World Diary 130112 The story of Romanian (Part one) 地球日誌   羅馬尼亞人的故事(上輯)  by Eddie
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World Diary 130112 The story of Romanian (Part one) 地球日誌 羅馬尼亞人的故事(上輯) by Eddie

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World Diary 130112 The story of Romanian (Part one) 地球日誌   羅馬尼亞人的故事(上輯)  by Eddie World Diary 130112 The story of Romanian (Part one) 地球日誌 羅馬尼亞人的故事(上輯) by Eddie Presentation Transcript

  • The history 1
  • 2
  • Romania 羅馬尼亞• Romania (i/roʊˈmeɪniə/ roh-MAY-nee-ə; dated spellings Roumania[6] and Rumania;[7][8] Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a] ( listen)) is a country located at the intersection of Central and Southeastern Europe, bordering on the Black Sea. Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south. At 238,400 square kilometers (92,000 sq mi), Romania is the ninth largest country of the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest population of the European Union with more than 19 million people. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, the tenth largest city in the EU. 3
  • • The United Principalities emerged when the territories of Moldavia and Wallachia were united under Prince Alexander Ioan Cuza in 1859. In 1881 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern- Sigmaringen was crowned as King Carol I the first monarch of the Kingdom of Romania. Independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on 9 May 1877, and was internationally recognized the following year. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania. Greater Romania emerged into an era of progression and prosperity that would continue until the eve of World War II. That war caused the rise of a military dictatorship in Romania under fascist General Antonescu, who chose to fight on the side of the Axis powers from 1941 to 1944. After his removal, Romania switched sides in 1944 and joined the Allies. By the end of the war, some formerly Romanian northeastern territories were occupied by the Soviet Union, with Red Army units stationed on Romanian soil. Then Romania forcibly became a Peoples Republic and a member of the Warsaw Pact. 4
  • • With the fall of the Iron Curtain and the 1989 Revolution, Romania began its transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy. After a decade of post-revolution economic problems and living-standards decline, extensive reforms fostered economic recovery. As of 2010, Romania is an upper-middle-income country with a high human development index.• Romania joined NATO on 29 March 2004, and the European Union on 1 January 2007. It is also a member of the: Latin Union, Francophonie, OSCE, WTO, BSEC, United Nations, etc. Today, Romania is a unitary semi-presidential republic, in which the executive branch consists of the President and the Government.• Etymology• The România derives from of the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome".[12] The first known use of the appellation was by 16th-century Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia.• The oldest surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the countrys name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească ("The Romanian Land", țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească). 5
  • • Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia. 6
  • Neacșus Letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian• The use of the name România to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—is first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861. English-language sources still used the terms Rumania or Roumania, derived from the French spelling Roumanie, as recently as World War II, but the name has since been replaced with the official spelling Romania. 7
  • • Prehistory• In 2002 in the "Cave With Bones" in present day Romania 40,000 year old modern human remains were discovered.[1] In 2011 older modern human remains were identified in the UK (Kents Cavern at 41,000BP) and Italy (Grotta del Cavallo at 43,000BP), nonetheless the Romanian fossils are still among the oldest remains of Homo sapiens in Europe, so they may be representative of the first such people to have entered the continent.[3] The remains are especially interesting because they present a mixture of archaic, early modern human and Neanderthal morphological features.• One of the fossils found—a male, adult jawbone—has been dated to be between 34,000 and 36,000 years old, which would make it one of the oldest fossils found to date of modern humans in Europe.[6] A skull found in Peștera cu Oase (The Cave with Bones) in 2004-5 bears features of both modern humans and Neanderthals. According to a paper by Erik Trinkaus and others, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in January 2007, this finding suggests that the two groups interbred thousands of years ago. 8
  • DaciaThe sanctuaries of the ancient Dacian Kingdomcapital, Sarmizegetusa Regia • The earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the present-day Romania comes from Herodotus in book IV of his Histories written c. 440 BCE. Herein he writes that the tribal confederation of the Getae were defeated by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great during his campaign against the Scythians.[7] The Dacians, widely accepted as part of the Getae described earlier by the Greeks, were a branch of Thracians that inhabited Dacia (corresponding to modern Romania, Moldova, northern Bulgaria and surroundings). 9
