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Selected Topics for e-
Learning Technologies
(Game Based Learning)
Timothy K. Shih
 GBL -- Overview
 GBL -- Theories of Learning
 GBL -- Virtual Learning
Environments
 GBL -- Learning Game-style
Example
GBL -- Overview
GBL -- Overview
1. INTRODUCTION
2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY
3. GAMES AND LEARNING
4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING
GAMES FOR LEA...
1. INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
• Some people began to ask one of two
related questions:
– Games take up large periods of time
– What can ...
1. INTRODUCTION (Cont.)
• Particularly, it examines three research
questions:
– What is happening during the game-
playing...
1. INTRODUCTION - GAME
DEFINITIONS (Cont.)
• Define a digital game as one that:
– Provides some visual digital
information...
1. INTRODUCTION - GAME
DEFINITIONS (Cont.)
• Define games as programmers that
operate on the following platforms:
– Hardwa...
1. INTRODUCTION -
RESEARCH ISSUES
AND CREDIBILITY
• Three key issues surrounding research
into games and learning that req...
2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY
2. GAMES CULTURES AND
PLAY
• CATEGORISING GAMES
• THE PREVALENCE
OF GAMES PLAY
• WHY DO PEOPLE PLAY GAMES?
• CONCERNS AROU...
2. GAMES CULTURES AND
PLAY – CATEGORISING
GAMES
• The Herz system presents these major
categories:
– Action games
– Advent...
2. GAMES CULTURES AND
PLAY – THE PREVALENCE
OF GAMES PLAY
• Digital games are clearly an important
part of most young peop...
2. GAMES CULTURES AND
PLAY – WHY DO PEOPLE
PLAY GAMES?
• A 2001 survey (ESA) produced four main
reasons for gameplay, name...
2. GAMES CULTURES AND
PLAY - CONCERNS AROUND
COMPUTER GAMES PLAY
• Games displacing other activities
• Durkin (1995) concl...
2. GAMES CULTURES AND
PLAY - CONCERNS AROUND
COMPUTER GAMES PLAY
• McFarlane (2002) surveyed English
schoolchildren and di...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING
3. GAMES AND LEARNING
• GAMES DEFINING
• LEARNING THEORIES
• Computer Game Perspective
• LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE
SCHOO...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
GAMES DEFINING
• Jesper Juul propused six criteria of
definitions for a game to be a game.
– A gam...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
GAMES DEFINING (Cont.)
• Games are often defined in terms of their
interactive and engaging nature...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
GAMES DEFINING (Cont.)
• Salen and Zimmerman wrote the following
often-quoted definition of a game...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
GAMES DEFINING (Cont.)
• Erik Champion‟s definition of a computer
game :
– A game is a challenge t...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING THEORIES
Table 1. The view of learning model
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH GAMES
OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.)
• Games are characterised by a trialand-
error approach...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH GAMES
OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.)
• Children‟s use of computer games may
play a significa...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH GAMES
OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.)
• Two studies argue that
– Interactions with computer g...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH GAMES
OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.)
• The „new vs old‟ tensions are
summarised by Marc Pren...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH GAMES
OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.)
 Active vs Passive
 Play vs Work
 Payoff vs Patience...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH MAINSTREAM
GAMES IN SCHOOLS
• The most frequently encountered perceived or
actual ob...
3. GAMES AND LEARNING -
LEARNING WITH MAINSTREAM
GAMES IN SCHOOLS (Cont.)
• Teachers and parents recognised that
games pla...
4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING
GAMES FOR LEARNING
4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING
GAMES FOR LEARNING
Table 2:
comparison
between
mainstream and
„learning‟ games
4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING
GAMES FOR LEARNING (Cont.)
• There are two key themes common to
the development of games for
e...
4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING
GAMES FOR LEARNING (Cont.)
• The conditions likely to induce the flow
state are characterised ...
4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING
GAMES FOR LEARNING (Cont.)
• How to design engaging learning
experiences (Jones 1998) :
– Task...
