A PROJECGT REPORT
Training and Development
Project report submitted in the
MR. DINESH KUMAR
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA (RAJ).
Details of the Trainee:Name of Trainee
Mr. Daleep Singh Raghav
Date of Birth
Name of Institute / Collage
V.P.O-Khohar, TEH- Behror, DIST- Alwar (RJ)
Details related to project:Project Name
Training and Development
Dept. / Section
I thank almighty for bestowing upon me his choicest blessing and
running all the things in the right direction.
I do hereby thanks GOD for vesting this opportunity and thanks SONIA
FORGINGS INDIA PVT LTD. For providing this for me and for everything
I have learned in the complete tenure of my training.
My endeavor stands incomplete without dedicating my gratitude to a
few people who have contributed a lot towards the successful
completion of my project work. I would like thanks all the employees
for their kindness and invaluable support they provide me throughout
my training. I present my heartiest regards and wishes to my training
Mr. DIGHAVNESH R (HR) showing his kind involvement in my training
“Words are inadequate to express my indebtness and gratitude to my
parents for their unending support, blessings and tireless efforts that
kept me motivated throughout the completion of this project.”
THANKS TO ALL
I am “YOGENDRA RAGHAV” a student of MBA, RAFFLES UNIVERSITY,
NEEMRANA (RAJ). Declare that the project entitled “TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT”. In partial fulfillment of MBA degree course in SONIA FORGING
PVT LTD is my original work.
Partial knowledge is an impotent suffix to theoretical knowledge; one
cannot merelyrely upon the theoretical knowledge. Classroom make
the fundamental concept clear, b u t p r a c t i c a l s u r v e y i n a f i r m h a s
significant role to play in a subject of
B u s i n e s s Ma n a g e me n t t o d e v e l o p ma n a g e r i a l s ki l l s , i t i s n e c e s s
a r y t h a t t h e y c o mb i n e t h e i r classroom's learning with the knowledge of
real business environment. I am extremely happy to place before the
esteemed Teachers/Management the Report of the project entitled
"Training and Development". It has not only helped me to enhance my
knowledge about various fields of
HumanR e s o u r c e s & Co mp a n y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o w a r d s t h e i r w e
l f a r e b u t a l s o g a v e n e w dimension to my knowledge about psychology &
attitude of the Employees towards the work & their duties.
As a part of the curriculum of MBA (II) semester, I underwent
my……… Summer training project at Sonia forging pvt ltd
. This 45 day training in an industrial organization seems to be
necessary for the complete understanding of the phenomenon related
with Training and development. This study prescribes add situation before
the researcher, there by he/she gets perfection. This short of study injects
flavors of confidence in heart and mind of the researcher. It provides
ample opportunity to comprehend the phenomenon and suggest best
solution of it
I was assigned the title "Training and development". My topic is
Concern with the employee's development at Sonia forging pvt ltd
Employees training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level
of knowledge so that employees is better equipped to do his present
job, or to prepare him for higher position with increased
responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself.
Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth.
Training refers to the teaching or learning activities done for the
primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and
apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the
knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
In today’s scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal
with it is to learn and g r o w . E mp l o y e e s h a v e b e c o me c e n t r a l t o
s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e y a r e t h e cornucopia
ideas. So it high time the organization realize that “train and retain
is the mantra of new millennium.”
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of the study are:
➢To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of
➢To examine the impact of training on workers.
➢To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.
➢To find out new methods of training and development in Sonia forging.
I h a v e t r i e d t o t a ke a v i ew o n t h e t o p i c i n a p r a c t i c a l ma n n e r ,
s o t h a t t h e f e e d b a c k c a n b e provided to the organization
Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced
people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or
potential job occupants can meet these requirements, training’s not
important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skills levels and
increase the versatility and adaptability of employees.
I t i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g c o mmo n f o r i n d i v i d u a l t o c h a n g e c a r e e r s
s e v e r a l t i me s d u r i n g t h e i r working lives. The probability of any young
person learning a job today and having those skills go basically unchanged
during the forty or so years if his career is extremely unlikely, may
be even impossible. In a rapid changing society empl oyees training is
not only an activity that an organization must commit resources to if
it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force.