  • • The Dacian Kingdom reached its maximum expansion during King Burebista, between 82 BCE - 44 BCE. Under his leadership Dacia became a powerful state which threatened the regional interests of the Romans. Julius Caesar intended to start a campaign against the Dacians, due to the support that Burebista gave to Pompey, but was assassinated in 44 BC. A few months later, Burebista shared the same fate, assassinated by his own noblemen. Another theory suggests that he was killed by Caesars friends. His powerful state was divided in four and did not become unified again until 95 AD, under the reign of the Dacian king Decebalus.• The Roman Empire conquered Moesia by 29 BC, reaching the Danube. In 87 AD Emperor Domitian sent six legions into Dacia, which were defeated at Tapae. The Dacians were eventually defeated by Emperor Trajan in two campaigns stretching from 101 AD to 106 AD, and the core of their kingdom was turned into the province of Roman Dacia.• The Romans exploited the rich ore deposits of Dacia. Gold and silver were especially plentiful, and were found in great quantities in the Western Carpathians. After Trajans conquest, he brought back to Rome over 165 tons of gold and 330 tons of silver. The Romans heavily colonized the province, and thus started a period of intense romanization, the Vulgar Latin giving birth to the Proto-Romanian language. Trajan 10
  • • The geographical position of Dacia Felix (another name for the Roman province of Dacia) made it difficult to defend against the barbarians, and during 240 AD - 256 AD, under the attacks of the Carpi and the Goths, Dacia was lost. The Roman Empire withdrew from Dacia Romana around 271 AD, thus making it the first province to be abandoned.• Roman conquest of Dacia stands at the base of the origin of Romanians. Several competing theories have been introduced to explain the origin of modern Romanians. Linguistic and geo-historical analyses tend to indicate that Romanians have coalesced as a major ethnic group both South and North of the Danube. For further discussion, see Origin of Romanians and Vlachs. Umbo or a Gate Reinforcement 11
  • Dark Ages• Between 271 and 275, the Roman army and administration left Dacia, which was invaded afterwards by the Goths. . The Goths mixed with the local people until the 4th century, when a nomadic people, the Huns, arrived. The Gepids and the Avars and their Slavic subjects ruled Transylvania until the 8th century. The Pechenegs, the Cumans and Uzes were also mentioned by historic chronicles on the territory of Romania, until the founding of the Romanian principalities of Wallachia, in the south, by Basarab I around 1310 in the High Middle Ages, and Moldova, in the east, by Dragoş around 1352.• Different migrating peoples lived alongside with the local populations, such as the Gothic Empire (Oium) from 271 until 378, the Hunnish Empire until 435, the Avar Empire and Slavs during the 6th century. Roman Dacia, between 106 and 271 AD 12
  • Bran Castle built in 1212, is commonly known as Draculas Castle and issituated in the centre of present-day Romania. In addition to its uniquearchitecture, the castle is famous because of persistent myths that itwas once the home of Vlad III Dracula 13
  • Ruins of the Cârţa Monastery• In the Middle Ages, Romanians lived in three distinct principalities: Wallachia (Romanian: Ţara Româneasc ă—"Romanian Land"), Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova) and Transylvania.• The Pechenegs (a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes) occupied the steppes north of the Black Sea (8th–12th century) and by the 10th century they were in control of all the lands between the Don and lower Danube rivers. During the 11th and 12th century, the nomadic confederacy of the Cumans and (Eastern) Kipchaks (who are considered to be either the eastern branch of the Cumans or a distinct but related tribe with whom the Cumans have created a confederacy) were the dominant force over the vast territories stretching from as far as present-day Kazakhstan, southern Russia, Ukraine, down to southern Moldavia and western Wallachia. 14
  • King Stephencapturing his uncle,Gyula III 15
  • • By the 11th century, the area of todays Transylvania became a largely autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Kings of Hungary invited the Saxons to settle in Transylvania, to populate the sparsely inhabited region. Also living in Transylvania were the Székely. After the Magyar conquest (10- 11th century), Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of Hungary until the 16th century, when it became the independent Principality of Transylvania[31] until 1711. Many small local states with varying degrees of independence developed, but only in the 14th century the larger principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight a threat in the form of the Ottoman Turks, who conquered Constantinople in 1453. 16
  • • Independent Wallachia has been on the border of the Ottoman Empire since the 14th century until it gradually fell under the Ottomans suzerainty during the 15th century. One famous ruler in this period was Vlad III the Impaler (also known as Vlad Dracula, Romanian: Vlad Ţepeş), Prince of Wallachia in 1448, 1456–62, and 1476. In the English-speaking world, Vlad is best known for being the inspiration to the "vampire" main character in Bram Stokers 1897 novel Dracula. As a king, he courageously maintained an independent policy towards the Ottoman Empire. The Romanians appreciate him as a ruler with an extreme sense of justice [35] and the defender of the Wallachian independence and, in general, the western European Christianism against the Ottoman expansionism. The principality of Moldavia reached its most glorious period under the rule of Stephen the Great between 1457 and 1504. His 47 years reign was unusually long at that time - only 13 rulers worldwide were recorded to have ruled for at least 50 years until the end of 15th century. He was a very successful both military and civil ruler ( losing only 2 out of 50 battles ), after each victory he raised a church, managing to build 48 churches or monasteries,[38] some of them with a very unique and interesting style. For more information see Painted churches of northern Moldavia listed in UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites. Stephens most prestigious victory was over the Ottoman Empire in 1475 at the Battle of Vaslui for which he raised the Voroneţ Monastery. For this victory, Pope Sixtus IV nominated him as verus christianae fidei athleta (a true Champion of the Christian Faith). However, after his death, Moldavia also came under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.• In the period the Romanians received the Orthodoxy during Bulgarian rule, which subsequently became the traditional religion. Battle of Nicopolis, 1396 17
