World Diary 140101 The story of Polish 地球日誌 波蘭人的故事 by Eddie

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World Diary 140101 The story of Polish 地球日誌 波蘭人的故事 by Eddie

  1. 1. Poland images Music : EleniHand play 手動翻頁 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Area 面積 312,679 kmPopulation 人口 38,501,000GDP per capital $13,540Gini 基尼指數 34.5 3
  4. 4. • Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Polands first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted baptism in 966 and adopted Catholicism as the new official religion of his subjects.• 公元 966 年,波蘭大公梅什科一世接受天主教為國教, 建立皮亞斯特王朝。 1025 年,(勇敢者)博萊斯瓦夫一 世加冕為波蘭國王。 4
  5. 5. • Important early stages in the history of the Polish state and church took place on the island of Ostrów Tumski. Remnants of the original palatium– chapel complex of Polands first Christian ruling couple have been found beneath the church in the foreground. The Poznań Cathedral is located on the right.• 早期的教堂 5
  6. 6. King Mieszko II Lambert (990–1034) tried to continue the politics of his father using Bolesław‘s kingdom as an interventionist great power. Mieszko’s actions reinforced old resentment and hostility on the part of Poland‘s neighbors, and his two dispossessed brothers took advantage of it, arranging for Rus’ and German invasions in 1031; Mieszko was defeated and was forced to leave the country. Later, Mieszko‘s brothers Bezprym and Otto were killed and Mieszko partially recovered. 西元十世紀Mieszko II shown allegorically with Duchess Mathildavon Schwaben 6
  7. 7. • Poznań is the fifth largest city in Poland with a population of over 550,000 people. The name of the city may be from the verb poznać and may mean something like known city. The city is one of the oldest in Poland and may have been the first capitol. 7
  8. 8. • Restoration under Casimir I (1039– 1058)• The nation made a recovery under Mieszkos son, Duke Casimir I (1016– 1058), properly known as the Restorer. After returning from exile in 1039, Casimir rebuilt the Polish monarchy and the countrys territorial integrity through several military campaigns: in 1047, Masovia was taken back from Miecław, and in 1050 Silesia from the Czechs. St. Andrews Church in Kraków (built in the 11th century 8
  9. 9. • The 1569 Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchy, but which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament.• 波蘭的黃金歲月是在 16 世紀時,當 時波蘭與立陶宛合併組成波蘭立陶 宛聯邦,成為歐洲的一個大國。政 權是半聯邦半貴族式共和,史稱第 一共和,首都也遷往華沙。在之後 的一個世紀中,貴族勢力的增強與 內部動亂削弱了國家的總體實力, 導致了 1772 年、 1793 年和 1795 年俄羅斯、普魯士以及奧地利對波 蘭的三次瓜分。• 17 世紀 1683 年,波蘭國王率騎兵 擊退了進攻奧地利的土耳其軍隊, 保護了歐洲的完整,史稱維也納之 戰。 9
  10. 10. A stylised depiction ofKing John III Sobieski,allied commander-in-chief and victor at theBattle of Vienna Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania acceded to the throne in 1764, reigning until his abdication on 25 November 1795 10
  11. 11. • Poles rebelled several times against the partitioners, particularly near the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. One of the most famous and successful attempts at securing renewed Polish independence took place in 1794, during the Kościuszko Uprising, at the Racławice where Tadeusz Kosciuszko, a popular and distinguished general who had served under Washington in America, led peasants and some Polish regulars into battle against numerically superior Russian forces. Tadeusz Kościuszko takes the oath to the King on the Rynek in Kraków, 1794 11
  12. 12. • In 1807, Napoleon I of France recreated a Polish state, the Duchy of Warsaw, but after the Napoleonic Wars, Poland was again divided by the victorious Allies at the Congress of Vienna of 1815. The eastern part was ruled by the Russian tsar as a Congress Kingdom which possessed a very liberal constitution. Polish insurgents and Russian cuirassiers clash on a bridge in Warsaws Łazienki Park during the November Uprising, Painting by Wojciech Kossak, 1898 12
  13. 13. • During World War I, all the Allies agreed on the reconstitution of Poland that United States President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed in Point 13 of his Fourteen Points. A total of 2 million Polish troops fought with the armies of the three occupying powers, and 450,000 died. Shortly after the armistice with Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska). It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflicts, the most notable being the Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921) when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army at the Battle of Warsaw, an event which is considered to have ultimately halted the advance of Communism into Europe and forced Vladimir Lenin to rethink his objective of achieving global socialism. Nowadays the event is often referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula. Poland between 1922 and 1938 Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski 13
