUES OFPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.www.ginandjar.com 57
    • ?CORE VALUES OF VALUES & NEEDS?CORE VALUES OFPUBLICADMINISTRATIONVALUES & NEEDSOF SOCIETY ATLARGEwww.ginandjar.com 58
    • A COMPLEX PROCESS OF FUNCTIONAL AND SOCIALA COMPLEX PROCESS OF FUNCTIONAL AND SOCIALDIFFERENTIATION HAS GRADUALLY ERODED THERIGIDITIES OF HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY STRUCTURESAND FURTHER MITIGATED THE OLD PERCEIVEDANTINOMY BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND CHANGE.www.ginandjar.com 59
    • ??SCALE ANDCOMPLEXITY PUBLICABSORBPROCESSCOMPLEXITYOF MODERNGOVERNMENTU CADMINISTRATIONEFFECTIVELYACCOMPLISHwww.ginandjar.com 60
    • THE STRAINS ON MODERN GOVERNMENT CAUSED BYTHE STRAINS ON MODERN GOVERNMENT CAUSED BYTHE GROWING COMPLEXITY AND SCALE OF OPERATIONHAVE BROUGHT INTO SHARP FOCUS THE PROBLEM OFCAPACITY: HOW MUCH, A HUMAN ORGANIZATION CANCOMPREHEND, ABSORB, PROCESS AND ACCOMPLISHEFFECTIVELY.www.ginandjar.com 61
    • SOCIAL CHALENGE THEPARTICIPATIONSOCIALVALUESCHALENGE THESTRUCTURES OFAUTHORITY ANDCONTROLPARTICIPATIONDEMOCRACYCONTROLBASIC VALUES OFPUBLICADMINISTRATIONwww.ginandjar.com 62
    • THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TODAY, THERE IS AMOUNTING CHALLENGE TO CENTRALIZED,C C CO O OHIERARCHICAL, CONTROL-ORIENTEDSTRUCTURES.www.ginandjar.com 63
    • CORE VALUES SOCIAL VALUES><ETHICSCENTRALIZED,CLOSED SYSTEMOPENSYSTEMPARTICIPATION/DEMOCRACYTRANSPARANCYACCOUNTABILITYACCOUNTABILITYwww.ginandjar.com 64
    • FROM ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE JAN KOOIMAN (2006) OFFERSFROM ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE, JAN KOOIMAN (2006) OFFERSA WORKING DEFINITION OF SOCIAL-POLITICAL ORINTERACTIVE GOVERNING AND GOVERNANCE AS FOLLOWS:C GO G GO C S O O SGOVERNING CAN BE CONSIDERED AS THE TOTALITY OFINTERACTIONS, IN WHICH PUBLIC AS WELL AS PRIVATEACTORS PARTICIPATE, AIMED AT SOLVING SOCIETALPROBLEMS OR CREATING SOCIETAL OPPORTUNITIES;ATTENDING TO THE INSTITUTIONS AS CONTEXTS FOR THESEATTENDING TO THE INSTITUTIONS AS CONTEXTS FOR THESEGOVERNING INTERACTIONS; AND ESTABLISHING ANORMATIVE FOUNDATION FOR ALL THOSE ACTIVITIES.GOVERNANCE CAN BE SEEN AS THE TOTALITY OFTHEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS ON GOVERNING.www.ginandjar.com 65
    • GOVERNANCE REFERS TO SELF-ORGANIZING,INTERORGANIZATIONAL NET-WORKS CHARACTERIZED BYINTERDEPENDENCE, RESOURCE-EXCHANGE, RULES OF THEGAME, AND SIGNIFICANT AUTONOMY FROM THE STATE. GOVERNANCE MEANS THERE IS NO ONE CENTRE BUTMULTIPLE CENTRES; THERE IS NO SOVEREIGN AUTHORITYBECAUSE NETWORKS HAVE CONSIDERABLE AUTONOMY.BECAUSE NETWORKS HAVE CONSIDERABLE AUTONOMY.(RHODES, 1997)www.ginandjar.com 66
    • STRUCTURENETWORKSTRUCTUREHIERARCHYSTAKEHOLDERSPARTICIPATIONwww.ginandjar.com 67
    • ACCORDING TO H. GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1997)THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE DISTINCT CONCEPTIONSOF GOVERNANCE:OF GOVERNANCE:1) GOVERNANCE IS SIMPLY A SURROGATE WORD FOR PUBLIC) GO C S S SU OG O O U CADMINISTRATION AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION. THUSGOVERNANCE THEORY IS AN INTELLECTUAL PROJECTATTEMPTING TO UNIFY THE VARIOUS INTELLECTUALATTEMPTING TO UNIFY THE VARIOUS INTELLECTUALTHREADS RUNNING THROUGH A MULTIDISCIPLINARYLITERATURE INTO A FRAMEWORK THAT COVERS THISBROAD AREA OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY THISBROAD AREA OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY. THIS,ESSENTIALLY, IS THE POSITION STAKED BY LYNN ET AL.(2000, 2001).www.ginandjar.com 68