  • Early modern period• By 1541, the entire Balkan peninsula and most of Hungary became Ottoman provinces. In contrast, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, came under Ottoman suzerainty, but conserved fully internal autonomy and, until the 18th century, some external independence. During this period the Romanian lands were characterised by the slow disappearance of the feudal system, the distinguishment of some rulers like Vasile Lupu and Dimitrie Cantemir in Moldavia, Matei Basarab and Constantin Brâncoveanu in Wallachia, Gabriel Bethlen in Transylvania, the Phanariot Epoch. At that time the Russian Empire appeared to become the political and military power which threatened the Romanian principalities.• John II, the non-Habsburg king of Hungary, moved his royal court to Alba Iulia in Transylvania, and after his abdication from the Hungarian throne, he became the first "Prince of Transylvania". His Edict of Turda was the first decree of religious freedom in the modern European history (1568). In the aftermath Transylvania was ruled by mostly Calvinist Hungarian princes (until the end of the 17th century), and Protestantism flourished in the region.• Michael the Brave (Romanian: Mihai Viteazul) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593– 1601), of Transylvania (1599–1600), and of Moldavia (1600). For a short time during his reign Transylvania was ruled together with Moldavia and Wallachia in a personal union. After his death the union dissolved and as vassal tributary states Moldova and Wallachia still had an internal autonomy and some external independence, which was finally lost in the 18th century. Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654-1714) 18
  • • The Principality of Transylvania reached its golden age under the absolutist rule of Gabor Bethlen (1613–1629). In 1699, Transylvania became a part of the Habsburgs Austrian Empire, following the Austrian victory over the Turks. The Austrians, in their turn, rapidly expanded their empire: in 1718 a major part of Wallachia, Oltenia, was annexed to the Austrian monarchy and was only returned in 1739. In 1775, the Austrian empire occupied the north-western part of Moldavia, later on called Bukovina, while the eastern half of the principality (by the name of Bessarabia) was occupied in 1812 by Russia.• During the Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania, and the Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were actually second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in a territory where in fact they constituted the majority of the population. In some Transylvanian cities like Brașov (at that time the Transylvanian Saxon citadel of Kronstadt), Romanians were not even allowed to reside within the city walls.• As in other European countries, 1848 brought up the revolution upon Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania, through Tudor Vladimirescu and his Pandurs in the Wallachian uprising of 1821. The goals of the revolutionaries - full independence for Moldavia and Wallachia, and national emancipation in Transylvania - remained unfulfilled, but were the basis of the subsequent evolutions. The uprising helped the population of all three principalities recognise their unity of language and interests; all tree Romanian principalities were very close, not only in language, but also geographically. "Romania Breaking off Her Chains on the Field of Liberty", romantic painting by Constantin Daniel Rosenthal (1850s) 19
  • • After the unsuccessful 1848 Revolution, the Great Powers rejected the Romanians expressed desire to officially unite in a single state, forcing the Romanians to proceed alone their struggle against the Turks. Heavily taxed and badly administered under the Ottoman Empire, in 1859, peoples representatives in both Moldavia and Wallachia elected the same "Domnitor" (ruling Prince of the Romanians) : Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Thus, Romania was created as a personal union albeit that did not include Transylvania, where the upper class and the aristocracy remained mainly Hungarian, although Romanian nationalist spirit inevitably ran up against the Hungarian nationalism at the end of the 19th century. As in the previous 900 years, Austria-Hungary, especially under the Dual Monarchy of 1867, kept the territory firmly in control, even in parts of Transylvania where Romanians constituted a vastMap of Europe in 1648 showing majority.Transylvania and the two Romanianprincipalities: Wallachia and Moldova 20
  • Independence andKingdom of RomaniaRomanian troops takingGrivitsa Strongpoint 21
  • • In an 1866 coup détat, Cuza was exiled and replaced by Prince Karl of Hohenzollern- Sigmaringen, who became known as Prince Carol of Romania. He was appointed Domnitor - Ruling Prince of the United Principality of Romania, as Prince Carol of Romania.• Romania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire after the Russo- Turkish War, 1877-78 in which she fought on the Russian side.[46]• In the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Romania was finally officially recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers.[48] In return, Romania ceded the district of Bessarabia to Russia "in exchange" for the access to the ports on the Black Sea shore, and acquired Dobruja.• In 1881, the Romanian principality was raised to a kingdom and Prince Carol became on the 26 of MarchKing Carol I of Romania.• The 1878–1914 period was one of stability and progress for Romania. During the Second Balkan War, Romania joined Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria against Turkey.• In the peace Treaty of Bucharest (1913) Romania gained Southern Dobrudja - the Quadrilater, the Durostor and Caliacra counties. Proclamation Act of the Kingdom 22