T h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t t a l ks a b o u t t h e t r a i n i n g a n d
d e v e l o p me n t i n t h e o r e t i c a l a s w e l l a s n e w concepts, which are in
trend now. Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if w e
ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in
r e a p i n g t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e money invested in terms like (ROI ) i.e.
return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the training need of
any employees and how to know what kind of training he can go for?
Training being in different aspect likes integrating it with
organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in
training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the
evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some
of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for
other to follow as to how train and retain the best resource in the world
to reap the best out of it.
Development is integral part of training if somebody is trained
properly and efficiently the developments of that individual and the
company for whom he is working. Here we discussed about
development of employees, how much to identify the needs, and after
developing how to develop executive skill to sharpen their knowledge.
Learning should be continues process an done should not hesitate to
learn any stage. Learning and developing is fast and easy at SONIA
FORGING PVT LTD .
Methodology can be defined as•“ T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f m e t h o d s , r u l e s , a n d
p o s t u l a t e s e m p l o y e d b y a discipline”.
•“ T h e s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f m e t h o d s t h a t a r e , c a n b e o r h a
v e b e e n a p p l i e d w i t h i n a discipline”.
•“A particular procedure or set of procedures”.
Methodology includes a collection of theories, concepts or ideas as
they relate to a particular discipline or field of inquiry:
Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods; rather it refers to
the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that underlie a particular
study relative to the scientific method. This is why scholarly literature often
includes a section on the methodology of the researchers. This section does
more than outline the researchers’ methods might explain what the
researchers’ ontological or epistemological views are
.Another key (though arguably imprecise) usage for methodology does not
researchortot h e s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s o f t e n r e f e r s t o
a n y t h i n g a n d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c a n b e encapsulated for a discipline
or a series of processes, activities and tasks. Examples of this are
found in software development, project management and business process
fields. This use of the term is typified by the outline who, what, where,
when, and why. In the documentation of the processes that make up
the discipline, that is being supported by "this" methodology, that is
where we would find the "methods" or processes. The processes themselves
are only part of the methodology along with the identification and usage of the
standards, policies, rules, etc
Researchers acknowledge the need for rigor, logic, and coherence in their
methodologies, which are subject to peer review
Primary data was collected through
•Personal observations Secondary data was collected through
Data collection: Data was collected through both primary and secondary
Theprimaryd a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h a d mi n i s t r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o
n n a i r e t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . Secondary source includes
article from Company's manual and Internet was also used to collect
SCOPE OF STUDY
In this project I havetriedto present details about the training
a n d d e v e l o p me n t programs being presently followed in SONIA
FORGING and the feedback, I collected from different employees during my
interaction with them
The scope of training and development can be explained with th e help
of following points –
1 exact position of performance of employees through their feedback
2 Development of the employees through various training and development
3 Developing altered of unbiased treatment to all employees
LIMITATION OF STUDY
During my training period although the management and plant personnel
were very co-operative & extended their full support, yet there were following
limitations associates with my study which I would like to mention: Due to the
busy schedule of an organization I was unable to grasp the precious words
of the HRD Manager
HISTORY OF THE COMPANY
SONIA FORGINGS (P) LIMITED is the most eminent manufacturer and exporter of
Steel Forging & Precision Turned Components, CNC Machined Components and
Automotive Components. Since our inception in the year 1981, we have grown
tremendously and emerged out as the most ideal company to satisfy the requirement and
specification of customers spread all over the Globe. Our premium Quality products at
the most affordable rates have propelled us to achieve maximum degree of customer
satisfaction and a respectable name among the customers. Its over pro-active services,
customer care and impeccable quality products which places us far ahead of our
competitors. We intend to enhance this success through regular improvements and
We have a state of the art infrastructure clubbed with requisite technology and
superb working environment. We incorporate well equipped manufacturing
plants capable of carrying out customized as well as bulk orders in accordance
with the client specifications. Our manufacturing unit is complacent with the
modern machineries which yield excellent results at low cost. Skillful and highly
qualified workers and professionals are our pillars of success. Our comprehensive
set-up has help us to become the most renowned manufacturer and exporter of
Forging Precision Turned Components, CNC Machined Components and auto
OEM Supplier, Manufacturer & Exporter
Rs. 100 Crore Annually
No. of Employees
Year of Establishment
No. of Forging Lines
No. of OEM Customers
Closed Die Hammer Forging (0.500 -20 Kg)
Screw Press Forging (0.100 - 4.0 Kg)
Ring Rolling Machine (Ø 200mm)
Precision Turned Components
CNC / VMC Turned Components
Auto Engineering Components
W e , a t S o n i a f o r g i n g w i l l t a r g e t t o e x c e e d c u s t o me r s a t i s f a c t i o n
b y d e v e l o p i n g q u a l i t y i n a l l t h e processes. We will consistently adhere
to our basics of Q.C.D.Q. Excellence in quality as core.S. Market leadership
through cost competence.D. On time delivery through innovative business
Strict quality controls adhering to national and international standards are
procurement stage to final stage of dispatch of finished products.
