World Diary 130110 The story of Belgian (Part one) 地球日誌 比利時人的故事(上輯)  by Eddie
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World Diary 130110 The story of Belgian (Part one) 地球日誌 比利時人的故事(上輯) by Eddie

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. The story of Belgian 比利時人的故事 (Part one) 2
  • 3. Area : 30,528 km2Population : 11,041,266Density : 354.7/km2GDP (nominal)Per capita : $46,878Gini : 28 (2005) 3
  • 4. To my old Belgian friendAlphonse (90 years old)送給我 90 歲的比利時老友 4
  • 5. When Julius Caesar arrived in the region, as recorded in his De Bello Gallico, the inhabitants of Belgium, northwestern France, and the German Rhineland were known as the Belgae (after whom modern Belgium is named), and they were considered to be the northern part of Gaul. (The region of Luxembourg, including the Belgian province of Luxembourg, was inhabited by the Treveri, who were probably not strictly considered to be Belgae.) The distinction between the Belgae to the North and the Celts to the south, and the Germani across the Rhine, is disputed. Caesar says that the Belgae were separated from the rest of Gaul by language, law and custom, and he also says they had Germanic ancestry, but he does not go into detail. It seems clear that Celtic culture and language were very influential upon the Belgae, especially those in modern France. On the other hand, linguists have proposed that there is evidence that the northern part of the Belgic population had previously spoken an Indo European language related to, but distinct from, Celtic and Germanic, and among the northern Belgae, Celtic may never have been the language of the majority.The Roman province of Gallia Belgica inaround 120 AD 5
  • 6. Surviving Roman city walls in Tongeren, theformer city of Atuatuca Tongrorum 6
  • 7. Early Middle Ages• As the Western Roman Empire collapsed during the 5th and 6th centuries, Germanic tribes invaded and established themselves. One of these peoples, the Franks, settled in Germanic Inferior, and proceeded to expand into a new kingdom covering all of Belgium and much of France, under the rule of the Merovingian Dynasty. Clovis I was the best- known king of this dynasty. He ruled from his base in northern France. He converted to Christianity. Christian scholars, mostly Irish monks, preached Christianity to the populace and started a wave of conversion (Saint Servatius, Saint Remacle, Saint Hadelin).• The Merovingians were short-lived and were succeeded by the Carolingian Dynasty, whose family power base was in the eastern part of modern Belgium. After Charles Martel countered the Moorish invasion from Spain (732 — Poitiers), the King Charlemagne (born close to Liège in Herstal or Jupille) brought a huge part of Europe under his rule and was crowned the "Emperor of the new Holy Roman Empire" by the Pope Leo III (800 in Aachen).• The Vikings raided widely throughout this period, but a major settlement that had caused problems in the area of Belgium was defeated in 891 by Arnulf of Carinthia near Leuven. Approximate location of the original Frankish tribes in the 3rd century 7
  • 8. • The Vikings raided widely throughout this period, but a major settlement that had caused problems in the area of Belgium was defeated in 891 by Arnulf of Carinthia near Leuven.• The Frankish lands were divided and reunified several times under the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, but eventually were firmly divided into France and the Holy Roman Empire. The parts of the County of Flanders stretching out west of the river Scheldt (Schelde in Dutch, Escaut in French) became part of France during the Middle Ages, but the remainders of the County of Flanders and the Low Countries were part of the Holy Roman Empire.• Through the early Middle Ages, the northern part of present-day Belgium (now commonly referred to as Flanders) was a Germanic language-speaking area, whereas in the southern part people had continued to be Romanized and spoke derivatives of Vulgar Latin.• As the Holy Roman Emperors and French Kings lost effective control of their domains in the 11th and 12th centuries, the territory more or less corresponding to the present Belgium was divided into relatively independent feudal states:• County of Flanders• Marquisate of Namur• Duchy of Brabant (see also Duke of Brabant)• County of Hainaut• Duchy of Limburg• Luxembourg• Bishopric of Liège• The coastal county of Flanders was one of the wealthiest parts of Europe in the late Middle Ages, from trading with England, France and Germany, and it became culturally important. During the 11th and 12th centuries, the Rheno-Mosan or Mosan art movement flourished in the region moving its centre from Cologne and Trier to Liège, Maastricht and Aachen. Some masterpieces of this Romanesque art are the shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral, the Baptismal font at St Bartholomews Church, Liège by Renier de Huy, the Stavelot Triptych, the shrine of Saint Remacle in Stavelot, the shrine of Saint Servatius in Maastricht or, Notgers gospel in Liège.• County of Flanders 8
  • 9. • 13th-16th centuries• In this period, many cities, including Ypres, Bruges and Ghent gained independence. [citation needed] The Hanseatic League stimulated trade in the region, and the period saw the erection of many Gothic cathedrals and city halls. [citation needed] With the decline of the Holy Roman emperors power starting in the 13th century, the Low Countries were largely left to their own devices. The lack of imperial protection also meant that the French and English began vying for influence in the region. In 1214, King Philip II of France defeated the Count of Flanders in the Battle of Bouvines and forced his submission to the French crown. Through the remainder of the 13th century, French control over Flanders steadily increased until 1302 when an attempt at total annexation by Philip IV met a stunning defeat when Count Guy (who had the support of the guilds and craftsmen) rallied the townspeople and humiliated the French knights at the Battle of the Golden Spurs. 9