  • World War I• The new state, squeezed between the great powers of the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian empires, looked to the West, particularly France, for its cultural, educational, military and administrative models. In 1916 Romania entered World War I on the Entente side, after the Entente agreed to recognize Romanian rights over Transylvania, which was part of Austria- Hungary until that time.• In August 1914, when World War I broke out, Romania declared neutrality. Two years later, under the pressure of Allies (especially France desperate to open a new front), on August 14/27 1916 it joined the Allies, for which they were promised support for the accomplishment of national unity, Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary.• The Romanian military campaign ended in disaster for Romania as the Central Powers conquered two-thirds of the country and captured or killed the majority of its army within four months. Nevertheless, Moldova remained in Romanian hands after the invading forces were stopped in 1917. In May 1918, Romania was in no position to continue the war, and negotiated a peace treaty with Germany (see Treaty of Bucharest, 1918). In October 1918, Romania joined the war again and by the end of the war, the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires had disintegrated; governing bodies created by the Romanians of Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina chose union with the Kingdom of Romania, resulting in Greater Romania. Since by the wars end, Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire had collapsed, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania were allowed to unite with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918. By the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, Hungary renounced in favour of Romania all the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania.[51] The union of Romania with Bukovina was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain,[52] and with Bessarabia in 1920 by the Treaty of Paris. British poster, welcoming Romanias decision to join the Entente 23
  • Percentage of military deaths during World War I for the Entente PowersTerritories inhabited by Romaniansbefore WWI 24
  • Ethnic map of interwar Romania (1930) 25
  • Historical regions of the Kingdom ofRomania (1918–1940) 26
  • Greater Romania• The Romanian expression România Mare (literal translation "Great Romania", but more commonly rendered "Greater Romania") generally refers to the Romanian state in the interwar period, and by extension, to the territory Romania covered at the time (see map). Romania achieved at that time its greatest territorial extent (almost 300,000 km2/120,000 sq mi), managing to unite all the historic Romanian lands. Historically, Greater Romania—România Mare—represented one of the ideals of Romanian nationalism. Greater Romania is still seen by many as a "paradise lost", often by comparison with the "stunted" Communist Romania. To exploit the nationalistic connotation of the term, a nationalist political party uses it as its name.• In 1918, at the end of World War I, Transylvania and Bessarabia united with the Romanian Old Kingdom. The Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania voted to unite their region by the Proclamation of Union of Alba Iulia. Bessarabia, having declared its independence from Russia in 1917 by the Conference of the Country (Sfatul Țării), called in Romanian troops to protect the province from the Bolsheviks who were spreading the Russian Revolution. The union of the regions of Transylvania, Maramureș, Crișana and Banat with the Old Kingdom of Romania was ratified in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon, which recognised the sovereignty of Romania over these regions and settled the border between the independent Republic of Hungary and the Kingdom of Romania. The union of Bucovina and Bessarabia with Romania was ratified in 1920 by the Treaty of Versailles. Romania had also recently acquired the Southern Dobruja territory called "The Quadrilateral" from Bulgaria as a result of its participation in the Second Balkan War in 1913. 27
  • • The Union of 1918 united most regions with clear Romanian majorities into the boundaries of a single state. However, it also led to the inclusion of various1888 Riots in Romania - Burning of sizable minorities, including Magyars (ethnichouses on Prince Ghikas estate Hungarians), Germans, Jews, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, etc., for a total of about 28% of the population (Magyars mostly in Transylvania; Germans in Transylvania, Bukovina, and Banat; Ukrainians in part of Bessarabia and Bukovina, Bulgarians in Dobrudja). Recognized by the Romanian Constitution of 1923 and supported by various laws (education, electoral, etc.), national minorities were represented in Parliament, and several of them created national parties (the Magyars in 1922, the Germans in 1929, the Jews in 1931), although a unique standing of minorities with autonomy on a wide basis, provided for at the assembly of Transylvanian Romanians on 1 December 1918 were not fulfilled. • Two periods can be identified in Romania between the two World Wars. From 1918 to 1938, Romania was a liberal constitutional monarchy, but one facing the rise of the nationalist, anti-semitic parties, particularly Iron Guard, which won about 15% of the votes in the general elections of 1937. From 1938 to 1944, Romania was a dictatorship. The first dictator was King Carol II, who abolished the parliamentary regime and ruled with his camarilla. 28
  • old Bucharest, Romania - european cities • In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov- Ribbentrop Pact, which stipulated, amongst other things, the Soviet "interest" in Bessarabia. Following the severe territorial losses of 1940 (see next section), Carol was forced to abdicate, replaced as king by his son Mihai, but the power was taken by the military dictator Ion Antonescu (initially in conjunction with the Iron Guard). In August 1944, Antonescu was arrested by Mihai. 29