All products are sourced from the superlative quality of raw material to ensure
Our quality control unit is clubbed with all the latest market machineries and
We at sonia are committed to achieve continual improvement in our
environment performance by following the basic principle of
•Complying with statutory and corporate requirements.
•Prevention of pollution & conservation of natural resources.
•Prevention of generation of waste by 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY
Sonia is committed to achieve and maintain world class health
and safety standards for all its employees by:
•Proper design of all the processes.
•Develop, Improve and Sustain processes for systematic elimination
of Health & Safetyhazards.
•Minimizing risks involved.
We, the proud member of SONIA family, shall strive vigorously to
delightour customerands t a k e h o l d e r s w h o a r e o u r v e r y p u r p o s
e , b y p u r s u i n g e x c e l l e n c e a n d i n n o v a t i o n t h r o u g h committed
team work. To this end we shall promote continues learning, achievement
orientation and ethical business practice, which will make us shine as a global
We are dedicated to achieving excellence in our work. Sonia forging
maintains the highest ethical and professional standards and strives to stay on
the leading edge in technology, in an ever-changing environment .While our
greatest strength is the ability to understand the client goals, our success is
very much attributed to strong teamwork, continuous R&D and the
dedication and commitment of each and every member of the Sonia family to
deliver unsurpassed quality and reliable products &services to the total
satisfaction of all our customers. We believe that our historical success
and future prospects are directly related to a combination of strengths,
including the following :
»Best 'Speed to Market' in Industry
»World class technology
»Global scale of operations
»Largest single location capacity worldwide
»Product range and expansion lend scalability to operations
»Comprehensive CNC/MNC/CAE and product development capability
»High Quality, motivated Human Resources These extensive resources
with our dedication to the highest professional standards enables us to
wide range of our clients' business needs.
Sonia forging became an ISO 9002 certified company in 1981, attained its QS
9000 certification in the year 1998 and achieved the ISO/TS 16949 : 2002
And ISO 14001 in 2003. Being Quality as our backbone, we are continuously
thriving towards 'Customer Delight' and our products see the light of most
developed OEM's and after markets of the world
TQM (TOTAL QUALITU MANAGEMENT)
Customer Satisfaction through manufacturing excellence .The ongoing
TQM journey has been very learning and fruitful exercise for the whole
organization and has given positive impact to the top and bottom line
.We are unendingly striving towards Improvement of our Quality
Management Systems with our objective of doing the things right, the first
time and every time. Our growing markets and Customer base is an indicator
of our continuous efforts towards the achievement of our goal of Customer
Our "Quality Centered" team approach of manufacturing ensures Products
of the finest Quality, giving drive to some of the most advanced Vehicles
manufactured globally .We aim at achievieng all this through:
Continual improvement of manufacturing processes with emphasis
on consistent quality and cost effectiveness.
Advancement of process ownership concept throughout the organization
thereby improving and innovating the business process. Doing right, the first
time and every time. Improving quality by enhancing competence of all
Automobile Clients of Sonia Industries:
Sonia Industries also deals in the manufacture of electrical
appliances for automobiles. The client-base of the company in this sector
includes Honda, and
The twowheeler section caters to the requirements of Ho
n d a motorcycles and scooters, Bajaj Auto, and so on. Some more clients are
there they are as follows
Hi-Tech Gears Ltd.
Tafe Motors and Tractors Ltd.
Vulcon Electro Control Ltd.
New Holland Tractors
Ocap Chassis Parts (P) Ltd
Micro Turner Ltd.
Dynamic Forge Ltd.
Spun Micro Ltd.