    • 2) GOVERNANCE EQUATES TO THE MANAGERIALIST OR2) GOVERNANCE EQUATES TO THE MANAGERIALIST ORNPM MOVEMENT. THIS IS PARTICULARLY EVIDENT INNATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WESTMINSTER MODEL,WHERE NPM FOLLOWED FROM SERIOUS ATTEMPTS TOWHERE NPM FOLLOWED FROM SERIOUS ATTEMPTS TOREFORM THE PUBLIC SECTOR BY DEFINING ANDJUSTIFYING WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD AND SHOULDNOT DO AND TO RESHAPE PUBLIC SERVICE PROVISION BYNOT DO, AND TO RESHAPE PUBLIC SERVICE PROVISION BYATTACKING THE PATHOLOGIES OF BUREAUCRACY (KETTL,2000).3) GOVERNANCE IS A BODY OF THEORY THAT COMPREHENDSLATERAL RELATIONS, INTERINSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS,THE DECLINE OF SOVEREIGNTY, THE DIMINISHING,IMPORTANCE OF JURISDICTIONAL BORDERS, AND AGENERAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAGMENTATION(FREDERICKSON, 1997).www.ginandjar.com 69(FREDERICKSON, 1997).
    • THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENT PERSISTS,BUT ITS INFLUENCE IS STEADILY WANING, PUSHED BYBUT ITS INFLUENCE IS STEADILY WANING, PUSHED BYGOVERNMENTS NEEDS TO SOLVE EVER MORECOMPLICATED PROBLEMS AND PULLED BY NEW TOOLSTHAT ALLOW INNOVATORS TO FASHION CREATIVETHAT ALLOW INNOVATORS TO FASHION CREATIVERESPONSES.THIS PUSH AND PULL IS GRADUALLY PRODUCING A NEWMODEL OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EXECUTIVES COREMODEL OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EXECUTIVES CORERESPONSIBILITIES NO LONGER CENTER ON MANAGINGPEOPLE AND PROGRAMS BUT ON ORGANIZINGRESOURCES, OFTEN BELONGING TO OTHERS, TOPRODUCE PUBLIC VALUE.www.ginandjar.com 70
    • GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, BUREAUS, DIVISIONS, ANDOFFICES ARE BECOMING LESS IMPORTANT AS DIRECTSERVICE PROVIDERS, BUT MORE IMPORTANT ASS C O S, U O O SGENERATORS OF PUBLIC VALUE WITHIN THE WEB OFMULTIORGANIZATIONAL, MULTIGOVERNMENTAL, ANDMULTISECTORAL RELATIONSHIPS THAT INCREASINGLYMULTISECTORAL RELATIONSHIPS THAT INCREASINGLYCHARACTERIZE MODERN GOVERNMENT.THUS GOVERNMENT BY NETWORK BEARS LESSRESEMBLANCE TO A TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONALRESEMBLANCE TO A TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONALCHART THAN IT DOES TO A MORE DYNAMIC WEB OFCOMPUTER NETWORKS THAT CAN ORGANIZE ORREORGANIZE, EXPAND OR CONTRACT, DEPENDING ONTHE PROBLEM AT HAND.www.ginandjar.com 71
    • NETWORKS CAN SERVE A RANGE OF IMPROMPTU PURPOSES,SUCH AS CREATING A MARKETPLACE OF NEW IDEAS INSIDE ABUREAUCRACY OR FOSTERING COOPERATION BETWEENCOLLEAGUES.PUBLIC PRIVATE NETWORKS COME IN MANY FORMS FROM ADPUBLIC-PRIVATE NETWORKS COME IN MANY FORMS, FROM ADHOC NETWORKS THAT ARE ACTIVATED ONLYINTERMITTENTLY—OFTEN IN RESPONSE TO A DISASTER—TOCHANNEL PARTNERSHIPS IN WHICH GOVERNMENTS USEPRIVATE FIRMS AND NONPROFITS TO SERVE ASDISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR PUBLIC SERVICES ANDDISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR PUBLIC SERVICES ANDTRANSACTIONS.www.ginandjar.com 72