5. Types of Learning
and Possible Game Styles
5. Types of Learning
and Possible Game Styles
• Types of Learning and Possible Game, Prensky(2001)
5. Types of Learning
and Possible Game Styles (Cont.)
• Types of Learning and Possible Game, Prensky(2001)
6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES
AND LEARNING
6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES
AND LEARNING
• Using mainstream games in schools
• Using „lite‟ versions of mainstream
games
6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES
AND LEARNING –
Using mainstream games
in schools
• The key issues concerning the use of
main...
6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES
AND LEARNING –
Using ‘lite’ versions of
mainstream games
• A compromise between edutainment ...
6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES
AND LEARNING –
Using ‘lite’ versions of
mainstream games (Cont.)
• Include curriculum-releva...
7. SUMMARIZE
• This chapter has expounded a
consideration of the case for
developing, and using, computer and
video games ...
7. SUMMARIZE (Cont.)
• Though a rapidly growing and maturing
body of research is helping to develop a
clearer understandin...
GBL -- Theories of Learning
GBL -- Theories of Learning
1. Introduction
2. Behavioral learning theory
3. Cognitive learning theory
4. Motivation theor...
1. Introduction
• Computer games are having a shorter
learning curve.
• Some games involve intricate rules that
learner mu...
2. Behavioral learning theory
• The explanation of learning that emphasis on
observable changes in behavior is called beha...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• The studying of the digestive reflexes of a dog by
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
– This s...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
Figure 1. Classical conditioning
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• Cobwebs are placed together with spiders so that
when seeing the cobweb, players k...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• According to Burrhus Frederic Skinner, there are
two kinds of behavior:
– Responde...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• When seeing the monster and than casting
magic, this is an example of respondent b...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• Skinner tried to condition the lever-pressing
response of a rat in the Skinner box...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• Most games involve this kind of trial and error
learning, in which reinforcers are...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• There are two types of reinforcers:
– Positive reinforcers
– Negative reinforcers
...
2. Behavioral learning theory
(Cont.)
• There are four types of schedule that determine the
frequency and predictability o...
3. Cognitive learning theory
• Cognitive theorists argue that learning is a more
complex process that utilises problem-sol...
3. Cognitive learning theory
(Cont.)
• One classical model of memory proposed by
Atkinson and Shiffrin describes how infor...
3. Cognitive learning theory
(Cont.)
• According to schema theory proposed by Jean
Piaget, information is stored in long-t...
3. Cognitive learning theory
(Cont.)
• Figure 7. The network of the enemies in
Super Mario Bros. 3
3. Cognitive learning theory
(Cont.)
• While the information in sensory register and short-
term memory may be forgotten d...
• There are two types of interference:
– Proactive interference
– Retroactive interference
3. Cognitive learning theory
(C...
• It should be noticed that learning one thing could
sometimes help a learner in learning similar
information.
• There are...
• The skills needed in a game should be introduced in
a well-planed sequence to optimise facilitation.
• Primacy and recen...
• The most mundane technique for committing
information to memory is probably practice.
• There are two kinds of practice:...
3. Cognitive learning theory
(Cont.)
• 15th century, Galileo Galilei
• Discovery learning is one of the instruction models...
4. Motivation theory (Cont.)
• Learners who are motivated can learn almost
everything.
• Motivation is the internal proces...
4. Motivation theory (Cont.)
Figure 8. Hierarchy of the players‟ needs
5. SUMMARIZE
• Using games as learning tools is an interesting field
to be explored.
• Psychology not only provides a way ...
GBL -- Virtual Learning
Environments
GBL
-- Virtual Learning Environments
1. Introduction
2. Game-style Interaction Defining
3. Conclusion
1. Introduction
1. Introduction
• There are many research that promote
the use of game-style interaction for both
virtual environments and...
2. Defining Game-style
Interaction
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining
• Game Genres
• Environments as Interactive „Places‟
• Games Classified by Learning Mod...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
• What games typically have that virtual
environments do not, is a relati...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
• The games that tend to emphasize physical
embodiment, are typically com...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
• Game learning tasks include being set
roles, procedures, or levels of a...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
• Competitive or collaborative sense of others
pervades almost all genres...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
• One thing common to all game genres is that they
are challenging (hard ...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
• As an easy way of increasing the challenge, games
are also often “time-...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Game Genres
Figure 1.