  • 10. • Hundred Years War• The Hundred Years War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne. It was the result of a dynastic disagreement dating back to William the Conqueror who became King of England in 1066, while remaining Duke of Normandy. As dukes of Normandy and other lands on the continent, the English kings owed homage to the King of France. In 1337 Edward III of England refused to pay homage to Philip VI of France, leading the French king to claim confiscation of Edwards lands in Aquitaine.• Edward responded by declaring that he, not Philip, was the rightful king of France - a claim dating to 1328 when Charles IV of France had died without a male heir. A claim for the succession had been made for Edward through the right of his mother Isabella, daughter of Philip IV. Instead, the son of Philip IV’s younger brother, Charles of Valois, had been crowned king. The question of legal succession to the French crown was central to the war over generations of English and French claimants.• The war is commonly divided into three or four phases, separated by truces: the Edwardian Era War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389) and the Lancastrian War (1415–1453), which saw the slow decline of Plantagenet fortunes after Joan of Arc (1412–1431) appeared. Contemporary European conflicts directly related to this conflict were the Breton War of Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters, and the 1383-1385 Crisis. The term "Hundred Years War" was a term invented later by historians to encompass the events. Homage of Edward I of England (kneeling) to Philip IV (seated) - 1286. As Duke of Aquitaine, Edward was also a vassal to the French king 10
  • 11. • By 1433 most of the Belgian and Luxembourgish territory along with much of the rest of the Low Countries became part of Burgundy under Philip the Good. When Mary of Burgundy, granddaughter of Philip the Good married Maximilian I, the Low Countries became Habsburg territory. Their son, Philip I of Castile (Philip the Handsome) was the father of the later Charles V. The Holy Roman Empire was unified with Spain under the Habsburg Dynasty after Charles V inherited several domains.• Especially during the Burgundy period (the 15th and 16th centuries), Tournai, Bruges, Ypres, Ghent, Brussels, and Antwerp took turns at being major European centers for commerce, industry (especially textiles) and art. Bruges was the pioneer. had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was already included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated. They developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including bills of exchange (i.e. promissory notes) and letters of credit.[13] Antwerp eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese pepper and spice traders. 11
  • 12. • In art the Renaissance was represented by the Flemish Primitives, a group of painters active primarily in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th and early 16th centuries (for example, Van Eyck and van der Weyden) and the Franco-Flemish composers (e.g. Guillaume Dufay). Flemish tapestries and, in the 16th and 17th centuries, Brussels tapestry hung on the walls of castles throughout Europe. The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, issued by Charles V, established the Seventeen Provinces (or Spanish Netherlands in its broad sense) as an entity separate from the Empire and from France. This comprised all of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg except for the lands of the See of Liège. 12
  • 13. • The Burgundian princes from Philip II (the Bold) to Charles the Bold, enhanced their political prestige with economic growth and artistic splendour. These “Great Dukes of the West” were effectively sovereigns, with domains extending from the Zuiderzee to the Somme. The urban and other textile industries, which had developed in the Belgian territories since the 12th century, became the economic center of northwestern Europe.• The death of Charles the Bold (1477) and the marriage of his daughter Mary to the archduke Maximilian of Austria ended the independence of the Low Countries by bringing them increasingly under the sway of the Habsburg dynasty. Mary and Maximilian’s grandson Charles became king of Spain as Charles I in 1516 and Holy Roman emperor as Charles V in 1519. In Brussels on Oct. 25, 1555, Charles V abdicated the Netherlands to his son, who in January 1556 assumed the throne of Spain as Philip II. As a consequence of revolt in 1567, the southern provinces became subject to Spain (1579), then to the Austrian Habsburgs (1713), to France (1795), and finally in 1815 to the Kingdom of the Netherlands. While Luxembourg remained linked to the Netherlands until 1867, Belgium’s union with the Netherlands ended with the 1830 revolution. Belgian nationality is generally considered to date from this event.• The Bishopric of Liège• The Bishopric of Liège or Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries in present Belgium. It acquired its status as a prince-bishopric between 980 and 985 when Bishop Notger, who had been the bishop of Liege since 972, acquired the status of Prince-Bishop after he received secular control of the County of Huy from the emperor . 13
