Anatomy of the eyeball - dr Shawgi Adugory


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Anatomy of the eyeball

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Anatomy of the eyeball - dr Shawgi Adugory

  1. 1. ‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬ANATOMY OF THEEYEBALL ALFASHER OPHTHALMIC HOSPETAL By Dr Shawgi Adugory
  2. 2. ‫عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت عت قالعت العت تعالى‬ ‫عت عت عت عت ‬ ‫سبحانك ل علم(‬ ‫لنا إل ما علمتنا‬ ‫إنك أنت ).العليم‬ ‫‪ANATOMY OF THE‬‬ ‫2‬ ‫‪EYEBALL- dr Shawgi‬‬
  3. 3. • The eyeball is embeded in orbital fat but it separated from it by the fascial sheath of the eyeball.• The eyeball cosists of 3 coats which from without inward,are fibrous coat, the vasscular bigmented coat &the nervous coat. ANATOMY OF THE 3 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  4. 4. ‫(قال تعالي‬ ) ANATOMY OF THE 4 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  5. 5. The fibrous coat made up of a posterior opaque part.the sclera & an anterior transpartent part the corneaThe scleraThe opaque part is composed of dense fibrous tissue & is white.Posteriorly it is pierced by the optic nerve & is fused with the dural sheath of that nerve.The lamina cribrosa is area of sclera that is pierced by the nerve fibers of the optic nerve.the sclera is also pierced by the ciliary arteties&nerves &their associated veins ,the venae vorticosa.The sclera is directly continuous in front with the cornea at the corneoscleral junction or ANATOMY OF THE 5 limbus. EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  6. 6. • The cornea• The transparent cornea is largely responsible for the refraction of the light entering the eye. It is contact posteriorly with the aqueous humor• Blood supply:-the cornea is avascular &devoid of lymphatic drainge it is nourished by diffusion from the aqueous ANATOMY OF THE 6 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  7. 7. • humor& from the capillaries at the edge.• Innervated by long ciliary nerves from the opthalmic diviation of the trigeminal nerve. ANATOMY OF THE 7 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  8. 8. Vascular pigment coatConsist from behind of the choroid, the ciliary body & the iristhe choroid composed of an outer pigment layer & an inner,highly vascular layer >> the ciliary body is continuous posteriorly with the choroid & anteriorly it lies behind the peripheral margin of the iris ,it composed of the ciliary ring the ciliary processes &the ciliary muscle ANATOMY OF THE 8 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  9. 9. ANATOMY OF THE 9EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  10. 10. ANATOMY OF THE 10EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  11. 11. • The iris &pupil The iris is a thin, contractile pigmented diaphragm with central aperture ,the pupil is suspended in the aqueous humor b/w the cornea &the lens .the periphery of the iris is attached to the anterior & a posterior chamber ANATOMY OF THE 11 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  12. 12. ANATOMY OF THE 12EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  13. 13. The nervous coat• Retina which consist of an outer pigmented layer & an inner nervous layer its outer surface is in contact with the vitreous body,the posterior ¾ 0f the retina is the receptor organ ,its anterior edge forms a wavy ring the ora serata & the nervous tissue end here. The anterior part of the retina in nonreceptive &consist 0f pigment cell with adeeper layer of columnar epithelium ,this anterior part of the retina covers the ciliary processes & the back of the ANATOMY OF THE iris 13 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  14. 14. ANATOMY OF THE 14EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  15. 15. • At the cener of the vposterior part of the retina is an oval yellowish area , the Macula lutea which is area of the retina for the most distinct vision,it has central depression the Fovea centralis .• The optic nerve leaves the retina about 3mm to the medial side of the macula lutea by the optic disc.the optic disc is slightly depressed at its center .where it is pierced by the central artery of the retina ,at the optic disc is acomplete &is referred to as the blind spot. ANATOMY OF THE 15 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  16. 16. • The other part of the eyeball consist of the refractive media, the aqueous humer ,the vitreous body &the lens. the aqueous humer Is a clear fluid that fills the anterior &posterior chambers of the eyeball. the vitreous body fills the eyeball behind the lens & is a transparent gel. the lens is a transparent, biconvex structure enclosed in a transparent ANATOMY OF THE 16 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  17. 17. • capsule .it is situated behind the iris & in frontof the vitreous body &is encircled by the ciliary processes. ANATOMY OF THE 17 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  18. 18. ANATOMY OF THE 18EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  19. 19. Muscle of theeyeball&eyelids• ALFASHER OPHTHALMIC HOSPETAL• By dr Shawgi Adugory ANATOMY OF THE 19 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  20. 20. ANATOMY OF THE 20EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  21. 