  • World War II (1940–1947) • During the Second World War, Romania tried again to remain neutral, but on June 28, 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.[55] Under pressure from Moscow and Berlin, the Romanian administration and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well from Northern Bukovina to avoid war.[56] This, in combination with other factors, prompted the government to join the Axis. Thereafter, southern Dobruja was awarded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as result of an Axis arbitration. • In 1940, Romania lost territory in both east and west: In June 1940, after receiving an ultimatum from the Soviet Union, Romania ceded Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (see Soviet occupation of Bessarabia). Two thirds of Bessarabia were combined with a small part of the USSR to form the Moldavian SSR. Northern Bukovina and Budjak were apportioned to the Ukrainian SSR. In August 1940, Northern Transylvania was awarded to Hungary by Germany and Italy through the Second Vienna Award. Southern Dobruja was also lost to Bulgaria shortly after Carols abdication. • Because Carol II lost so much territory through failed diplomacy, the army supported seizure of power by General Ion Antonescu. For four months (the period of the National Legionary State), he had to share power with the Iron Guard, but the latter overplayed their hand in January 1941 and were suppressed. Romania entered World War II under the command of the German Wehrmacht in June 1941, declaring war to the Soviet Union in order to recover Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. Romania was awarded the territory between Dniester and the Southern Bug by Germany to administer it under the name of Transnistria.IAR80 fighter aircraft of the Royal Romanian Air Force. 30
  • Location map, 1942 • The authoritarian King Carol II abdicated in 1940, succeeded by the National Legionary State, in which power was shared by Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. Within months, Antonescu had crushed the Iron Guard, and the subsequent year Romania entered the war on the side of the Axis powers. During the war, Romania was the most important source of oil for Nazi Germany, prompting multiple bombing raids by the Allies. By means of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania recovered Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from the Soviet Russia, under the leadership of general Ion Antonescu. • The Antonescu regime played a major role in the Holocaust, following to a lesser extent the Nazi policy of oppression and massacre of the Jews, and Romas, primarily in the Eastern territories Romania recovered or occupied from the Soviet Union (Transnistria) and in Moldavia.[64] According to an international commission report released by the Romanian government in 2004, Antonescus dictatorial government of Romania is responsible for the murder in various forms including deportations to concentration camps and executions by the Romanian Army and Gendarmerie and the German Einsatzgruppen of some 280,000 to 380,000 Jews on Romanian territories and in the war zone of Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transnistria. • On 20 August 1944 the Soviet Red Army crossed the border into Romania. On 23 August 1944 Antonescu was toppled and arrested by King Michael I of Romania who joined the Allies and declared war on Germany. On 31 August 1944 the Soviet Red Army entered Bucharest. Despite Romania`s change of sides its role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947. 31
  • old Lugoj city Romania 19th XIX century• With the Red Army forces still stationed in the country and exerting de facto control, Communists and their allied parties claimed 80% of the vote, through a combination of vote manipulation, elimination, and forced mergers of competing parties, thus establishing themselves as the dominant force. Romania suffered additional heavy casualties fighting the Nazis in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. By the end of the war, the Romanian army had suffered almost 300,000 casualties.• The Paris Peace Treaty at the end of World War II rendered the Vienna Awards void: Northern Transylvania returned to Romania, but Bessarabia, northern Bukovina and southern Dobruja were not recovered. The Moldavian-SSR became independent of the Soviet Union only with the latters 1991 demise and turned into the Republic of Moldova. 32
  • Communist period (1947–1989) • In 1947, King Michael I was forced by the Communists to abdicate and leave the country, Romania was proclaimed a republic,[70][71] and remained under direct military and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romanias resources were drained by the "SovRom" agreements: mixed Soviet-Romanian companies established to mask the looting of Romania by the Soviet Union. • Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947, and the abdication of King Michael, who went into exile. The leader of Romania from 1948 to his death in 1965 was Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, the First Secretary of the Romanian Workers Party, who first sowed the seeds of greater independence from the Soviet Union by persuading Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to withdraw troops from Romania in April 1958.Part of a series on the Socialist Republic of Romania 33