    • MODELS OF GOVERNMENTSHightionOutsourcedgovernmentcollaboraNetworkinggovernmentprivatecHierarchical Joined pLPublicHierarchicalgovernmentJoined-upgovernmentLowHighNetwork management capabilitiesLow(GOLDSMITH AND EGGERS 2004)www.ginandjar.com 73(GOLDSMITH AND EGGERS, 2004)
    • THE NEW USE OF GOVERNANCE DOES NOT POINT ATSTATE ACTORS AND INSTITUTIONS AS THE ONLYSTATE ACTORS AND INSTITUTIONS AS THE ONLYRELEVANT INSTITUTIONS AND ACTORS IN THEAUTHORITATIVE ALLOCATION OF VALUES.THEY ALL, TO SOME EXTENT, FOCUS ON THE ROLE OFNETWORKS, IN THE PURSUIT OF COMMON GOALS.www.ginandjar.com 74
    • THE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURYTHE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURYPrivate sector Public sector Third sectorTransnationalcorporationsIntergovernmentalorganizationNongovernmentalorganizationSupranationallevelTwentieth-centuryNational NationalNational Twentieth centurymodelNationalcorporations nonprofitslevelLocalbusinessState and localgovernmentLocalbusinessSubnationallevel(KAMARACK AND NYE JR 2002)www.ginandjar.com 75(KAMARACK AND NYE JR., 2002)
    • THE CHALLENGESTHE ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEM PRESENTS NETWORKEDTHE ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEM PRESENTS NETWORKEDGOVERNMENT WITH ITS MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE.WHEN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY ARE PARCELED OUTWHEN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY ARE PARCELED OUTACROSS THE NETWORK, WHO IS TO BLAME WHENSOMETHING GOES WRONG? HOW DOES GOVERNMENTRELINQUISH SOME CONTROL AND STILL ENSURE RESULTS?www.ginandjar.com 76
    • HOW DO NETWORK MANAGERS BALANCE THE NEED FORACCOUNTABILITY AGAINST THE BENEFITS OFACCOUNTABILITY AGAINST THE BENEFITS OFFLEXIBILITY?GOVERNMENTS HAVE TRADITIONALLY TRIED TOADDRESS MOST OF THESE ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE ANDACCOUNTABILITY THROUGH NARROW AUDIT ANDCONTROL MECHANISMS ALTHOUGH SUCH TOOLS HELPCONTROL MECHANISMS. ALTHOUGH SUCH TOOLS HELP,THEY SHOULD NOT CONSTITUTE THE GREATER PART OFAN ACCOUNTABILITY REGIMEAN ACCOUNTABILITY REGIME.www.ginandjar.com 77
    • NETWORK PARTNERS, FACED WITH INTRUSIVE ANDFREQUENT PERFORMANCE AND PRICE AUDITS, TEND TOBECOME RIGID AND RISK AVERSE INNOVATIONBECOME RIGID AND RISK AVERSE. INNOVATIONCOLLAPSES AND TRUST SUFFERS, REDUCING THEESSENTIAL VALUE OF THE RELATIONSHIPESSENTIAL VALUE OF THE RELATIONSHIP.ADDITIONALLY, TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTABILITYMECHANISMS, WHICH RELY ON PROCESSMECHANISMS, WHICH RELY ON PROCESSSTANDARDIZATION, CLASH WITH THE VERY PURPOSE OFTHE NETWORK: TO PROVIDE A DECENTRALIZED,FLEXIBLE, INDIVIDUALIZED, AND CREATIVE RESPONSETO A PUBLIC PROBLEM.www.ginandjar.com 78
    • CORPORATE GOVERNANCEWHEREAS THE GOVERNANCE DISCUSSIONS IN THEPUBLIC SECTORS IS RELATIVELY RECENT, THE TERMPUBLIC SECTORS IS RELATIVELY RECENT, THE TERMGOVERNANCE IS MUCH MORE COMMON IN THEPRIVATE SECTOR WHERE A DEBATE ABOUTCORPORATE GOVERNANCE HAS BEEN GOING ON FORQUITE SOME TIME.COORPORATE GOVERNANCE REFERS TO ISSUES OFCONTROL AND DECISION-MAKING POWERS WITHINTHE PRIVATE (CORPORATE) ORGANIZATIONSTHE PRIVATE (CORPORATE) ORGANIZATIONS.www.ginandjar.com 79
