THEORY BUILDING FROM CASES: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES 第一段最後一行為此文之重心: …, we focus on the related research strategy of theory building from cases, particularly multiple cases.
THEORY BUILDING FROM CASES: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Conclusion: 結論之重點 Theory building from case studies is an increasingly popular and relevant research strategy…… Challenge: research relying on rich qualitative data is becoming more common. Mitigate(減輕）through precise language and thoughtful research design: (此部份為作者提出之方法) Careful justification of theory building Theoretical sampling of cases Interviews that limit informant bias Rich presentation of evidence in tables and appendixes Clear statement of theoretical arguments The result is fresh theory that bridges well from rich qualitative evidence to mainstream deductive research.
BETTER STORIES AND BETTERCONSTRUCTS: THE CASE FOR RIGOR(精密 的） AND COMPARATIVE LOGIC 1991 stanford University 第一段： I focused on multiple cases and how to develop theory from them, but I paid scant attention to the important role of single- case research. -> redressing that imbalance 作者此文重視“single-case research”的重要
BETTER STORIES AND BETTERCONSTRUCTS: THE CASE FOR RIGOR AND COMPARATIVE LOGIC此篇文章之整體架構 第一段 ARE SINGLE-CASE STUDIES SUPERIOR? ARE THE CLASSIC STUDIES LOOSE SINGLE CASES? IS “BETTER STORIES VERSUS BETTER CONSTRUCTS” A FALSE DICHOTOMY? 錯誤的二分法－＞呼應題目 CONCLUSION
BETTER STORIES AND BETTER CONSTRUCTS: THE CASE FOR RIGOR AND COMPARATIVE LOGIC閱讀心得重點: … good story telling is an essential first step, but good theory is fundamentally the result of rigorous (精密的、正確的）methodology and comparative, multiple-case logic. This is as evident in the classic case studies as it is in contemporary multiple-case research.
Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, to Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt 1991 Brigham Young University 1989 Eisenhardt presented an approach to building theory using case studies, which summarized a hybrid form of case research…… 相關資料： http://www.getcited.org/pub/103368440 Rejoinder:答辯,回答,應答; 還嘴,頂嘴此篇文章應為上一篇之回應文。
Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, to Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt 第一段 第四行：第一段重點 For us this approach is paradoxical because although its purported purpose is theory generation, it includes many of the attributes of hypothesis-testing research. ->如老師註解：testing != building / creation ->rejoinder
Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, to Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt此篇文章整體架構 第一段 Case(s) Versus Case Study research Deep Case Studies Versus Surface Case Studies Telling Good Stories Versus Creating Good Constructs Summary Comments
Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, to Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt Summary Comments (結論重點) …Our goal has not been to discourage such efforts but rather to point out what researchers miss if they overlook the advantages of the classic case study. …we hope that many scholars will continue to try to tell good stories that have theoretical import.(兩者兼顧)
Building Theories from Case Study Research 文章重點: This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies – from (specifying the research questions) to (reaching closure). 此句寫在摘要 The purpose of this article is to (describe the process of theory building from case studies). 此句寫在結論 Process: Similar to hypothesis-testing research: problem definition and construct validation Unique to the inductive, case-oriented process: within-case analysis and replication logic 摘要結論: …(the tests of good theory) and (convincing grounding in the evidence) are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
Building Theories from Case Study Research 文章架構 Abstract Background The Case Study Approach Building Theory from Case Study Research Getting Started Selecting Cases Crafting Instruments and Protocols Entering the Field Analyzing Within-Case Data Searching for Cross-Case Patterns Shaping Hypotheses Enfolding Literature Reaching Closure Comparison with Other Literature Discussion Strengths of Theory Building from Cases Weaknesses of Theory Building from Cases Applicability Evaluation Conclusions
Building Theories from Case Study Research 結論重點 首先強調表格一的重要，表格一為: Process of Building Theory from Case Study Research: 從個案研究建立理論的程序 Getting Started->Selecting Cases->Crafting Instruments and Protocols->Entering the Field->Analyzing Data->Shaping Hypotheses->Enfolding Literature->Reaching Closure 最後強調: the accumulation of knowledge involves a continual cycling between theory and data. 知識的累積包含理論和資料的持續循環
MAKING FAST STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN HIGH-VELOCITY ENVIRONMENTS 本文重點: This inductive study of eight microcomputer firms led to propositions exploring that question. -> How do executive teams make rapid decisions in the high-velocity microcomputer industry?(此部份寫在摘要) This work is park of a larger research program on strategic decision making in high- velocity environments.(此部份寫在結論)
MAKING FAST STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN HIGH-VELOCITY ENVIRONMENTS 重點內容:A Model of Strategic Decision Speed in High- Velocity Environments
MAKING FAST STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN HIGH-VELOCITY ENVIRONMENTS 結論重點: The results link fast decisions to several factors, including 1(the use of real-time information), 2(multiple alternatives), 3(counselors), 4(consensus with qualification), and 5(decision integration). The microcomputer industry is admittedly an extreme situation…. ->..if the ideas presented here survive empirical tests, they offer lessons for all organizations as they face an increasingly turbulent world.