  • • After the negotiated retreat of Soviet troops, Romania, under the new leadership of Nicolae Ceauşescu, started to pursue independent policies, including the condemnation of the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia (Romania being the only Warsaw Pact country not to take part in the invasion), the continuation of diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967 (again, the only Warsaw Pact country to do so), and the establishment of economic (1963) and diplomatic (1967) relations with the Federal Republic of Germany.[76] Also, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel-Egypt and Israel-PLO peace processes by intermediating the visit of Sadat in Israel. As Romanias foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from 3 to 10 billion US dollars), the influence of international financial organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank grew, conflicting with Nicolae Ceauşescus autarchic policies. Ceauşescu eventually initiated a project of total reimbursement of the foreign debt (completed in 1989, shortly before his overthrow). To achieve this goal, he imposed policies that impoverished Romanians and exhausted the Romanian economy. He greatly extended the authority of the police state and imposed a cult of personality. These led to a dramatic decrease in Ceauşescus popularity and culminated in his overthrow and execution in the bloody Romanian Revolution of 1989. A propaganda poster on the streets of Bucharest, 1986. The caption reads "65 years since the creation of the Romanian Communist Party", while the background states "Ceauşescu Era" and "The Party. Ceauşescu. Romania." 34
  • • Seduced by Ceauşescus "Independent" foreign policy, Western leaders were slow to turn against a regime that, by the late 1970s, had become increasingly arbitrary, capricious and harsh. Rapid economic growth fueled by foreign credits gradually gave way to wrenching austerity and severe political repression, which became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. During the 1947–1962 period, many people were arbitrarily killed or imprisoned for political, economic or unknown reasons:[79] detainees in prisons or camps, deported persons, persons under house arrest, and administrative detainees. There were hundreds of thousands of abuses, deaths and incidents of torture against a large range of people, from political opponents to ordinary citizens.[80] Between 60,000[81] and 80,000 political prisoners were detained as psychiatric patients and treated in some of the most sadistic ways by doctors. It is estimated that, in total, two million people were direct victims of Communist repression in Romania. Nicolae Ceauşescu condemning the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 35
  • 36Romanian Revolution of 1989
  • Military fighting against unidentified attackers believed to beloyalists of the regime (served with cakes by a civilian). 37
  • USAF C-130 unloads medical supplies at the Bucharest airport on 31December. 38
  • • 1989 Revolution• The Romanian Revolution of 1989 resulted in more than 1,000 deaths in Timişoara and Bucharest, and brought about the fall of Ceauşescu and the end of the Communist regime in Romania. After a weeklong state of unrest in Timişoara, a mass rally summoned in Bucharest in support of Ceauşescu on December 21, 1989 turned hostile. The Ceauşescu couple, fleeing Bucharest by helicopter, ended up in the custody of the army. After being tried and convicted by a kangaroo court for genocide and other crimes, they were executed on December 25, 1989. The events of this revolution remain to this day a matter of debate, with many conflicting theories as to the motivations and even actions of some of the main players.• Ion Iliescu, a former Communist Party official marginalized by Ceauşescu, attained national recognition as the leader of an impromptu governing coalition, the National Salvation Front (FSN) that proclaimed the restoration of democracy and civil liberties on December 22, 1989. The Communist Party was initially outlawed by Ion Iliescu, but he soon revoked that decision; as a consequence, Communism is not outlawed in Romania today. However, Ceauşescus most controversial measures, such as bans on abortion and contraception, were among the first laws to be changed after the Revolution, and their legality has not been widely questioned since then. A Romanian sub-officer gives the victory sign on New Years Eve 1989. He has removed the insignia of communist Romania from his headwear. 39
  • Transition to free market (1990–2004)• After the fall of Ceauşescu, the National Salvation Front (FSN), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures. Several major political parties of the pre-war era, such as the National Christian Democrat Peasants Party (PNŢCD), the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Romanian Social Democrat Party (PSDR) were resurrected. After several major political rallies (especially in January), in April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of the recently held parliamentary elections began in University Square, Bucharest. The protesters accused the FSN of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate. The protesters did not recognize the results of the election, which they deemed undemocratic, and were asking for the exclusion from the political life of the former high-ranking Communist Party members. The protest rapidly grew to become an ongoing mass demonstration (known as the Golaniad). The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, with some of the protesters attacking the police headquarters, national television station, and the Foreign Ministry. After the police failed to bring the demonstrators to order, Ion Iliescu called on the "men of good will" to come and defend the State institutions in Bucharest.[88][89] Various worker groups from Romanias industrial platforms responded, some of whom engaged in altercations with the protesters. But the most visible and politically influential were the coal miners of the Jiu Valley. After representatives of the government met with leaders of the Jiu Valley coal miners union, thousands of miners were organized and arrived in Bucharest June 14. 40