    • CORPORATE GOVERNANCE’ IS THE WATCHWORD OFTHOSE WHO WISH TO IMPROVE THE ACCOUNTABILITYTHOSE WHO WISH TO IMPROVE THE ACCOUNTABILITYAND TRANSPARENCY OF THE ACTIONS OFMANAGEMENT, BUT WITHOUT FUNDAMENTALLYMANAGEMENT, BUT WITHOUT FUNDAMENTALLYALTERING THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF FIRMS.(ROE, 1994)www.ginandjar.com 80
    • GLOBAL GOVERNANCEANOTHER DEVELOPMENT IS THE GLOBALIZATION OF THEECONOMY AND THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OFECONOMY AND THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OFTRANSNATIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS LIKE THEEUROPEAN UNION (EU), WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION(WTO), ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH EAST ASIAN NATIONS(ASEAN), AND NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADEAGREEMENT (NAFTA)AGREEMENT (NAFTA).www.ginandjar.com 81
    • THE DEREGULATIONS OF CAPITAL IN THE 1980 SET INTHE DEREGULATIONS OF CAPITAL IN THE 1980s SET INTRAIN A MASSIVE RESTRUCTURING OF BOTH DOMESTICECONOMIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICECONOMIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICSYSTEM.WHAT SEEMS TO BE THE MAIN CONSEQUENCE OFS S O CO S QU C OGLOBALIZATION IN THE PRESENT CONTEX IS THEEROSION OF TRADITIONAL, DOMESTIC POLITICALAUTHORITY.INTERNATIONAL FORCES APPEAR TO OVERRIDE THEABILITY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIRABILITY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIROWN PROBLEM.www.ginandjar.com 82
    • NEW DEMANDS OF ACCOUNTABILITY TOINTERNATIONAL MARKETS AND STANDARDS MAY CLASHWITH THE TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITYWITH THE TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY.SOME COMMENTATORS (RHODES 1994, 1997; DAVIS1997) HAVE CHARACTERISED THESE TRENDS AS A1997) HAVE CHARACTERISED THESE TRENDS AS AHOLLOWING OUT OF THE STATE, IN WHICH THECOMBINED EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION,COMBINED EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION,INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS, PRIVATISATION ANDREDUCED REGULATION DEPLETE THE CAPACITY OFGOVERNMENT TO SHAPE AND ORGANISE SOCIETY.www.ginandjar.com 83
    • PESSIMIST SUGGEST THAT GLOBALIZATION MEANS THATPESSIMIST SUGGEST THAT GLOBALIZATION MEANS THATGOVERNMENT EVERYWHERE HAVE BECOME POWERLESS ANDTHAT MANAGING GLOBALIZATION IS IMPOSSIBLE, SINCEGLOBALIZATION IS SHAPED BY MARKETS NOT BY GOVERNMENTGLOBALIZATION IS SHAPED BY MARKETS, NOT BY GOVERNMENTSOME HAVE SUGGESTED THAT THIS POWERLESSNESS ISREINFORCED BY THE COMING OF THE INTERNET AGE –THATTHERE IS NO GOVERNANCE AGAINST THE ELECTRONIC HERDTHERE IS NO GOVERNANCE AGAINST THE ELECTRONIC HERD(FRIEDMAN, 2000).GLOBAL GOVERNANCE HAS THEN BECOME VERY TOPICAL.IN A NUTSHEEL, GLOBAL GOVERNANCE IS ABOUT HOW TO COPEWITH PROBLEMS WHICH TRANSCEND THE BORDERS (SUCH ASAIR POLLUTION, NARCOTICS, TERRORISM OR THEAIR POLLUTION, NARCOTICS, TERRORISM OR THEEXPLOITATION OF CHILDS WORKERS) GIVEN THE LACK OF AWORLD GOVERNMENT.www.ginandjar.com 84