  • 14. • The northern region now known as the Netherlands became increasingly Protestant (i.e. Calvinistic), while the south remained primarily Catholic. The schism resulted in the Union of Atrecht and the Union of Utrecht. When Philip II, son of Charles, ascended the Spanish throne he tried to abolish all Protestantism. Portions of the Netherlands revolted, beginning the Eighty Years War between the Netherlands and Spain. For the conquered Southern Netherlands the war ended in 1585 with the Fall of Antwerp. This can be seen as the start of Belgium as one region. That same year, the northern provinces seized independence in the Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe), launching the United Provinces and the Dutch Golden Age.• King Philip II sent in Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, as Governor- General of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. Farnese led a successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south (now Belgium) and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain.[17] He took advantage of the divisions in the ranks of his opponents between the Dutch-speaking Flemish and the French-speaking Walloons, using persuasion to take advantage of the divisions and foment the growing discord. By doing so he was able to bring back the Walloon provinces to an allegiance to the king. By the treaty of Arras in 1579, he secured the support of the Malcontents, as the Catholic nobles of the south were styled. The seven northern provinces, controlled by Calvinists, responded with the Union of Utrecht, where they resolved to stick together to fight Spain. 1579 Map of the Netherlands indicating the Unions of Utrecht (blue) and Atrecht (yellow). 14
  • 15. • Farnese secured his base in Hainaut and Artois, then moved against Brabant and Flanders. City after city fell: Tournai, Maastricht, Breda, Bruges and Ghent opened their gates. Farnese finally laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was open to the sea, strongly fortified, and well defended under the leadership of Marnix van St. Aldegonde. Farnese cut off all access to the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt. The city surrendered inEuropean territories under the 1585 as 60,000 Antwerp citizens (60% of the pre-rule of the Spanish King siege population) fled north. All of the southernaround 1580 (the Spanish Netherlands was once more under Spanish control.Netherlands in light green) on In a war composed mostly of sieges rather thana map showing Modern-Day battles, he proved his mettle. His strategy was toState borders offer generous terms for surrender: there would be no massacres or looting; historic urban privileges were retained; there was a full pardon and amnesty; return to the Catholic Church would be gradual. Meanwhile Catholic refugees from the North regrouped in Cologne and Douai and developed a more militant, Tridentine identity. They became the mobilising forces of a popular Counter-Reformation in the South, thereby facilitating the eventual emergence of the state of Belgium. • • Rubens Adoration of the Magii (1624)While the United Provinces gained independence, the Southern Netherlands remained under the rule of Spain (1556–1713). 15
  • 16. Battle of Haarlemmermeer, 1621, by Hendrick Cornelisz. Vroom, oil oncanvas 16
  • 17. • While the United Provinces gained independence, theIconoclasm: The organised destruction of Southern NetherlandsCatholic images swept through Netherlands remained under the rule of Spain (1556–1713).churches in 1566 • Until 1581 the history of Belgium (except the Bishopric of Liège), the grand duchy of Luxembourg and the country the Netherlands is the same: they formed the country/region of the Netherlands or the Low Countries. In Dutch, a distinction still exists between on the one hand de Nederlanden (plural, the Low Countries) and Nederland (singular, the present-day state of the Netherlands) that is a consequence of this separation in the 17th century. Before 1581, the Netherlands refers to the Lowlands (De Nederlanden). 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. • Coalition Wars• Following the Campaigns of 1794 of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Southern Netherlands were invaded and annexed by the First French Republic in 1795, ending Habsburg rule.• Belgium was divided into nine united départements and became an integral part of France. The Bishopric of Liège was dissolved. Its territory was divided over the départements Meuse- Inférieure and Ourte. Austria confirmed the loss of the Austrian Netherlands by the Treaty of Campo Formio, in 1797.• Godechot finds that after the annexation, Belgiums business community supported the new regime unlike the peasants, who remained hostile.[citation needed] Annexation opened new French markets for wool and other goods from Belgium. Bankers and merchants helped finance and supply the French army. Antwerp was greatly benefited by the lifting of the prohibition against seaborne trade on the Scheldt that had been enforced by the Netherlands. Antwerp became a major French port with a world trade. 19