Renaissance
Community
(Screenshot)
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Social Role
Playing
• It may pay to tailor the virtual environment to the
expected so...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Social Role
Playing
• There exists a degree of separation between games
that develop ...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Social Role
Playing
• Hence we could crudely separate games into those
that attempt t...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Social Role
Playing
• The strategist type games (it incorporates
procedural learning,...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Social Role
Playing
• Awareness of other cultural perspectives may be
far more achiev...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Social Role
Playing
• Players could learn different ways of interacting
with the worl...
2. Game-style Interaction
Defining - Learning through
World Building
• In the Information Environments Program at the
Univ...
3. SUMMARIZE
3. SUMMARIZE
• When told a virtual environment is a
game, participants of all ages and both genders
seem much more at ease...
Some Learning Game-style
Example
Learning Game-style
Example
• SIMULATION GAME - Example
• MOBILE GAME – Example
• SUMMARIZE
SIMULATION GAME -
Example
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME
Example(1)
• LEAN MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (Durk-
Jouke van der Zee, 2005)
– A CASE EX...
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME Example(1)
(Cont.)
• Table 1: Framework for Game Design
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME Example(1)
(Cont.)
• Table 1: Framework for Game Design
(Cont.)
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME Example(1)
(Cont.)
• Table 2: Game Elements
1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION
GAME Example(1) (Cont.)
• Figure 1: A Simulation Game for Teaching – EM-
PlantTM Model
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME Example(1)
(Cont.)
• Authors found the simulation game has essential
strengths rela...
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME Example(2)
• Kenya Freeman Oduor et. al. (2007) want to explorer
the reliability as...
1. Learning Game-style
SIMULATION GAME Example(2)
(Cont.)
• Figure 2. Policity user
2. Learning Game-style
Mobile Game – Example(1)
Reality Role Playing
Figure 3. A screen shot of a handheld AR game (left) ...
2. Learning Game-style
Mobile Game – Example(2)
Mystery at the Museum
 The fundamental interactions that were inherent to...
Figure 4. A screen shot showing virtual items and
characters in the room (left) and a group of players
collecting clues in...
Figure 5. Interfaces of the BuinZoo PDA Application
2. Learning Game-style
Mobile Game – Example(3)
Mobile Game-Based Scie...
Summary
• Now a day, there are two popular types of game-
based learning – Simulation and Mobile game.
• According to more...
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Transcript of "14 selected topics for e-learning technologies (gbl)"

  1. 1. Selected Topics for e- Learning Technologies (Game Based Learning) Timothy K. Shih
  2. 2.  GBL -- Overview  GBL -- Theories of Learning  GBL -- Virtual Learning Environments  GBL -- Learning Game-style Example
  3. 3. GBL -- Overview
  4. 4. GBL -- Overview 1. INTRODUCTION 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY 3. GAMES AND LEARNING 4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING GAMES FOR LEARNING 5.Types of Learning and Possible Game Styles 6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES AND LEARNING 7. SUMMARIZE
  5. 5. 1. INTRODUCTION
  6. 6. 1. INTRODUCTION • Some people began to ask one of two related questions: – Games take up large periods of time – What can the education sector learn and use from these games in order to „enhance‟ the learning process?
  7. 7. 1. INTRODUCTION (Cont.) • Particularly, it examines three research questions: – What is happening during the game- playing process? – Can conventional computer games be used as a vehicle for formal learning? – What components or features of conventional computer games can be taken and used in learning software or practice?