Talbros Automotive Components Ltd.
Shivam Autotech Ltd.
BOARD OF DIRECTOR
Mr. .krishan lal (managing director)
Mr. .Manish thakur (director)
Input: Competency Requirement(Job Description)
Sub Process / Activity
Recruitment, Selection & Head
Personnel Profile Card Card
Competency Mapping for all
Training Need Identification Respective HOD
Training Plan cum
Training Plan Preparation
Communication about Plan
Training Plan Execution
Section 10,11& 12
Performance Respective HOD
& Head HR
Motivation, Involvement &
Process Output: Competent, Empowered & Motivated Employees
Process Code: HRD
Head – H.R
Respective Process Owners
Category of Process
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is
reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured
TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND
TRADITIONAL APPROACH – Most of the organizations before never
used to believe entraining. They were holding the traditional view that
managers are born and not made. There were also some views that
training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to
believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be
MODERN APPROACH – Training and development is that Indian
Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training.
Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The
training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a
smarter workforce and yield the best results.
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge,
sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and
behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is
activity leading to skilled behaviour
It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it
It’s not where you want to go, but it knows how to get there
It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off
It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be
It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to
It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision
It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it
Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or
bad the current Situation looks) at present, and where you will be after
some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge,
skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.
Importance of Training and Development
• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development
helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps
the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their
• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps
to provide inopportunity and broad structure for the development of
human resources’ technical and behavioural skills in an organization.
It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth
• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development
helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each
level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall
personality of the employees
• Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the
productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to
achieve its long-term goal
• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the
sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It
helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop
and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It
helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.
• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the
positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees
get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.
• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the
quality of work handwork-life.
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in
creating the healthy working environment.
• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the
health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.
• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of
the work force.
• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better
• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved
profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e.
Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.
It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills,
motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful
workers and managers usually display
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of training and development division is to make
sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an
organization. In addition to that, there’re four other objectives:
Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Individual
Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which
in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary
objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives –
maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the
organization’s needs. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization
is ethically and socially responsible tithe needs and challenges of the
Importance of Training Objectives
Training objective is one of the most important parts of training
program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of
valuable time. The counterargument here’s that resources are always
limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training.
It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in
less time because objectives focus specifically on sneeds. It helps in
adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is
expected out of him at the end of the training
Program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number
of stakeholder perspectives.
1. Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer
because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees
and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a
position to establish a relationship between objectives and
particular segments of training.
2. Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee
because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to
some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is
unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning.
Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the
happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in
increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make
the training successful. The objectives create an image of the
training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining
attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and
motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much
higher than the situation in which no goal asset. Therefore,
training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the
participants will be successful in training.
3. Designer– The training objective is beneficial to the training
designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved
in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that
only. The training designer would then look for the training
methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly
to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps
in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an
example; the objective of one training program is to deal
effectively with customers to increase the sales.
4. Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure
the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the
expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an
important to tool to judge the performance of participants.
Training and Human Resource Management
The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the
relationship between the training function and other management
activity is also changing. The training and development activities are
now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the
days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time,
resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because
the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance,
etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as
a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is
difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out
HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile
development activities in the organization to increase the commitment
level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM),
senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such
concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis
on employee development and long term education. Training is now
the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the
attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their
professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job
satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given one variety of skill
development and covers a multitude of courses.
Role of HRD Professionals in Training
This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing
scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been
widened. HR role now is:
1. Active involvement in employee education
2. Rewards for improvement in performance
3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth
4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development
And post employment support for advanced education and training
Models of Training
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments
such as, marketing& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on
training for its survival. Training is transforming process that requires
some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge,
skills, and attitudes.
THE TRAINING SYSTEM
A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together
to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and
training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach
views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach
can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and
aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential
stages in the process of Training needs analysis (TNA), formulating,
delivering, and evaluating. There are 4necessary inputs i.e.
technology, man, material, time required in every system to
produce products or services. And every system must have some
output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be
tangible or intangible depending upon to Organization’s requirement. A
system approach to training is planned creation of training program.
This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems.
Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis.
Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system
model that is explained below. Organization are working in open
environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that
poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware
of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of
the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the
organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date
with the latest technologies.