  • 20. • Until the establishment of the Consulate in 1799, Catholics were heavily repressed by the French. The first University of Leuven was closed in 1797 and churches were plundered. During this early period of the French rule, the Belgian economy was completely paralyzed as taxes had to be paid in gold and silver coin while goods bought by the French were paid for with worthless assignats. During this period of systematic exploitation, about 800,000 Belgians fled the Southern Netherlands. The French occupation in Belgium led to further suppression of the Dutch language across the country, including its abolition as an administrative language.[25][26] With the motto "one nation, one language", French became the only accepted language in public life as well as in economic, political, and social affairs.The measures of the successive French governments and in particular the 1798 massive conscription into the French army were particularly unpopular within the Flemish segment of the population and caused the Peasants War.[28] The Peasants War is often seen as the starting point of the modern Flemish movement.• In 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte was forced to abdicate by the Allies and was exiled and French control of Belgium ended. However, Napoleon returned to power during the Hundred Days in 1815. Allied forces decisively defeated him in Belgium at the Battle of Waterloo, south of Brussels. 20
  • 21. United Kingdom of the Netherlands 21
  • 22. • After Napoleons defeat at Waterloo in 1815, the major victorious powers (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) agreed at Congress of Vienna on reuniting the former Austrian Netherlands and the former Dutch Republic, creating the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, which was to serve as a buffer state against any future French invasions. This was under the rule of a Protestant king, namely William I. Most of the small and ecclesiastical states in the Holy Roman Empire were given to larger states at this time, and this included the Prince-Bishopric of Liège which became now formally part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.• William I, who reigned from 1815–1840, had almost unlimited constitutional power, the constitution having been written by a number of notable people chosen by him. An enlightened despot, he had no difficulty in accepting some of the changes resulting from the social transformation of the previous 25 years, including equality of all before the law. However, he resurrected the estates as a political class and elevated a large number of people to the nobility. Voting rights were still limited, and only the nobility were eligible for seats in the upper house.• William I was a Calvinist and intolerant of the Catholic majority in the newly created United Kingdom of the Netherlands. He promulgated the "Fundamental Law of Holland", with some modifications. This entirely overthrew the old order of things in the southern Netherlands, suppressed the clergy as an order, abolished the privileges of the Catholic Church, and guaranteed equal protection to every religious creed and the enjoyment of the same civil and political rights to every subject of the king. It reflected the spirit of the French Revolution and in so doing did not please the Catholic bishops in the south, who had detested the Revolution. Portrait of Charlotte of Belgium 22
  • 23. • William I actively promoted economic modernization. His position as monarch was ambivalent, however; his sovereignty was real, but his authority was shared with a legislature elected partly by himself and partly by the wealthy citizens under a constitution granted by the king. Government was in the hands of ministries of state. The old provinces were reestablished in name only. The government was now fundamentally unitary, and all authority flowed from the center. The first 15 years of the Kingdom showed progress and prosperity, as industrialization proceeded rapidly in the south, where the Industrial Revolution allowed entrepreneurs and labor to combine in a new textile industry, powered by local coal mines. There was little industry in the northern provinces, but most overseas colonies were restored, and highly profitable trade resumed after a 25 year hiatus. Economic liberalism combined with moderate monarchical authoritarianism to accelerate the adaptation of the Netherlands to the new conditions of the 19th century. The country prospered until a crisis arose in relations with the southern provinces. 23
  • 24. • Unrest in the southern provinces• Protestants controlled the new country although they formed only a quarter of the population. In theory, Catholics had full legal equality; in practice their voice was not heard. Few Catholics held high state or military offices. The king insisted that schools in the South end their traditional teaching of Catholic doctrine, even though everyone there was Catholic. Socially, the French- speaking Walloons strongly resented the kings policy to make Dutch the language of government. There was also growing outrage at the kings insensitivity to social differences. According to Schama, there was growing hostility to the Dutch government whose "initiatives were met at first with curiosity, then with apprehension and finally with fierce and unyielding hostility."• Political liberals in the south had their own grievances, especially regarding the kings authoritarian style; he seemed uncaring about the issue of regionalism, flatly vetoing a proposal for a French-language teacher-training college in francophone Liège. Finally, all factions in the South complained of unfair representation in the national legislature. The south was industrializing faster and was more prosperous than the north, leading to resentment of northern arrogance and political domination.• The outbreak of revolution in France in 1830 was used as a signal for revolt. The demand at first was autonomy for Belgium, as the southern provinces were now called. Eventually, revolutionaries began demanding total independence.[ 24
  • 25. Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide CharlesGustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels 25
  • 26. Rogier à la tête des volontaires de Liège - Rogierat the head of the Liège volunteers (CharlesSoubre, 1878) 26