  8. 8. 1. INTRODUCTION - GAME DEFINITIONS (Cont.) • Define a digital game as one that: – Provides some visual digital information or substance to one or more players – Takes some input from the players – Processes the input according to a set of programmed game rules – Alters the digital information provided to the players
  9. 9. 1. INTRODUCTION - GAME DEFINITIONS (Cont.) • Define games as programmers that operate on the following platforms: – Hardware, known as video game consoles – Personal computers – Mobile devices
  10. 10. 1. INTRODUCTION - RESEARCH ISSUES AND CREDIBILITY • Three key issues surrounding research into games and learning that require acknowledgement. – Games and publication cycles – Games as an interdisciplinary subject – Games researchers as „defenders‟ of games
  11. 11. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY
  12. 12. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY • CATEGORISING GAMES • THE PREVALENCE OF GAMES PLAY • WHY DO PEOPLE PLAY GAMES? • CONCERNS AROUND COMPUTER GAMES PLAY
  13. 13. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY – CATEGORISING GAMES • The Herz system presents these major categories: – Action games – Adventure games – Fighting games – Puzzle games – Role-playing games – Simulation games – Sports games – Strategy games
  14. 14. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY – THE PREVALENCE OF GAMES PLAY • Digital games are clearly an important part of most young people‟s lives today • Nearly 70% of children play computer games every week – Mobile games play is increasingly common, with 68% of children playing games on their phone every week (Facer 2001).
  15. 15. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY – WHY DO PEOPLE PLAY GAMES? • A 2001 survey (ESA) produced four main reasons for gameplay, namely: – (87%) of players said the number one reason they play games is because “it‟s fun” – Games are challenging (72%) – Games are an interactive social experience that can be shared with friends and family (42%) – Games provide a lot of entertainment value for the money (36%).
  16. 16. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY - CONCERNS AROUND COMPUTER GAMES PLAY • Games displacing other activities • Durkin (1995) concludes that what appears to be game-playing addictions are: – “…actually transient phases of excessive involvement rather than enduring dependencies from which the victim will find it very difficult to escape.”
  17. 17. 2. GAMES CULTURES AND PLAY - CONCERNS AROUND COMPUTER GAMES PLAY • McFarlane (2002) surveyed English schoolchildren and discovered that: – “There is a tendency among girls to play games when they are bored or have nothing more interesting to do, whereas boys are more likely to play games as a first choice activity.”
  18. 18. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING
  19. 19. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING • GAMES DEFINING • LEARNING THEORIES • Computer Game Perspective • LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE SCHOOL • LEARNING WITH MAINSTREAM GAMES IN SCHOOLS
  20. 20. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - GAMES DEFINING • Jesper Juul propused six criteria of definitions for a game to be a game. – A game is a rule-based formal system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values – The player exerts effort in order to influence the outcome, the player feels attached to the outcome, and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable
  21. 21. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - GAMES DEFINING (Cont.) • Games are often defined in terms of their interactive and engaging nature: – An interactive and entertaining source of play, sometimes used to learn a lesson.
  22. 22. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - GAMES DEFINING (Cont.) • Salen and Zimmerman wrote the following often-quoted definition of a game: – A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.
  23. 23. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - GAMES DEFINING (Cont.) • Erik Champion‟s definition of a computer game : – A game is a challenge that offers up the possibility of temporary or permanent tactical resolution without harmful outcomes to the real world situation of the participant.
  24. 24. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING THEORIES Table 1. The view of learning model
  25. 25. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.) • Games are characterised by a trialand- error approach to overcoming challenges or obstacles • Strategy or adventure games, which encourage students in exploratory quest-like scenarios with a high degree of control over their progress
  26. 26. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.) • Children‟s use of computer games may play a significant role in developing effective use of computer-mediated information resources. • Mackereth (1998) argues that “there is evidence to suggest that familiarity with, and interest in, video games can influence children‟s confidence when using computers for more professional applications”
  27. 27. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.) • Two studies argue that – Interactions with computer games encourage them to develop a playful approach to computers which develops the expectation that „trial and error works‟ (Downes 1998) – Linear progressive models for using computers are often the least effective way of engaging with computer-based technologies (Facer et al 2003).