  14. 14. • The Sanacja movement controlled Poland until the start of World War II in 1939, when Nazi Germanys and Slovakia Invasion of Poland (1939) on 1 September and the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September, which followed the breaking of the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact, occurred. Warsaw capitulated on 28 September 1939. As agreed in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Poland was split into two zones, one occupied by Nazi Germany while the Kresy, or Borderlands, fell under the control of the Soviet Union. In 1939-1941, the Soviets had moved hundreds of thousands of Poles across the Soviet Union, and the Soviet secret police, NKVD, had executed thousands of Polish prisoners of war . At the end of World War II, the gray territories were transferred from Poland to the Soviet Union, and the pink territories from Germany to Poland 14
  15. 15. • After the second world war The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. As elsewhere in Communist Europe the Soviet occupation of Poland met with armed resistance from the outset which continued into the fifties.• 二戰後,蘇聯在波蘭 建立了一個共產國家 。 15
  16. 16. • Despite persecution and imposition of martial law in 1981, it eroded the dominance of the Communist Party and by 1989 had triumphed in Polands first partially free and democratic parliamentary elections since the end of the Second World War. Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communist regimes and parties across Europe.• 1989 年,波蘭人投票推翻 共產黨的統治。 16
  17. 17. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and since 2004 has been a member of theEuropean Union 1999 年波蘭加入北約組織, 2004 年波蘭加入歐盟。 17
  18. 18. Maurizio Cattelan’s Lil Hitler Sculpture in WarsawGhetto Is an “Affront to Any Jew” But Not Really希特勒雕像跪在華沙猶太人區 18
  19. 19. Melancholia (1894), National Museum in Poznań 19
  20. 20. Stanisław Wyspiański was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well asinterior and furniture designer. 20
  21. 21. Lech Walesa is a Polish politician, trade-unionorganizer, and human-rights activist. A charismaticleader, he co-founded Solidarity (Solidarność), theSoviet blocs first independent trade union, won theNobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President ofPoland between 1990 and 1995. 21
  22. 22. Polish Army vehicles and troops on patrol in Afghanistan波蘭軍隊在阿富汗 22
  23. 23. Poland images 23
  24. 24. Poland images 24
  25. 25. Castle in Poland 25
  26. 26. Castle in Poland 26
  27. 27. The Main Municipal Post Office of Bydgoszcz 27
  28. 28. Nature in Poland 28
  29. 29. Winter in Poland 29
  30. 30. Autumn in Poland 30
  31. 31. The Grand Hotel in Sopot. Polands Baltic Sea resorts are very populartourist destinations among Poles as well as foreign tourists 31
  32. 32. Fashion in Poland 32
  33. 33. City’s young men 33
  34. 34. Polish 波蘭人 34
  35. 35. Polish Public art 波蘭公共藝術 35
  36. 36. Polish Public art 波蘭公共藝術 36
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  38. 38. Castles Cityscapes Old Polish Town Gate PolandMonument Historical Lublin Culture 38
  39. 39. Autumn in Poland 波蘭秋天景色 39
  40. 40. Village in Poland 波蘭鄉 村景色 40
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  53. 53. Kraków is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. 53
  54. 54. The Main Market Square in Kraków is the heart of Polands southerncultural capital 54
  55. 55. Kraków 55
  56. 56. Kraków 56
  57. 57. Kraków 57
  58. 58. Kraków 58
  59. 59. Łódźis the third largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland 59
  60. 60. Back to Łódź, city of culture 60
  61. 61. Polish traditional food波蘭傳統食物 61
  62. 62. Polish handicrafts 62
  63. 63. Traditional Poland 63
  64. 64. Commemorate my friend T.C.Hou.紀念我永遠的朋友侯天慶 Eddie Lee 李常生 2013/4/2 Taipei, Taiwan, All photos were taken from internet, leechangsheng6666@gmail.com 64

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