21. ANATOMY OF THE 21EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  22. 22. ANATOMY OF THE 22EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  23. 23. External muscle of theeyeball(striated skeletal muscle)• Superior rectus Origin posterior ring of orbital cavity insertion superior surface of eyeball just posterior to limbus . innervated by oculomotor nerve its action raises cornea up ward & medialy• inferior rectus Origin posterior wall of the orbital cavity insertion inferior surface of the eyeball just posterior to limbus innervated by 3rd CN its action depresses cornea down ward & medially ANATOMY OF THE 23 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  24. 24. • Medial rectus Origin posterior wall of the orbital cavity insertion medial surface of the eyeball just posterior to limbus innervated by 3rd CN its action rotate eyeball so that cornea looks medially .• Lateral rectus Origin posterior wall of orbital cavity insertion lateral surface of eyeball just posterior to limbus innervated by 6th CN its action rotate eyeball so the cornea looks laterally ANATOMY OF THE 24 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  25. 25. • Superior oblique Origin posterior wall of orbital cavity insertion pass through the bulley & attached to superior surface of eye ball beneath superior rectus innervated by 4thCN its action rotate the eyeball so the cornea looks down ward & laterally .• Inferior oblique Origin floor of the orbital cavity insertion lateral surface of eyeball beneath the superior rectus innervated by 3rdCN its action rotate the eyeball so the cornea looks up ward & laterally . ANATOMY OF THE 25 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  26. 26. ANATOMY OF THE 26EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  27. 27. Internisic muscle of theeyeball(smooth muscle)• Sphinctor pupille of the iris innervated by parasympathetic via 3rdCN&its action constericts pupil• Dilator pupille of the iris innervated by sympathetic&its action dilated pupil• Ciliary muscle innervated by parasympathetic via 3rdCN&its action controls shape of lens; in accommodation makes lens more globular ANATOMY OF THE 27 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  28. 28. Muscle of the eyelids• Orbicularis oculi contains 2 parts palpebral part &orbital part both originate from medial palpebral ligament &also both innervated bt 7thCN ,the palpebral part inserted into lateral palpebral raphe & its action closes eyelids dilated lacrimal sac while the orbital part inserted into loops return to origin& its action throws skin around orbit into folds to protect eyeball. ANATOMY OF THE 28 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  29. 29. • Levator palpebrea superioris• Originated from back of the orbital cavity inserted into anterior surface &margin of superior tarsal plate innervated by the striated musle by 3rdCN ;smooth muscle sympathetic &its action raises upper lid ANATOMY OF THE 29 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  30. 30. Crenial Nerves assof the eyeball optic• The 2ndCN optic nerve consist of nerve, optic chiasms ,optic tract ,lateral geniculate body &thenoptic radiations• Fiber from retina converge at the optic disk & pass bachward as the optic nerve• fibres from the nasal half of each retina decussate at the optic chiasma while fibre from the temporal half remain on the same side ANATOMY OF THE 30• . EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  31. 31. ANATOMY OF THE 31EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  32. 32. ANATOMY OF THE 32EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  33. 33. • The optic tract , thus formed ,contain fibers from the temporal half of the retina of the same side & the nasal half of the retina of the oppsite side The fiber of the optic tract go to the latral geniculate body & then pass through the posterior limb of the internal capsule as the optic radiations . One group of optic radiation passes through the temporal lobe & other group through the parietal lobe. ANATOMY OF THE 33 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  34. 34. • finally the are projected to the calcarine sulcus (visual area)of the occipital lobe.The fiber concerned with the light reflex don’t relay in the geniculate body & go to the superior calculi ; pretectal area of the midbrain & then 3rdCN nuclei of both sides. ANATOMY OF THE 34 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  35. 35. • Examination for 1-visual acuity (each eye examin separately the near vision is chucked by reading book & far vision with help of Snellen chart.• 2-field of vision using Bjerrum’s screen (central vision)& the perineter (peripheral vision) if these are not available tested by confrontation method.• 3- color of vision is checked by using of Ishihara charts.• 4-fundus by fundoscopy. ANATOMY OF THE 35 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  36. 36. • Lesions• Optic nerve lesion complete loss of vision on the affected side,• Optic chiasma *** involving crossed fibers >>> bitemporal hemianopia .*** involving uncrossed fibers >>> binasal hemianopia.• Optic tract ***left optic tract involved >>> left homonymous hemianopia (loss of left halves of visual fields of both side.)