  28. 28. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.) • The „new vs old‟ tensions are summarised by Marc Prensky as:  Twitch speed vs Conventional speed  Parallel processing vs Linear processing  Graphics first vs Text first  Random access vs Step by step  Connected vs Standalone
  29. 29. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH GAMES OUTSIDE SCHOOL (Cont.)  Active vs Passive  Play vs Work  Payoff vs Patience  Fantasy vs Reality  Technology as friend vs Technology as foe.
  30. 30. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH MAINSTREAM GAMES IN SCHOOLS • The most frequently encountered perceived or actual obstacles were: – It was difficult for teachers to identify relevant component of the statutory curriculum – The difficulty in persuading other school stakeholders as to the potential/actual educational benefits of computer games – The lack of time available to teachers to familiarise themselves with the game – The amount of irrelevant content or functionality in a game which could not be removed or ignored
  31. 31. 3. GAMES AND LEARNING - LEARNING WITH MAINSTREAM GAMES IN SCHOOLS (Cont.) • Teachers and parents recognised that games play can support valuable skill development such as: (McFarlane et al 2002) – Strategic thinking – Planning – Communication – Application of numbers – Negotiating skills – Group decision-making – Data-handling.
  32. 32. 4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING GAMES FOR LEARNING
  33. 33. 4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING GAMES FOR LEARNING Table 2: comparison between mainstream and „learning‟ games
  34. 34. 4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING GAMES FOR LEARNING (Cont.) • There are two key themes common to the development of games for education, namely: – The desire to harness the motivational power of games in order to „making learning fun‟ – A belief that „learning through doing‟ in games such as simulations, offers a powerful learning tool
  35. 35. 4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING GAMES FOR LEARNING (Cont.) • The conditions likely to induce the flow state are characterised by Malone as: – The activity should be structured – It should be easy to isolate the activity – There should be clear criteria for performance; – The activity should provide concrete feedback to the player – The activity ought to have a broad range of challenges, and possibly several qualitatively different ranges of challenge
  36. 36. 4. KEY ISSUES IN DEVELOPING GAMES FOR LEARNING (Cont.) • How to design engaging learning experiences (Jones 1998) : – Task that we can complete – Ability to concentrate on task – Task has clear goals – Task provides immediate feedback – Deep but effortless involvement exercising a sense of control over our actions – Concern for self disappears during flow, but sense of self is stronger after flow activity – Sense of duration of time is altered.
  37. 37. 5. Types of Learning and Possible Game Styles
  38. 38. 5. Types of Learning and Possible Game Styles • Types of Learning and Possible Game, Prensky(2001)
  39. 39. 5. Types of Learning and Possible Game Styles (Cont.) • Types of Learning and Possible Game, Prensky(2001)
  40. 40. 6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES AND LEARNING
  41. 41. 6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES AND LEARNING • Using mainstream games in schools • Using „lite‟ versions of mainstream games
  42. 42. 6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES AND LEARNING – Using mainstream games in schools • The key issues concerning the use of mainstream games in schools are: • Teacher keep the students „on track‟ and troubleshooting • Identifying games that may be successful or useful in a classroom situation • Cultural acceptance of games as media through which learning can take place • Compatibility with school hardware, licencing agreements, and arguably other software • There is a need for developers of games aimed at the stakeholders needs
  43. 43. 6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES AND LEARNING – Using ‘lite’ versions of mainstream games • A compromise between edutainment and mainstream games: • Have all unnecessary content removed • Have their content and underlying rule base verified and tested by educational organizations • Include background/help/training materials for both the teacher/ motivator, and for students
  44. 44. 6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAMES AND LEARNING – Using ‘lite’ versions of mainstream games (Cont.) • Include curriculum-relevant tasks and content • Allow users to save at regular intervals • Be compatible with the original „full‟ versions, so students could continue using the game at home • Be offered to schools on an attractive licensing system.
  45. 45. 7. SUMMARIZE • This chapter has expounded a consideration of the case for developing, and using, computer and video games for educational purposes. • Before games can take on a meaningful role in formal or informal education, the education sector and the wider public and media need to better understand the potential and diversity of such „tools‟.