  • 27. • Independence • The Belgian Revolution broke out in August 1830 when crowds, stirred by a performance of Aubers La Muette de Portici at the Brussels opera house of La Monnaie, spilled out onto the streets singing patriotic songs. Violent street fighting soon broke out, as anarchy reigned in Brussels. The liberal bourgeoisie who had initially been at the forefront of the revolution, were appalled by the violence and willing to accept a compromise with the Dutch. • The revolution broke out for numerous reasons. On a political level, the Belgians felt significantly under-represented in the Netherlands elected Lower Assembly and disliked the unpopular Dutch prince, the future William II who was the representative of King William I in Brussels. The French-speaking Walloons also felt ostracised in a majority Dutch speaking country. There were also significant religious grievances felt by the majority Catholic Belgians in a nation controlled by the Dutch Protestants. • The king assumed the protest would blow itself out. He waited for a surrender, announcing an amnesty for all revolutionaries, except foreigners and the leaders. When this did not succeed he sent in the army. Dutch forces were able to penetrate the Schaerbeek Gate into Brussels, but the advance was stalled in the Parc de Bruxelles under a hale of sniper fire. Royal troops elsewhere met determined resistance from revolutionaries at makeshift barricades. It is estimated that there were no more than 1,700 revolutionaries (described by the French Ambassador as an "undisciplined rabble"[35]) in Brussels at the time, faced with over 6,000 Dutch troops. However, faced with strong opposition, Dutch troops were ordered out of the capital on the night of September 26 after three days of street fighting. There were also battles around the country as revolutionaries clashed with Dutch forces. In Antwerp, eight Dutch warships bombarded the city following its capture by revolutionaryLouis dOrléans, duc de Nemours. The forces.man who would not be king 27
  • 28. William I believed that theseparation of the Southern • Belgian independence was not allowed by the 1815 Congress of Vienna; nevertheless theProvinces from the rest of revolutionaries were regarded sympathetically by the major powers of Europe, especially thethe Netherlands would be British. In November 1830, the London Conference of 1830 or "Belgian Congress"detrimental to his (comprising delegates from five major powers) ordered an armistice on November 4. Thecountrys economy British foreign secretary Lord Palmerston was fearful of Belgium either becoming a republic or being annexed to France, and so invited a monarch from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in Germany to take the throne. On July 21, 1831, the first "King of the Belgians", Leopold I of Saxe-Coburg was inaugurated. The date of his acceptance of the constitution - 21 July 1831 - is marked a national holiday. • The liberal bourgeoisie who had been thrown off balance by the early stages of the revolution, hastily formed a provisional government under Charles Rogier to negotiate with the Dutch, officially declaring Belgian independence on October 4, 1830. The Belgian National Congress was formed to draw up a constitution. Under the new constitution, Belgium became a sovereign, independent state with a constitutional monarchy. However, the constitution did severely limit voting rights to the French-speaking haute-bourgeoisie and the clergy, in a country where French was not the majority language. The Catholic church was afforded a good deal of freedom from state intervention. • The war with the Netherlands lasted another eight years, but in 1839, the Treaty of London was signed between the two countries. By the treaty of 1839, Luxembourg did not join Belgium, but remained a possession of the Netherlands until different inheritance laws caused it to separate as an independent Grand Duchy. Belgium also lost Eastern Limburg, Zeeuws Vlaanderen and French Flanders and Eupen: four territories which it had claimed on historical grounds. The Netherlands retained the former two while French Flanders, which had been annexed at the time of Louis XIV remained in French possession, and Eupen remained within the German Confederation, although it would pass to Belgium after World War I in reparations. • At the Treaty of London, Britain also made a guarantee of Belgian Neutrality that would be the stated Casus belli of Britains entry into the First World War. 28
  • 29. • Congo Free State and Belgian Congo • At the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 the Congo was attributed solely to Leopold II of Belgium, who named the territory the Congo Free State, originally intended to be an international Free Trade zone, open all European traders. King Leopold had been the principal shareholder in the Belgian trading company which established trading stations on the lower Congo between 1879 and 1884. Power was finally transferred to Belgium in 1908 under considerable international pressure following numerous reports of misconduct and abuse to native labourers. • European exploration and administration of the Congo took place from the 1870s until the 1920s. First by Stanley who undertook his explorations mainly under the sponsorship of Leopold II, who desired what was to become the Congo as a colony. In a succession of negotiations Leopold, professing humanitarian objectives in his capacity as chairperson of the Association International Africaine, played one European rival against the other. The Congo territory was acquired formally by Leopold at the Conference of Berlin in 1885. The country, under his personal jurisdiction, was named the Congo Free State. Congolese territory, covering just under 1 million miles squared, more than 80 times the size of Belgium.