  • • Presidential and parliamentary elections were held on May 20, 1990. Running against representatives of the re-established pre-war National Peasants Party and National Liberal Party, and taking advantage of FSNs tight control of the national radio and television, Iliescu won 85% of the vote. The FSN secured two-thirds of the seats in Parliament. A university professor with strong family roots in the Communist Party, Petre Roman, was named prime minister of the new government, which consisted mainly of former communist officials. The government initiated modest free market reforms.• Because the majority of ministers in the Petre Roman government were ex-communists, anti- communist protesters initiated a round-the-clock anti-government demonstration in University Square, Bucharest in April 1990. Two months later, these protesters, whom the government referred to as "hooligans", were brutally dispersed by the miners from Jiu Valley, called in by President Iliescu; this event became known as the mineriad (see June 1990 Mineriad). The facts surrounding these events are disputed by the miners, who claim that most of the violence was perpetrated by government agents that were agitating the crowds. Some of the counter-protesters also attacked the headquarters and private residences of opposition leaders. Later Parliamentary inquiries showed that members of the government intelligence services were involved in the instigation and manipulation of both the protesters and the miners, and in June 1994 a Bucharest court found two former Securitate officers guilty of ransacking and stealing $100,000 from the house of a leading opposition politician. Petre Romans government fell in late September 1991, when the miners returned to Bucharest to demand higher salaries. A technocrat, Theodor Stolojan, was appointed to head an interim government until new elections could be held.• In December 1991, a new constitution was drafted and subsequently adopted, after a popular referendum, which, however, attracted criticism from international observers who accused the government of manipulating the population and even of outright fraud. (The constitution was most recently revised by a national referendum on October 18–19, 2003, again plagued by fraud accusations made by internal and international observers.) The new constitution, which took effect October 29, 2003, follows the structure of the Constitution of 1991, but makes significant revisions, among which the most significant are extension of the presidential mandate from four years to five, and the guaranteed protection of private property. 41
  • • March 1992 marked the split of the FSN into two groups: the Democratic National Front (FDSN), led by Ion Iliescu and the Democratic Party (PD), led by Petre Roman. Iliescu won the presidential elections in September 1992 by a clear margin, and his FDSN won the general elections held at the same time. With parliamentary support from the nationalist PUNR (National Unity Party of Romanians), PRM (Great Romania Party), and the ex-communist PSM (Socialist Workers Party), a new government was formed in November 1992 under Prime Minister Nicolae Văcăroiu, an economist. The FDSN changed its name to Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR) in July 1993.• The subsequent disintegration of the FSN produced several political parties including the Romanian Democrat Social Party (PDSR, later Social Democratic Party, PSD), the Democratic Party (PD) and the ApR (Alliance for Romania). The PDSR party governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then there have been three democratic changes of government: in 1996, the democratic-liberal opposition and its leader Emil Constantinescu acceded to power; in 2000 the Social Democrats returned to power, with Iliescu once again president; and in 2004 Traian Băsescu was elected president, with an electoral coalition called Justice and Truth Alliance (DA). The government was formed by a larger coalition which also includes the Conservative Party and the ethnic Hungarian party.• Emil Constantinescu of the Democratic Convention (CDR) emerged as the winner of the second round of the 1996 presidential elections and replaced Iliescu as chief of state. The PDSR won the largest number of seats in Parliament, but was unable to form a viable coalition. Constituent parties of the CDR joined the Democratic Party (PD), the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania (UDMR) to form a centrist coalition government, holding 60% of the seats in Parliament. This coalition of sorts frequently struggled for survival, as decisions were often delayed by long periods of negotiations among the involved parties. Nevertheless, this coalition was able to implement several critical reforms. The new coalition government, under prime minister Victor Ciorbea remained in office until March 1998, when Radu Vasile (PNŢCD) took over as prime minister. The former governor of the National Bank, Mugur Isărescu, eventually replaced Radu Vasile as head of the government. 42
  • • Orthodox 86.7%• Protestant 5.2%• Roman Catholic 4.7%• Greek-Catholic 0.9%• Muslim 0.3%• The number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004.• With a GDP of around $267 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $12,476 for the year 2011, Romania is an upper- middle income country economy[172] and has been part of the European Union since 1 January 2007.• Area: 238,391 km2• Population: 19,043,767 43
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  • • 羅馬尼亞(羅馬尼亞語: România ,寬式 IPA : /ro.mɨˈni.a/ )是一 東歐國家(有時也被劃分 在南歐的範圍內)。羅馬 尼亞國境西方分別為匈牙 利與塞爾維亞接壤,保加 利亞在南,北邊與東北則 是烏克蘭與摩爾多瓦。羅 馬尼亞有一小段位於黑海 邊的海岸線,多瑙河幾乎 佔了南邊與保加利亞之間 的國界大半,並且從該國 東邊海岸流入黑海的西岸 。• 羅馬尼亞的首都為布加勒 斯特,位於該國西南部多 瑙河支流所流經的平原地 帶上,是羅馬尼亞第一大 城與工商業重鎮。 羅馬尼亞 41 縣。綠色部分:川西 凡尼亞,藍色部分:瓦拉齊亞,紅 色部分:摩爾多瓦,黃色部分:割 自保加利亞 48
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  • • 羅馬尼亞的淵源最早可以回溯到公元 106 年時,羅馬尼亞的祖先 為達契亞人,是色雷斯人的一支。約公元前 1 世紀,布雷比斯塔 建立了第一個中央集權的達契亞國家。公元 106 年,羅馬帝國打 敗了當地的達契亞國,將此地納入帝國的一部分。今天的羅馬尼 亞之國名可以說是延續自東羅馬帝國,在中世紀此地區包括有瓦 拉齊亞,摩達維亞,與川西凡尼亞三個獨立的公國,其中前兩者 是鄂圖曼土耳其帝國裡的自治國家,後者則在稍後被併入奧匈帝 國範圍內。• 克里米亞戰爭後,法國鼓吹兩個公國合併,阻止俄羅斯南下。瓦 拉齊亞公國與摩達維亞公國在 1859 年時合併,合併後稱為羅馬尼 亞,附屬於鄂圖曼帝國。並且在 1877 年 5 月 9 日宣布獨 立。 1878 年南比薩拉比亞地區隸屬俄羅斯。 1881 年羅馬尼亞改 稱羅馬尼亞王國, 1918 年 1 月摩爾多瓦(比薩拉比亞)宣布獨 立,同年 3 月與羅馬尼亞合併。在第一次世界大戰之後奧匈帝國 瓦解,使得羅馬尼亞的領土進一步擴張到瓦勒齊亞、布科維納與 比薩拉比亞等地區。 1940 年時,蘇聯佔領了羅馬尼亞一部分的國 土,該地區成為今日的摩爾多瓦與烏克蘭的一小部。• 第二次世界大戰時,揚 · 安東內斯庫政權參加德、意、日法西斯同 盟,但是在史達林格勒保衛戰中,羅馬尼亞軍傷亡慘重。 1944 年 蘇聯紅軍進入羅馬尼亞,同年 8 月 23 日,羅馬尼亞共產黨領導發 動反法西斯武裝起義,推翻了安東尼斯庫政權,羅馬尼亞轉而加 入了反德國法西斯戰爭。 From 2015, Romania will host Europes first NATO anti-missile50 shield.