  46. 46. 7. SUMMARIZE (Cont.) • Though a rapidly growing and maturing body of research is helping to develop a clearer understanding of the educational potential of games, there are as yet a small number of games that have a clear contribution to make to the educational agenda.
  47. 47. GBL -- Theories of Learning
  48. 48. GBL -- Theories of Learning 1. Introduction 2. Behavioral learning theory 3. Cognitive learning theory 4. Motivation theory 5. Summarize
  49. 49. 1. Introduction • Computer games are having a shorter learning curve. • Some games involve intricate rules that learner must master in order to win. • This chapter attempts to shed some light on how players learn in computer games based on the theories.
  50. 50. 2. Behavioral learning theory • The explanation of learning that emphasis on observable changes in behavior is called behavioral learning theory. – Classical conditioning – Operant conditioning
  51. 51. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • The studying of the digestive reflexes of a dog by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. – This serendipity resulted in the definition of a new paradigm in psychology – Classical conditioning.
  52. 52. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) Figure 1. Classical conditioning
  53. 53. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • Cobwebs are placed together with spiders so that when seeing the cobweb, players know there are spiders lurking around the area. – Players learn to act accordingly, depending on different stimuli. Figure 2. Relation between Cobweb and Spider
  54. 54. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • According to Burrhus Frederic Skinner, there are two kinds of behavior: – Respondent behavior – Operant behavior
  55. 55. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • When seeing the monster and than casting magic, this is an example of respondent behavior because it is elicited by stimuli. • Walking about and jumping without a particular reason are operant behavior because there are not correlated with known stimuli.
  56. 56. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • Skinner tried to condition the lever-pressing response of a rat in the Skinner box. • Using consequences to control the occurrence of behavior is known as operant conditioning. Figure 3. Skinner box
  57. 57. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • Most games involve this kind of trial and error learning, in which reinforcers are used tactfully to evoke specific behavior. Figure 4. Operant conditioning
  58. 58. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • There are two types of reinforcers: – Positive reinforcers – Negative reinforcers Figure 5. Positive and Negative Reinforcer Example
  59. 59. 2. Behavioral learning theory (Cont.) • There are four types of schedule that determine the frequency and predictability of reinforcement. – Fixed-ratio schedule – Variable-ratio schedule – Fixed-interval schedule – Variable-interval schedule
  60. 60. 3. Cognitive learning theory • Cognitive theorists argue that learning is a more complex process that utilises problem-solving and insightful thinking in addition to repetition of a stimulus-response chain. • This theory attempts to answer several questions: how are memories encoded, how are memories retained and how are memories retrieved.
  61. 61. 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.) • One classical model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin describes how information is processed, stored and retrieved in the mind. Figure 6. Memory model of Atkinson and Shiffrin
  62. 62. 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.) • According to schema theory proposed by Jean Piaget, information is stored in long-term memory in network of connected facts and concepts that provide a structure for making sense of new information.
  63. 63. 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.) • Figure 7. The network of the enemies in Super Mario Bros. 3
  64. 64. 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.) • While the information in sensory register and short- term memory may be forgotten due to decay and displacement of new information. • The access to information in long-term memory may be lost as a result of interference.
  65. 65. • There are two types of interference: – Proactive interference – Retroactive interference 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.)
  66. 66. • It should be noticed that learning one thing could sometimes help a learner in learning similar information. • There are two types of facilitation : – Proactive facilitation – Retroactive facilitation 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.)
  67. 67. • The skills needed in a game should be introduced in a well-planed sequence to optimise facilitation. • Primacy and recency effect suggests the items that appear at the beginning and end of a list are more easily recalled than other items. 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.)
  68. 68. • The most mundane technique for committing information to memory is probably practice. • There are two kinds of practice: • Massed practice • Distributed practice 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.)
  69. 69. 3. Cognitive learning theory (Cont.) • 15th century, Galileo Galilei • Discovery learning is one of the instruction models based on constructivism. • Learner literally construct the knowledge internally by immersing themselves into the virtual world. • When learner encounter new thing, they learn to adapt it with their existing schema by trial and error or mental reflection.