[citation needed] The first development projects took place during the Free State period, such as a railway that ran from the Léopoldville to the coast which took several years to complete. • The era of the Congo Free State is most infamous for the large number of atrocities committed under it. Since it was, in effect, a business proposition (it was run by a private company, headed by Leopold himself), it aimed to gain as much money asLeopold II, King of the possible from primary exports from the territory. Leopold‘s personal fortune wasBelgians and de facto owner of greatly increased through the proceeds of Congolese rubber, which had neverthe Congo Free State from previously been mass-produced in such surplus quantities, for the growing market for1885 to 1908 tyres. During the period between 1885 and 1908, between three and thirteen million. A commonly cited figure is eight million Congolese died through of exploitation and disease while the birth rate also dropped. However, these estimates are guesses and no figures are available for the period. 29
  • 30. • To enforce the rubber quotas, the Force Publique (FP) was created. Whilst the Force Publique was nominally a military force (it would later fight during both First and Second World Wars), during the Congo Free State period its primary duties involved enforcing rubber quotas in rural areas. Imprisonment and summary executions were common. Decapitating limbs was sometimes used by the Force Publique as a method of enforcing the quotas.• Following reports from missionaries and those who had traveled to the Congo free state first hand, a moral outrage campaign against the Congo Free State was born, particularly in Britain and the United States. The Congo Reform Association, led by Edmund Dene Morel, was particularly important in the campaign, and published numerous best-selling tracts and pamphlets (including Red Rubber) which were reached a vast public. The campaign also benefited from other material, supplied by other figures including British diplomat Roger Casement, who published a detailed report on the subject in 1904, as well as famous writers such as Mark Twain and Arthur Conan Doyle. Joseph Conrads novella Heart of Darkness also takes place in Congo Free State. King Leopold appointed and financed his own commission to put these rumours about the Congo Free State to rest, but in the end his own commission confirmed and investigated the atrocities.• The Belgian parliament long refused to take over the colony as a financial burden. In 1908, the Belgian parliament responded to the international pressure, annexing the Free State, as the campaigners had argued for. After World War II, Belgian was criticized by the United Nations for making no progress on the political front as other contemporary colonial states were doing.• Political rights were not granted to the Africans until 1956 when a the growing middle class (the so- called Évolué) received the franchise and the economy remained relatively undeveloped despite the mineral wealth of Katanga. For 18 months from January 1, 1959 there was political uncertainty and African national feeling became more apparent with the effect that the Belgian government resolved on independence for the colony in June 1960.• At the Round Table Talks on independence, Belgium requested a process of gradual independence over 4 years[citation needed], but following a series of riots in 1959, the decision was made to bring forward independence in matter of months. The chaos in which Belgium departed the Congo caused[citation needed] the secession of rich Western-backed province Katanga and the prolonged civil war known as the Congo Crisis. 30
  • 31. • Belgian concession (1902–1931) 比利時天 津租借 • The Belgian Tianjin Concession in China was established in 1902. There was little investment and no settlement. However it led to a contract to supply an electric light and trolley system. In 1906, Tianjin became the first city in China with a modern public transportation system. The supply of electricity and lighting and the trolley business were profitable ventures. All the rolling stock was supplied by Belgian industries and by 1914, the network also reached nearby Austrian, French, Italian, Japanese and Russian外國人瓜分了天津 concessions. 31
  • 32. Austro-Hungarian concession (1901–1917) 奧匈帝國佔領天津 The shame of the Chinese people. 中國人的恥辱。 32
  • 33. British concession (1860–1943)英國的印度兵佔領天津 The shame of the Chinese people. 中國人的恥辱。 33
  • 34. British Head quarter Gordon Hall, 1907 英據天津總部The shame of the Chinese people.中國人的恥辱。 34
  • 35. The shame of the Chinese people.中國人的恥辱。Rue de France, French concession 法國占領區 35
  • 36. The shame of the Chinese people. 中國人的恥辱。French armoured card in Tientsin during the 1928 troubles 1928 年法國在天津的戰車。 36
  • 37. 天津德國占領區The shame of the Chinese people.中國人的恥辱。 37
  • 38. The shame of the Chinese people.中國人的恥辱。 38
  • 39. The shame of the Chinese people.中國人的恥辱。 39
  • 40. • 美軍在天津協助英軍 • The United States never requested or received extraterritorial rights in Tianjin, but a de facto concession was administered from 1869 until 1880, principally under the aegis of the British mission. In 1902 this informal American territory became part of the British concession. The UnitedThe shame of the Chinese people. States maintained a permanent garrison at Tientsin, provided中國人的恥辱。 from January 1912 until 1938 by the 15th Infantry, US Army, and then by the US Marine Corps until December 8, 1941, the day the United States entered the Second World War and all territories of the US and the British Empire in Asia and the Pacific faced the threat of attack by the Empire of Japan. 40