***right optic tract involve >>>right hom0nymous hemianopia. ANATOMY OF THE 36 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  37. 37. • Optic radiation• ***temporal optic radiation ;represent upper quadrants 0f visual field &damage will lead to superior qadrantanopia of the oppsite side.• ***parietal optic radiations ; represent lower quadrant of visual field & its lesion lead to inferior quadrantanopia of the oppsite side. ANATOMY OF THE 37 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  38. 38. • The 3rdCN Oculomotor supplies all extraocular muscles except superior oblique &lateral rectus. in addition ,it also contains parasympathetic fibers which relay in the ciliarybganglion ;the post ganglionic fibers supply ciliary muscles &sphincter pupillae, the4thCN Trochlear Supply superior oblique muscle. ANATOMY OF THE 38 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  39. 39. • &the6thCN Abducent nerves supply lateral rectus muscle• The group of the external muscles of eyeball (superior rectus ,inferior rectus ,medial rectus ,lateral rectus , superior oblique &inferior oblique)&the one muscle from the group of eyelid (levator palpebrae superioris) make Extraocular muscles.• The group of the internisic muscle of the eyeball (ciliary muscle ,sphincter pupillae ANATOMY OF THE 39 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  40. 40. • &dilator pupillae)make Intraocular muscles.• lateral & medial recti move the eyeball laterally(abduction)&medially (adduction) Respectively• In the midposition , superior rectus &inferior oblique move the eyeball upwards(elevation);& ,inferior rectus & superior oblique move the eyeball downwards(depression) ANATOMY OF THE 40 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  41. 41. • If the eyeball is moved laterally ,upwards & downward movements are carried out by the superior &inferior rectus respectively• If the eyeball is moved medially ,upwards &downward movements are carried out by the inferior &superior oblique respectively• oblique muscle move the eyeball in the direction opposite to their name. ANATOMY OF THE 41 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  42. 42. . levator palpebrae superioris elevates the upper eyelid.• All The extraocular muscles are supplied by the 3rdCN except superior oblique which are supplied by the 4thCN & the lateral rectus which is supplied by the 6thCN. ANATOMY OF THE 42 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  43. 43. Intraocular muscles these are ciliary muscles , sphincter pupillae &dilater pupillae .the ciliary muscle make circle to which suspensory ligament attached , they contract when near objects are focused ;the lens capsule relaxes &convexity of the lens is increased .there are 2 muscles in the iris ;concentric fibers or sphincter pupillae constrict the pupil& radial fibers or dilater pupillae dilate the pupil. ANATOMY OF THE 43 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  44. 44. • Ciliary muscle &sphincter pupillae are supplied by the parasympathetic fibers of the 3rdCN .dilator pupillae is supply by the sympathetic fibers which travel along carotid opthalmic artery from superior cervical ganglion. ANATOMY OF THE 44 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  45. 45. examination include:-Palpebral fissure,-Ocular movements-Pupil (size ,shape & test light & accomm0dation reflexes).-Nystagmus. ANATOMY OF THE 45 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  46. 46. Lesions of 3rdCN• External ophthalmoplesia• External strabismus(squint)• Diplopia *ptosis *dilated pupil• Loss of visual reflexes&accomodation ANATOMY OF THE 46 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  47. 47. ANATOMY OF THE 47EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  48. 48. LESIONS of 4thCN• Vertical diplopia LESIONS of 5thCN Horizontal diplopia , _Internal strabismus, _Lateral gaze & _paralysis (nucl.communication ANATOMY OF THE 48 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  49. 49. ANATOMY OF THE 49EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  50. 50. ANATOMY OF THE 50EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  51. 51. ANATOMY OF THE 51EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  52. 52. Sensation of the eyesupply by the opthalmic division (1st part of 5thCN) it carries (touch, pain &temperature) to upper eyelid , conjunctiva, cornea & intraocular structures ANATOMY OF THE 52 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  53. 53. • The motor branch of the 7thCN supplies all the muscles of the fascial expression . SO in the case of 7thCN palsy the pt inable to close the eyelid beside dry conjectiva. ANATOMY OF THE 53 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  54. 54. ANATOMY OF THE 54EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  55. 55. Our bOss dr/OsmanYOusif&mY seniOrs dr/dalia & dr/lana.•if i saY Thank YOu i dOn’T give YOu ,001 degree fOr all YOur Times 0f Teaching me &fOr all chances ThaT given me fOr Training & learning abOuT abc Of OphThalmOlOgY in This hOspiTal. ANATOMY OF THE 55 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi
  56. 56. ‫يا من يعز علينا أن نفارقهم‬‫وجداننا وكل شي بعدهم عدم‬ ٍ ANATOMY OF THE 56 EYEBALL- dr Shawgi