The three model of training are:
1. System Model
2. Instructional System Development Model
3. Transitional model
System Model Training
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a
regular basis to make further improvements. The training should
achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to
required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are
1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the
2.employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to
learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a
performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would
3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step
requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning
steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.
4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training
program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery
method, examining the training material, validating information to be
imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.
5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong
step can lead to the failure of whole training program.
1. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim
in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary
amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or
improve failure practices.
Instructional System Development Model (ISD) Model
Instructional System Development model was made to answer the
training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the
organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job
performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job
responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined
objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in
determining and developing the favourable strategies, sequencing the
content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be
achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of
1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job
analysis, and target audience analysis.
2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning
outcome, instructional objectives that measures behaviour of a
participant after the training, types of training material, media
selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training
program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content,
sequencing of content, etc.
3. DEVELOPMENT– This phase translates design decisions into training
material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer
including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc,
course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.
4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such
as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities,
cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.
EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the
training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work
The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the
training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important
phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output
of one phase is an input to the next phase. Transitional model focuses
on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision,
mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training
model i.e. inner loop is executed.
Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to
achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that
where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision
may include setting a role model, or bringing some internal
transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines
Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies
the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission
statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding
the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that
how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers,
employees, and all other stakeholders.
Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable
ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is
independent of current industry environment. For example, values may
include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The
mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop.
This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is
formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training
model is further implemented.
TRAIN AND RETAIN TO STOP THE DRAIN
In today’s competitive world, where margins are constantly under
pressure, training budgets are the first to axe. So it becomes
imperative that the training model that is evolved should be less
capital intensive and not dependent upon profit margins
and profitability. Although training needs are identified much before
training programmed actually commence but still some crucial points
are left some un-addressed.
BENEFITS OF TRAINING
Employees and the organization need to realize the importance of
contribution and learning for mutual growth and development. Training
is the answer to deal with stagnation stage by constantly updating it
in every field. Other benefits of training include:
Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better
Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.
Enhancing workforce flexibility .Cross-cultural training is
essential for them for better adjustment in the new environment.
Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster.
Employee motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows
that the organization would provide them opportunities to
increase their skills and knowledge.
It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast
of the latest changes; it acts as a catalyst for change.
Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results
through improved service, increased productivity and greater
THE EVALUATION OF TRAINING
There are a number of expressions used to describe steps taken by
management and by training offices at the conclusion of training and
during the days or weeks afterwards. These expressions include
validation, evaluation, follow-up and implementation, as wells cost
benefit, which have appeared in more recent years. We are interested
in all of these and have already tackled one of the, implementation,
and we start by giving our definitions in order to establish a clearer
picture of what each is, and how they relate to each other .Evaluation
of training, or, indeed of anything, consists simply of putting a value to
it. To evaluate training means undertaking a search for the effect that
it has had on the people and the situations, which it influences, and
then trying to measure or estimate whether this is advantageous or
We shall see that at the level of pure training there is an evaluation to
be made, but that the principal evaluation is at a higher level in the
chain .First the chain of intentions is clear at the outset.
1. They were then to apply their new capability correctly during the
service that they gave to motorists.
2. The motorists would respond to this with a reaction of pleasure and
would tend to use that particular station rather more, thus increasing
the amount of gasoline sold.
3. The increased sales, and negligible increased costs, would improve
the revenue and the profits.
A TRAINING TOOL: INSPIRING OTHERS
In the new era new era, challenges for the trainer are to create
learning environment .Trainer needs to innovate new ways design and
deliver the training inputs. Wide range of technique like interactive
methods like teaching, experiential learning cases inventories games,
including humour. Where as we have the ancient way of story telling
as a powerful tool to create learning for adult managers of industry.
Sharing one’s own perception, experience and ideas learning value
can be increased exponentially.
Methods of Training
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to
cognitive and behavioural methods. Trainers need to understand the
pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping
their background and skills in mind before giving training .Cognitive
methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The
various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to
do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships
among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in
knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning .The various methods
that come under Cognitive approach are:
Method of Training
It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to
create understanding of a topic or to influence behaviour, attitudes
through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is
telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the
knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic.
Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer
begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes,
or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using
the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture
Features of lecture method are:
Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings
Can be reached large number of people at once
Knowledge building exercise
Less effective because lectures require long periods of
Demonstration Training Method
This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do
something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform
or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective,
demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the
discussion or lecture method. To carry out an effective demonstration,
a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by
Breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned
parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and
prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing
the demonstration, trainer: Demonstrates the task by describing how
to do, while doing
Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task
Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand
what you will be showing them
The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration
method is the level of involvement of the trainee.
The demonstration methods are as follows:
Cost of training facility for the program
Cost of materials that facilitate training
Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers
Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and
Discussion Training Method
This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that
is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through
interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the
trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two
make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If
the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures,
followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level
knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning.
Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer.
When the trainees ask questions, they explain their thinking about the
content of the lecture. A trainer who asks questions stimulates
thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding
questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding
and keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that,
discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged
in the material of the trainer.
Computer-Based Training (CBT)
With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing
technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have
increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR
department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are
now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training
to accomplish those goals
Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:
Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a
corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey
conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000
companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are
experts most of the time outside consultants.
A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because
It is one-to-one interaction
It can be done at the convenience of CEO
It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat
It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that
needs improvement This
Method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on
emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it
becomes difficult to find someone to talk to.
It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs.
The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance review.
PROCEDURE OF THE COACHING
The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the
executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive
counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach.
Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and
Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that
has to be achieved
Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule
At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives,
observe the performance and then provide feedback
Repeat step 4 until performance improves.
Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a
senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear
understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and
mission to the junior employee the meetings are not as structured and
regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by
someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from
Mentoring focus on attitude development
Conducted for management-level employees
Mentoring is done by someone inside the company
It is one-to-one interaction It helps in identifying weaknesses and
focus on the area that needs improvement
For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The
executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some
vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is
actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be
to the supplier
To see how the business operates from the supplier point of view.
Learning how the organizations perceived from the outside broadens
the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization.
Benefits of Job Rotation
Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:
It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the
horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different
units, functions, and countries
Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required
It determines the areas where improvement is required
Assessment of the employees who have the potential and calibre
for filling the position
OFF THE JOB TRAINING - The few popular methods are:
Training Need Analysis (TNA)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design
of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to
determine whether there is a gap between what is required for
effective performance and present level of performance.
Why training need analysis?
Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources
required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the
company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the
occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires
Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on
each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the
organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired
level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference
between the expected performance and actual performance comes
out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training.
However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need.
The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:
Appraisal and performance review
Self-assessment or self-appraisal
Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses
on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst
gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an
employee or not. He gathers this information through technical
interview, observation, and psychological test; questionnaires asking
the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs
are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to
prepare for these changes. The job analyst
Also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks
that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected,
training Need analysis (TNA) is done.
Training-Design – The design of the training program can be
undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced.
The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end
of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do
at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to
design the training program.
The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his
technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality
content to trainers
The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the
trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of
the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training
Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience,
tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc.
Trainees’ learning style– the learning style, age, experience,
educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to
get the right pitch to the design of the program
Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified,
the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The
trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what
could be included.
Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the
content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings,
topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into
information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes
Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following
• From simple to complex
• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
• From known to unknown
• From specific to general
• Dependent relationship
Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training
program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most
appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection
depends on the following factors:
• Trainees’ background
• Time allocated
• Style preference of trainer
• Level of competence of trainer
• Availability of facilities and resources, etc
Support facilities– It can be segregated into printed and audio visual.
The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip
charts, markers, etc.
To put training program into effect according to definite plan or
procedure is called training implementation. Training implementation
is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to
the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program
will fail due to one wrong action.
Training implementation can be segregated into:
• Practical administrative arrangements
• Carrying out of the training
Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the
training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean
that the work is done because implementation phase requires
continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most
important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the
factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program:
The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the
delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in
advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with
participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course
content and is flexible in his approach.
Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and
successful training program because it makes the first impression on
participants. Classrooms shouldn’t be very small or big but as nearly
square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and
psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to
Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by
which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by:
• Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense
• Encouraging informal conversation
• Remembering their first name
• Pairing up the learners and have they familiarized with one another
• Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions
• Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed
• Getting to class before the arrival of learners
• Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time
• Using familiar examples
• Varying his instructional techniques
• Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
The process of examining a training program is called training
evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the
desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates
are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or
to the regular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation the five
main purposes of training evaluation are:
Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the
objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.
Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired
knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training.
It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is
not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.
: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses
the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes
are aligned with the expected outcomes.
Process of Training Evaluation
The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the
training program. During the start of training, candidates generally
perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times
candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of
the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the
methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates
preferences and Learning style
During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This
phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals
After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are
assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This
phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired
effect at individual department and organizational levels.
The various methods of training evaluation are:
Particularly in those industries, which have to compete in international
markets, the management made clear links between training policies
and the quality of work.
Change in Corporate culture
Continuous training was used to transmit new business strategies and
new organisation culture.
In some organisation where financial responsibilities were being
decentralized, the training function was also getting decentralized. In
other training dept was abolished altogether and all manager’s were
made responsible for instruction and training.
Flexible working practices
Company made a major training program after making two third work
forces redundant. This involved both vocational training and
encouraging employee to take educational courses in their free time.
Training and employment package
In certain companies training formed part of the pay packet offered to
employees. It also had a bearing on the Lab our turnover percentage of
employee. In other way we can say its like cost to company.
In some instances I became difficult for managers to meet business
objectives because they had in sufficient control over recruitment and
training decision. In some other cases rivalries between different
divisions of same company, prevented the integration of coherent
training and personal policies at central level.
The role of professional trainers
The findings suggest that the role of the professional trainer had
undergone significant changes. He is today not only a mere provider or
organiser of training but also is being seen as an agent or facilitator of
change. This because today the management is integrating training
into the very culture of their organisation. In some organisation the
trainers now have access to key decision-makers and have
established greater legitimacy for training and development activities
TYPES OF TRAINING ADRESSING VARIOUS TRAININGNEEDS;
Entry training involving new recruits and employees required to
take a new job.
Problem resolution training to meet a shortfall or deficiency in
Training for change to prepare employees for job identified in
Development to equip employees to meet organizational changes
Training in Global Business World
With the expansion of the organization, Human Resource job in no
longer limited to their native country but has extended worldwide.
Localization is a key to successful expansion that helps in improving
upon workforce connections, doing the work effectively and
Efficiently, and reducing global turnover. As the organizations are
expanding globally, training has become quite an essential ingredient
to improve performance. However, unavailability of budget necessary
to achieve goals results the training function to be at the bottom of
priority list. Besides that, managers do not fully adapt according to the
local environment for the transfer of training. Very often, managers
use minimum of locally suitable resources or the most critical material
Handbooks. Training success in various countries requires cross
cultural literacy i.e. understanding of how cultural differences across
nations can affect the way training is given. At the sometime, different
cultures may or may not be supportive in the transfer of training, in the
sense that cultural factor may lower or raise the cost of training.
Problem in International Training and Development language
Language comprises of both spoken and unspoken means of
communication. Bests of the best training program will fail if trainer is
not well versed in communicating trainees’ language. Language is one
of the most important ingredients of culture.
Spoken Language – Trainees’ receiving training prefer to speak in their
own language and trainer being able to speak the local language can
help establishing rapport among trainees, which may be very
important for the transfer of training. Language is one of the major
barriers when it comes to giving training in cross-cultural environment.
Chinese is the mother tongue of the largest number of people (shown
below), followed buy English and Hindi
Percentage of the people speaking their first language
THE TRAINING SYSTEMS ARE:
What type of training is required?
Why the training is required?
What is the budget of the training?
What are the most sensitive and critical areas?
How the training will be carried out?
By whom the training program will be carried out?
Where and when will the training program be carried out?
ROLE OF ORGANIZATION IN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
Questionnaire on Study on Effectiveness of Training & Development
An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the
trainer because it is the first contact for both.
The demand for the training in the organization increases when the
• To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits
• To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount
• To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date
• To enhance the performance of employees
• Organization’s name to be a part of training unit.
Organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of
training to the field
TRAINEE – ROLE OF TRAINEE IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING
Participant’s willingness to invest in the program is directly
proportional to the benefits of the learning that the trainee could
expect. Each participant forms their own perception towards training.