  70. 70. 4. Motivation theory (Cont.) • Learners who are motivated can learn almost everything. • Motivation is the internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior over time. • The Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs can be adapted to explain the needs of player so as to understand how players are motivated in the game environment.
  71. 71. 4. Motivation theory (Cont.) Figure 8. Hierarchy of the players‟ needs
  72. 72. 5. SUMMARIZE • Using games as learning tools is an interesting field to be explored. • Psychology not only provides a way to apprehend the learning that occurs naturally in game, but also helps in developing an environment in which the players can learn a particular domain of knowledge extrinsically.
  73. 73. GBL -- Virtual Learning Environments
  74. 74. GBL -- Virtual Learning Environments 1. Introduction 2. Game-style Interaction Defining 3. Conclusion
  75. 75. 1. Introduction
  76. 76. 1. Introduction • There are many research that promote the use of game-style interaction for both virtual environments and for virtual learning environments. • Development of learning tools based on the adventure game could provide educators with a superior mechanism to entice learners into virtual environments where knowledge is acquired thought intrinsic motivation.
  77. 77. 2. Defining Game-style Interaction
  78. 78. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining • Game Genres • Environments as Interactive „Places‟ • Games Classified by Learning Modes • Social Role Playing • Learning through World Building
  79. 79. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres • What games typically have that virtual environments do not, is a relation to a cultural genre. • It might appear that we can learn from the classification of important game elements according to the genre that they appear in, the feedback they provide, and the way in which the player is “afforded” immersion.
  80. 80. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres • The games that tend to emphasize physical embodiment, are typically combat and racing games. • An avatar represents the player • Collision typically results in acoustic feedback and / or surface erosion or deformation. • Feedback tends be by loss of points, or the signaling of end of game or game level. • The games tend to increase hand-eye co- ordination.
  81. 81. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres • Game learning tasks include being set roles, procedures, or levels of ability to complete tasks. • This feature includes in racing games, strategy games, Civilization-type world building games, interrogation or text-guessing games, riddles.
  82. 82. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres • Competitive or collaborative sense of others pervades almost all genres • The player feedback is generally via changes in points • Genre can help develop the player‟s memory
  83. 83. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres • One thing common to all game genres is that they are challenging (hard fun) • All games tend to feature increasing complexity, number of puzzles, or situations to overcome • They have tasks, affordances, and constraints. • The mixture of affordances and constraints and different levels is designed to be challenging in the sense of „hard fun‟
  84. 84. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres • As an easy way of increasing the challenge, games are also often “time-based” • As challenges, games can develop pattern matching and puzzle solving skills, predictive thinking and bluffing. • Rewards are also a universal feature of games • In games knowledge is unfolded, directly related to the increasing success of the player.
  85. 85. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Game Genres Figure 1. Renaissance Community (Screenshot)
  86. 86. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Social Role Playing • It may pay to tailor the virtual environment to the expected social role and objectives of the user, in terms of prescriptive learning as a social scientist (detective), tourist (non-playing character or observer), or in terms of procedural learning aimed at the traveler (adventurer).
  87. 87. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Social Role Playing • There exists a degree of separation between games that develop procedural knowledge, and virtual environments‟ tendency to follow traditional pedagogy by presenting prescriptive knowledge. • An obvious example of procedural learning is the First Person Shooter genre. • Progress in these games is through procedural learning, knowledge learnt through trial and error.
  88. 88. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Social Role Playing • Hence we could crudely separate games into those that attempt to unravel narrative (such as Myst and other types of interactive fiction), and those that allow interaction through doing (the competitive adventurer-explorer games). • Ex : archaeology is usually attempting to uncover prescriptive knowledge, knowledge of events, what happened when, and who did what. • The detective style games
  89. 89. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Social Role Playing • The strategist type games (it incorporates procedural learning, and prescriptive learning) • This type of game may expose the workings of previous civilizations, and it may incorporate historical events in the way it works out permutations of player decisions
  90. 90. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Social Role Playing • Awareness of other cultural perspectives may be far more achievable than full understanding of others cultures. • Providing full immersion takes time and concerted understanding. • Games trivialize consequences • One takes silly risks and does not care about others unless respect and recognition of their social status is required by the gamer. • Online worlds may offer some hope for developing meaningful learning, but they tend to be liberal with their relation to authenticity.