  • 41. • Belgium in World War I German occupation 1914-18• The Germans governed the occupied areas of Belgium through a General Governorate of Belgium, while a small area around Ypres remained under Belgian control. The two provinces of Wast and West Flanders comprised a war zone under the direct control of the German army. Elsewhere martial law prevailed. The German military governor was Moritz von Bissing. Each province had a German governor; each locality was in charge of a German officer.• Many civilians fled the war zones to safer parts of Belgium. Many refugees from all over Belgium went to the Netherlands (which was neutral) and about 300,000 to France. Over 200,000 went to Britain, where they resettled in London and found war jobs. The British and French governments set up the War Refugees Committee (WRC) and the Secours National, to provide relief and support; there were an additional 1500 local WRC committees in Britain. The visibility of the refugees underscored the role of Belgium in the minds of the French and British.• The German atrocities had ended by November 1914; thereafter their rule was strict but correct. There was no armed resistance or sabotage. On the advice of the Belgian government in exile, civil servants remained in their posts for the duration of the conflict, carrying out the day-to-day functions of government. All political activity was suspended and Parliament shut down. While farmers and coal miners kept up their routines, many larger businesses largely shut down, as did the universities. The Germans helped set up the first solely Dutch-speaking university in Ghent. The Germans sent in managers to operate factories that were underperforming. Lack of effort was a form of passive resistance; Kossmann says that for many Belgians the war years were "a long and extremely dull vacation."[8] Belgian workers were conscripted into forced labour projects; by 1918, the Germans had deported 120,000 Belgian workers to Germany. 41
  • 42. Due to the hundreds of thousands of British and Canadian casualties, the blood-red poppies that sprang up in no mans land when fields were torn up by artillery were immortalized in the poem In Flanders Fields. Poppies became an symbol of human life lost in war.Cardinal Mercierbecame a hero; hisvisits to the U.S.inspired AmericanCatholics andstrengthened Belgianpride 42
  • 43. World War TwoGerman soldiers examine an abandoned Belgian T13 Tank, 1940 43
  • 44. • Occupation 1940-44• Belgium was run by a Germany military government between its surrender and liberation in September 1944.• The former fort at Breendonk, near Mechelen was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interegation of Jews, political prisoners and captured members of the reistance. Of the 3,500 incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940– 44, 1,733 died.[90] About 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.• In 1940, nearly 70,000 Jews were living in Belgium. Of these, 46 percent were deported from the Mechelen transit camp, while a further 5,034 people were deported via the Drancy internment camp (close to Paris). From the summer of 1942 until 1944, twenty-eight transports left Belgium carrying 25,257 Jews and 351 Roma to eastern Europe. Their destination was often Auschwitz Death Camp. Over the course of the war, 25,257 Jews were transported (including 5,093 children) and 352 Roma over the Mechelen-Leuven railway to concentration camps. Only 1,205 returned home alive at the end of the war.• The Belgian resistance is the term used to denote the collection of Belgian resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of Belgium during World War II. Within Belgium, resistance was fragmented between a large number of different regional and political organizations which, aside from sabotage and attacks on military installations or lines of communication, also published of underground newspapers, gathered intelligence information and maintained various escape networks that helped Allied airmen trapped behind enemy lines. The men and women of the resistance came from both French and Flemish groups in the country. During the war, it is estimated that approximately 5% of the national population were involved in resistance activity. German soldiers parade past the Royal Palace in Brussels, 1940 44
  • 45. HM King Albert II, King of the Belgians. (1934-) Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo 45
  • 46. 比利時王國(荷蘭語: België ,法語: Belgique ,德語: Belgien) 是一個西歐國家。它是歐洲聯盟的創始會員國之一,首都布魯塞爾是歐盟與北大西洋公約組織等大型國際組織的總部所在地。比利時自北起順時針分別與荷蘭、德國、盧森堡和法國接壤,西面則濱臨北海;國土涵蓋 30,528 平方公里( 11,787 平方英里),人口約 1100 萬( 2011 年估計)。比利時橫跨日耳曼歐洲與拉丁歐洲的文化邊界,是二大語族— 佛蘭芒語與法語使用者的家鄉,其中人口組成以弗拉芒人和瓦隆人為主 —,外加小部分的德語使用者。比利時的二大行政區為:北方佔全國人口 59% 、以荷蘭語為主的法蘭德斯區,以及南方以法語為主的瓦隆尼亞區,人口則佔 31% ,其東部並有一個小規模的德語文化社區。比利時的多元語言現象,以及其延伸的政治、文化衝突,皆充分反映於其政治史與複雜的政府體系上。 46
  • 47. 比利時克魯佩的 13 世紀卡龍德萊塔 比利時歷 史 • 無論是地理上還是文化上,比利時都處於歐 洲的十字路口,在過去的 2,000 年內,她見 證了各種種族與文化的興盛與衰敗。也正因 為這樣,比利時是歐洲真正的種族熔爐,凱 爾特人、羅馬人、德意志人、法蘭西人、荷 蘭人、西班牙人和奧地利人在此都留下了文 化的痕跡。 • 公元前 54 年,當時主要由凱爾特人居住的這 一地區被羅馬共和國將軍凱撒征服。羅馬帝 國崩潰後,日耳曼人於 5 世紀大舉入侵,其 中的一支法蘭克人隨後建立了墨洛溫王朝, 其領土包括了現在的比利時。墨洛溫王朝之 後由卡洛林王朝取代。 • 比利時後來幾經轉手,各個地區曾由荷蘭、 勃艮地、西班牙、奧地利等國統治。拿破崙 時期,比利時為法國的一部分,拿破崙一世 戰敗後,比利時併入荷蘭。 1830 年,比利 時爆發比利時獨立運動,從荷蘭統治下獨立 ,成為世襲君主立憲王國,並選擇了一位德 國貴族,薩克森 - 科堡 - 哥達公國的王子利奧 波德作為比利時的第一任國王。比利時立國 後奉行中立政策,但在兩次世界大戰中都被 德國佔領。二戰以後,比利時放棄中立原則 ,參加了北約。後來又參加了歐洲經濟共同 體。 47
  • 48. 比利時歷史上有一個主要的殖民地:比屬剛果,即現在的剛果民主共和國。比屬剛果於 1885 年由柏林會議贈給當時的比利時國王利奧波德二世。利奧波德將此地命名為剛果自由邦,並收為自己的私人領地,進行殘酷的統治,同時大量種植橡膠,以滿足當時世界對橡膠輪胎的需求。在國際輿論的壓力下,利奧波德二世於 1908 年放棄了對剛果的私人統治,把剛果交予比利時政府。後來比屬剛果於 1960 年獨立。在過去的半個世紀中比利時作為一個現代化、高科技的歐洲國家而興盛,她同時也是北約和歐盟的成員國。但是北半部說荷蘭語的法蘭德斯人和南半部講法語的瓦隆人之間長期的緊張關係,最終導致了近些年來的憲法修正案,賦予比利時南北兩半正式的自治權,因此比利時現在是一個聯邦國家。2007 年 6 月 10 日,舉行聯邦議會選舉。 48