  • • 1945 年 3 月 6 日成立聯合政府。羅馬尼亞在蘇聯的強力影響之下,建立起蘇 聯式的社會主義政權。 1947 年 12 月 30 日羅馬尼亞人民共和國成立, 1948 年 2 月,羅馬尼亞共產黨與社會民主黨合併,成立羅馬尼亞工人黨,成為羅馬 尼亞唯一執政黨。 1965 年通過新憲法,將國名更改為羅馬尼亞社會主義共和 國,黨的名字也改為羅馬尼亞共產黨,尼古拉 · 壽西斯古開始成為羅馬尼亞的 領導人。壽西斯古當政時期,羅馬尼亞在政治和外交上刻意和蘇聯保持距離, 但其自主權特別是在經濟上的自主權相當有限。• 1989 年 12 月 22 日爆發了 1989 年羅馬尼亞革命,壽西斯古政權被推翻,結 束了其在羅長達 24 年的統治,後被祕密槍決。救國陣線委員會接管了國家一 切權力,將國名改為羅馬尼亞。羅馬尼亞新的民選政府開始逐漸修改路線,成 為社會民主主義國家。 2004 年 3 月 29 日,加入北約。• 2004 年 11 月 28 日,羅馬尼亞舉行總統選舉,阿德里安 · 訥斯塔塞和特拉揚 · 伯塞斯庫進入第二輪。 12 月 12 日,總統選舉第二輪投票舉行,伯塞斯庫當選 。• 2007 年 1 月 1 日,正式加入歐盟。 4 月 20 日,憲法法院對尼 · 沃克羅尤出任 臨時總統的資格予以確認,接替因議會通過彈劾議案而停職的伯塞斯庫。 5 月 19 日,就彈劾案舉行全民公決。彈劾案未獲通過,伯塞斯庫復職 51
  • • 羅馬尼亞是一個民主國家,議會實行兩院制,上院為參議院(羅: Senat ),有 137 名議員,下院為眾議院(羅: Camera Deputaţilor ),有 332 名議員。參眾兩院的 議員在四年一次的選舉中產生。• 總統每五年選一次,總理由總統任命,內閣人選再由總理任命,由議會通過。• 羅馬尼亞土地面積 238,391 平方公里,是東南歐面積最大的國家,並在歐洲排名第十 二。羅馬尼亞和塞爾維亞、保加利亞之間主要是以多瑙河為界。而與摩爾多瓦之間則 是以多瑙河的另一條支流普魯特河為界。多瑙河與普魯特河在羅馬尼亞匯合後,在羅 馬尼亞境內注入黑海,而入海口處所形成的多瑙河三角洲是歐洲最大的三角州,並因 為其豐富的生態變化,而被聯合國教科文組織列入世界遺產名單內,並在此建立多瑙 生態圈保護區( Danube Biosphere Reserve )。• 喀爾巴阡山脈以半環行盤踞中部,山脈以西為川西凡尼亞高原,以東為摩爾多瓦高原 ,以南為多瑙河平原和多布羅加丘陵。• 過渡性溫帶大陸性氣候, 1 月平均氣溫 -5 - 1℃ , 7 月平均氣溫 20 - 23℃ ,年降 水量 400 - 1000 毫米,東南部較乾燥。• 根據 2002 年時的普查,羅馬尼亞擁有 21,680,974 的人口。在該國人口中,主要組 成的羅馬尼亞人佔了全國人口的 89.5% ,而境內最大的少數族裔則分別為匈牙利人 ( 6.6% )與羅姆人( 2.5% )。 52
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  • • 羅馬尼亞的官方語言是羅馬尼亞語,淵源自拉丁語,語言結構與附近東歐國家所使 用的斯拉夫語支語言十分不同。羅馬尼亞文是一種與法文、義大利語、西班牙文與 葡萄牙文較為接近的羅曼語系語言。在羅馬尼亞使用羅馬尼亞文作為第一母語的人 口佔了 91% ,其次則分別是匈牙利文與羅姆文。在二戰以前,德語是羅馬尼亞境內 的少數民族日耳曼人的母語,因此德語也曾是羅馬尼亞使用人數最多的少數民族語 言之一,至今在川西凡尼亞地區仍有較大影響。至於外語方面,法語一直是羅馬尼 亞境內最多人會使用的外語,該國也是法語圈國際組織( la francophonie )的成員 國之一,但近年來其比例已被英語後來居上,後者是大部分羅馬尼亞年輕族群第一 優先學習與使用的外語。根據 Eurobarometer report ( 2006 )的報告,羅馬尼亞 有 29% 的人口、即 620 萬人口使用英語。• 羅馬尼亞是世俗國家,沒有國教。多數人信奉羅馬尼亞東正教,少數人信奉羅馬天 主教和新教。羅馬尼亞有一部分韃靼人,是諾蓋人與克里米亞韃靼人(因那海的封 地在多瑙河下游)。• 羅馬尼亞在歐洲及世界藝術文化方面,舉凡:繪畫、音樂、體操、服飾、電影,有 顯著且突出耀眼的影響與表現。• 著名的影視娛樂題材─ 吸血鬼,即是以十字軍東征時代,從征的公爵德古拉作為範 ─ 本所創作的。 54
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  • The Boston Bullet car design—Romanian design student Mihai Panaitescu submitted the winning design in Local Motors’ Boston car design competition. .李常生 Eddie Lee, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 1/31/2013 All photos were taken from Internet……leechangsheng6666@gmail.com 60