  91. 91. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Social Role Playing • Players could learn different ways of interacting with the world depending on the nature of their character‟s background and the location of that character. • The teacher or guide could act as a game- keeper, allowing people to explore the parameters of their roles, give suggestions, and punish or reward players.
  92. 92. 2. Game-style Interaction Defining - Learning through World Building • In the Information Environments Program at the University of Queensland have encouraged students to explore virtual environment building through game-level editors and through user- testing. Figure 2. Scenes of the Virtual Environment world
  93. 93. 3. SUMMARIZE
  94. 94. 3. SUMMARIZE • When told a virtual environment is a game, participants of all ages and both genders seem much more at ease and aware of potential affordances. • Games do offer some form of social context, embodiment, and challenge • Fantastical Simulations • In order to stimulate that learning process, we need to investigate what the learner experience is for and how the interaction methods and metaphors can best present content, engage, and coax the learner to develop either transferable skills or factual knowledge.
  95. 95. Some Learning Game-style Example
  96. 96. Learning Game-style Example • SIMULATION GAME - Example • MOBILE GAME – Example • SUMMARIZE
  97. 97. SIMULATION GAME - Example
  98. 98. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(1) • LEAN MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (Durk- Jouke van der Zee, 2005) – A CASE EXAMPLE FROM INDUSTRY • The objective of the game  Support the introduction of lean principles in an existing assembly line
  99. 99. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(1) (Cont.) • Table 1: Framework for Game Design
  100. 100. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(1) (Cont.) • Table 1: Framework for Game Design (Cont.)
  101. 101. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(1) (Cont.) • Table 2: Game Elements
  102. 102. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(1) (Cont.) • Figure 1: A Simulation Game for Teaching – EM- PlantTM Model
  103. 103. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(1) (Cont.) • Authors found the simulation game has essential strengths relate to the possibilities to: • Demonstrate workings and control of the system • Experience the proposed system • Involve users in determining job and worker characteristics that are relevant for selecting control decisions • Involve users in the construction of alternative rules for worker deployment • Contribute to team coordination and team building, by assigning appropriate roles
  104. 104. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(2) • Kenya Freeman Oduor et. al. (2007) want to explorer the reliability as key factors in whether automation will be properly used, misused, or disused in systems management. – Authors conducted an experiment in which an automated decision aid presented suggestions or policies to participants while they managed a simulated city (i.e., Policity).
  105. 105. 1. Learning Game-style SIMULATION GAME Example(2) (Cont.) • Figure 2. Policity user
  106. 106. 2. Learning Game-style Mobile Game – Example(1) Reality Role Playing Figure 3. A screen shot of a handheld AR game (left) and 2 players conducting an AR investigation (right).
  107. 107. 2. Learning Game-style Mobile Game – Example(2) Mystery at the Museum  The fundamental interactions that were inherent to the game were as follows:  In each room was a set of virtual characters, which could be "interviewed" by clicking on them.  In many rooms there were virtual objects, which could be picked up and examined.  In several locations virtual equipment could be used to obtain further information about the virtual objects.  Several items in the museum were tagged with infrared tags.  Players could exchange objects and interviews with each other through localized infrared beaming.
  108. 108. Figure 4. A screen shot showing virtual items and characters in the room (left) and a group of players collecting clues in the museum (right). 2. Learning Game-style Mobile Game – Example(2) Mystery at the Museum (Cont.)
  109. 109. Figure 5. Interfaces of the BuinZoo PDA Application 2. Learning Game-style Mobile Game – Example(3) Mobile Game-Based Science Learning
  110. 110. Summary • Now a day, there are two popular types of game- based learning – Simulation and Mobile game. • According to more and more technologies can support for interactive game design (Ex, Wireless Lan, GPS system and other useful control media) • It will helpful to solved problems in designing phase • Gaming content (Interactive elements and learning behaviors) • Learner‟s Learning behavior
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