  • 49. 比屬剛果時期 Congo belge 49
  • 50. Nationale Basiliek van het Heilig-Hart • 比利時位於歐洲大陸西北部,與英國隔海相望。北鄰 為荷蘭,南接為法國,東南臨盧森堡大公國,東與德 國接壤。國土面積 3.05 萬平方公里。 • 比利時分為三大地理區域:西部的海邊平原、中部的 高原、以及東部的阿登山脈。西部平原地勢平坦,有 諸多圍海造出的窪地。中部為漸漸升高的平原地區, 土地富饒,河流眾多,灌溉充分,同時也有一些洞穴 和峽谷。東部為阿登山脈,地勢升高,最高點海拔 694 米 ( 博特朗日山: Signal de Botrange) ,多森林 ,多處基岩裸露,不宜耕種。這也是比利時大多數野 生動物的棲息處。 • 比利時主要河流有:斯海爾德河,流經圖爾奈、根特 、安特衛普和默茲河,流經那慕爾、列日。 • 屬溫帶海洋性氣候,冬季溫和、夏季涼爽、多雨, 1 月平均氣溫 0 - 3 °C , 7 月平均氣溫 14 - 19 °C ;年降水量 700 - 900 毫米,高地達 1500 毫米 。 50
  • 51. • 自從比利時聯邦化後,政府結構更趨複雜。在聯 邦政府以下根據語言族群而設立了三個社區,即 法語社區、荷語社區以及德語社區;同時又設立 了三個行政區,即瓦隆區、弗拉芒區和布魯塞 爾 - 首都區。社區和行政區互相覆蓋,分工明確。 其中荷語社區政府和弗拉芒行政區政府合併為一 個統一的弗拉芒政府;瓦隆行政區大部分對應法 語社區,但東部邊疆地區為德語社區;布魯塞爾 行政區為三語共處,法語人口居多。聯邦、社區 、行政區分工如下:• 聯邦政府:負責有關國家整體利益的事務。如外 交、國防、經濟、社會福利、公共安全、運輸、 通訊等• 社區政府:負責語言、文化和教育。如學校、圖 書館、戲院等• 行政區政府:負責當地的土地與財產事務。如地 域經濟、規劃、建屋、交通等• 如:一個在布魯塞爾的學校建築由布魯塞爾行政 區政府管轄,但是學校作為一個教育機構則由荷 語社區政府 ( 如果學校教授的第一語言是荷蘭語 ) 或法語社區政府 ( 如果學校的第一語言是法語 ) 負責。這是一個複雜但卻能被廣泛接受的舉措, 以確保各種文化能和平共處。• 首都布魯塞爾是 900 多個重要國際機構的所在地 ,包括北約總部和歐盟總部,有「歐洲首都」之 稱。 51
  • 52. European Union headquarter布魯塞爾歐盟總部 52
  • 53. North Atlantic Treaty Organization北約組織 53
  • 54. • 經濟• 人口稠密的比利時是世界上工業最發達的地區之一,是 19 世紀初歐洲大陸最早進行工業革命的國家之一。比利時擁 有完善的港口、運河、鐵路以及公路等基礎設施,為與鄰 國更緊密的經濟整和創造條件。作為歐盟的創始會員國之 一,比利時十分期盼歐盟能整合整個歐洲的各個經濟體。 比利時 1999 年 1 月成為首批使用歐洲統一貨幣歐元的國 家之一,原先的比利時法郎在 2002 年初被完全取代。• 比利時經濟十分倚賴國際貿易。全國 GNP 的大約三分之二 來自出口,平均出口是德國的兩倍,日本的五倍。比利時 的出口優勢來自於其重要的地理位置以及高度技術化、多 語言以及高效率的勞動力。比利時主要進口食品、機械、 鑽石 ( 未成品 ) 、石油、化工材料、紡織品;主要出口汽 車、食品、鋼鐵、藥品、鑽石 ( 成品 ) 、紡織品等。• 位於比利時北部的安特衛普為歐洲第二大港,同時也是世 界上最大的鑽石加工地,有鑽石之都的稱譽。• 人口• 比利時全國總人口為 10,414,336(2009 年 ) ,人口密度 (346/km²) 僅次於荷蘭及一些歐洲小國,為歐洲人口最稠 密的國家之一。• 民族以弗拉芒族 ( 約佔 60%) 和瓦隆族 (40%) 為主。 54
  • 55. • 語言• 比利時有三種官方語言:荷蘭語、法語和德語,分別對應組成聯邦的三個社區。半數以上的 人口說荷蘭語 (55%) ,法語是第二大語言 (44%) ,少數人講德語 (1%) 。比利時所使用的荷 蘭語和法語與荷蘭和法國所使用的略有不同。而許多人日常使用的母語是各種弗拉芒語或瓦 隆語等方言,這些方言與荷蘭或法國使用的荷蘭語和法語相差不大,通話交流方便。• 首都布魯塞爾以荷蘭語和法語為官方語言,居民說法語為主。• 宗教• 比利時主要宗教為天主教,信徒占人口 75% ,但近年來只有 10%-20% 定期參加彌撒。其它 宗教包括伊斯蘭教、基督新教、以及猶太教。近年來,伊斯蘭教由於穆斯林移民暴增而佔有 全國人口的一定比例。• 宗教是比利時與荷蘭分家的一個重要原因。荷蘭在當時主要信基督新教 ( 不過現在荷蘭不信 教者居多 ) , 1830 年荷蘭南部天主教地區爭取獨立後,便形成了現在的比利時。比利時也 是許多歐洲神秘教派的活動中心。• 比利時的古城布魯日是一個保存完好的中世紀城市。它以精美的建築、完整的古城佈局、亮 麗的風景、悠久的歷史、藝術、宗教、巧克力等等,吸引著來自全世界的遊客。• 文化• 比利時以她的藝術、建築、啤酒、食物以及巧克力聞名天下。• 比利時人酷愛薯條,一般在各個小店或火車站都可以買到小包裝的炸馬鈴薯,當地人叫做 frieten( 荷蘭語 ) 或 frites( 法語,但是與法國人的叫法不同 ) 。比利時人也酷愛喝啤酒,世 界上最大的啤酒廠就在比利時。做甜點 (Goffres) 是比利時人的特長。比利時巧克力和瑞士 巧克力聞名於世,手工製作的餅乾、蛋糕等也非常有名。• 比利時是很多法國作家的安樂窩,如維克多 · 雨果、大仲馬等。比利時也是畫家的天堂,弗 萊芒畫派是 17 世紀最重要的畫派。• 此外,在 2003 年 1 月 30 日,比利時成為繼荷蘭之後全球第二個同性婚姻合法化的國家。 55
  • 56. • 交通• 比利時國內的交通相對比較發達,除了公路及高速公路以外,還有四 通八達的火車、地鐵、有軌電車、無軌電車及公共汽車。• 布魯塞爾擁有 2 座國際機場,位於布魯塞爾市近郊的是布魯塞爾機場 ,有小火車直接連接布魯塞爾市中心火車站 ( 北站 ) 及布魯塞爾南站。 另外的一個飛機場沙勒羅瓦-布魯塞爾南機場,距離布魯塞爾較遠。 布魯塞爾以外尚有安特衛普國際機場和列日機場。• 公共運輸網最繁密的是首都布魯塞爾,它是全國鐵路的中心樞紐,具 有眾多國際鐵路線路,如連接布魯塞爾 - 巴黎 - 科隆 - 阿姆斯特丹的 「大力士」火車 (thalys ) ,連接布魯塞爾 - 倫敦聖潘可拉斯站 - 巴黎 的歐洲之星等等。• 從別的國家到達比利時特別是布魯塞爾的方式很多,相對便捷的方式 在歐洲範圍內坐火車,從歐洲之外的國家到達比利時坐飛機。• 根據 2009 年 7 月 1 日資料,主要城市人口如下:• 布魯塞爾 ( 人口: 1,094,781)• 安特衛普 ( 人口: 472,526)• 根特 ( 人口: 233,120)• 沙勒羅瓦 ( 人口: 201,300)• 列日 ( 人口: 186,805)• 布魯日 ( 人口: 117,224) 56
  • 57. • 藝術家• 老彼得 · 布呂赫爾 (1525 年- 1569 年 ) , 16 世紀弗萊芒畫家,有農民畫家之 稱。• 魯本斯 (1577 年- 1640 年 ) ,畫家。 17 世紀巴洛克藝術的最傑出代表人物。• 勒內 · 馬格利特 (1898 年- 1967 年 ) ,比利時近代美術的三大畫家之一。超現 實主義畫家。• 詹姆斯 · 恩索,比利時近代美術的三大畫家之一。生於奧斯坦德,以「假面具畫 家」聞名於世,卻是現實主義畫家。• 保羅 · 德爾沃,比利時近代美術的三大畫家之一。超現實主義畫家。• 埃爾熱 (1907 年- 1983 年 ) ,漫畫家。創造了漫畫人物丁丁。• 作家• 維爾哈倫 (1855 年- 1916 年 ) ,著名詩人。• 梅特林克 (1862 年- 1949 年 ) ,詩人,劇作家, 1911 年諾貝爾文學獎獲得者 ,代表作《青鳥》• 喬治 · 西默農 (1903 年- 1989 年 ) ,生於列日,是 20 世紀最多產的作家。• 科學家• 維薩留斯 (1514-1564) ,解剖學奠基人。• 斯台汶 (1548-1620) ,數學家,物理學家,工程師。• 海爾蒙特 (1577-1644) ,化學家,生理學家。近代化學萌芽時期的代表人物。• 歐內斯特 · 索爾維 (1838-1922) ,化學家,實業家,以索爾維制鹼法和資助召開 「索爾維會議」聞名。• 貝克蘭 (1863-1944) ,化學家。酚醛樹脂的發明者。• 朱勒 · 博爾德 (1870-1961) ,生物學家, 1919 年諾貝爾生理學或醫學獎得獎者 。• 普里高津 (1917-2003) ,物理化學家。 1977 年諾貝爾化學獎獲得者。• 皮埃爾 · 德利涅 (1944- ) ,數學家,菲爾茲獎得主。• 演員• 奧黛麗 · 赫本 (1929 年- 1993 年 ) 。知名舞台劇與電影女演員,晚年曾任聯合 國兒童基金會 (UNICEF) 特使。 57
  • 58. Audrey Hepburn• Born in Ixelles, a district of Brussels, Hepburn spent her childhood between Belgium, England and the Netherlands, including German- occupied Arnhem during the Second World War. In Amsterdam, she studied ballet with Sonia Gaskell before moving to London in 1948 to continue ballet training with Marie Rambert and perform as a chorus girl in West End musical theatre productions.• After appearing in several British films and starring in the 1951 Broadway play Gigi, Hepburn played the Academy Award-winning lead role in Roman Holiday (1953). Later performing in successful films like Sabrina (1954), The Nuns Story (1959), Breakfast at Tiffanys (1961), Charade (1963), My Fair Lady (1964) and Wait Until Dark (1967), Hepburn received Academy Award, Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations and accrued a Tony Award for her theatrical performance in the 1954 Broadway play Ondine. Hepburn remains one of few people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards.• She appeared in fewer films as her life went on, devoting much of her later life to UNICEF. Although contributing to the organisation since 1954, she worked in some of the most profoundly disadvantaged communities of Africa, South America and Asia between 1988 and 1992. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in recognition of her work as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in late 1992. A month later, Hepburn died of appendiceal cancer at her home in Switzerland in early 1993 at the age of 63.[ 奧黛麗赫本生於比利時 58
  • 59. Audrey Hepburn 59
  • 60. Audrey Hepburn 60
  • 61. Audrey HepburnWe all miss you 61
  • 62. 李常生 Eddie Lee 1/25/2013 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.All photos were taken from Internet……leechangsheng6666@gmail.com 62