Some perceptions remain the same during the program, while some
faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the participant
Some personal factors that affect the trainee’s learning are:
Relation between the training program and personal objective
Level of self esteem
Benefits expected from training
Comfort level with the trainer
Learning style of trainee
KSA of trainee
Previous training experiences
Desire for professional growth and development Some
environmental factors that affect the trainee’s learning are:
Relationship with colleagues and subordinates
Content of training
Training design i.e. methods, techniques, and strategies
Environment in the program
Composition of training group
Importance of Trainer, Role of Trainer
The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because
it is the trainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee,
motivate the trainee to learn, delete the negative perception of the
trainee regarding the training. Besides all that, a lot depends on
personality of trainer also. The major competencies that are required
to be present in a trainer are:
Business Skills i.e. budgeting, time management, negotiation,
Content Development i.e. material production, graphics, layouts,
Self development i.e. interpersonal skills, good listening skills,
flexible, accepting the share of accountability, etc Trainer’s
Skills The skills that need to be present in a trainer are:
Evaluating the training program
Training need analysis
Role of Trainer
Facilitation of Training
Facilitation of Transfer of Training through Focus on Trainee and
Focus on Trainee
Focus on Organization Intervention
Focus on Trainee
Training is successful not only with good training design and training
objectives but also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees.
For the training to be successful, three things are required,
2. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs)
3. Expectations towards Training Expected Performance is directly
proportional to the multiplication of
Motivation, required KSAs, and expectations towards training I.e.
Motivation – If the trainee is not motivated to learn, no learning is
likely to occur no matter how good the training methods are, or how
talented the trainees are. Therefore, it is important to intervene before
training and provide them the information about the learning outcome
that they can expect and how the learning outcome will help in
achieving the objectives. This increases the motivation to learn and to
be successful in training.
Expectations – Positive expectations matter a lot in a training
program. If the trainee perceives the training as waste of time, and
waste of resources, no learning is likely to occur. No learning is
possible with negative perception.
Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) – It is important that the
Trainees should have the right KSAs for the training because even if
the methods and contents of the training are good but the candidates
do not have the right KSAs, the training program will fail. Also the
training methods would not be effective if the candidates are lacking
the desired skills. Therefore, proper selection techniques must that
would ensure that hired have the requisite KSAs to be successful in
Facilitation of Training through Organization Intervention
Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but
sometimes it is because of the organizational forces also. These
forces also hold back the transfer of training, and learning. Therefore,
it is important to keep in check those forces. For the successful
transfer of training, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer
support, peer support, reward system, climate and culture.
PEERS SUPPORT – Peer support can also help in transfer of training,
for example, if the trainee is the only one who is receiving training in
the department then probably the experienced peers might put
pressure on trainee to forget the training and work. This situation also
hampers in transfer of training. However, this situation can be avoided
by involving the entire department in training,
SUPERVISOR SUPPORT– can affect their employees’ learning in
number of ways, for example, if the trainee is motivated to learn and
receives full support from their supervisor, then this support in turn
encourages the employee to learn as much as possible.
TRAINER SUPPORT– can also have a positive impact on the transfer
of training. Gone are the days, when the trainers’ role used to get over
once the training program is done.
CLIMATE– Apart from supervisor support, peers support, trainer
support, Climate factor also comprises of company polices, attitude of
upper management towards employee, towards training. If these
factors are positive then the climate will also support the transfer of
training. It is the organizations foremost duty to make the employees
realize through these factors that adequate amount of time and
resources are spent on them for their professional and personal
CULTURE– also has the impact over the transfer of training. If the
culture of the organization provides enough opportunities to its
employees to implement what they have learnt in the workplace and
provide them variety of others fact or such as, social support,
challenging jobs, etc then the likelihood of the transfer of training
REWARD SYSTEMS – If the learning outcome that helps in achieving
the objectives is linked to reward system then the probability of the
success of training would increase
The purpose of this learning material is to explain to the reader issues
and concepts that should be understood in order to think
constructively about the application of the psychology of training to
real work issues. It is not presented as a literature review you will
need to read further for that information². Instead, the material has
been written in an informal way to explain key principles and concepts
and how they relate to each other in dealing with applied training
issues. It does not deal in detail with the research literature
underpinning these ideas. This is left for you to examine using the
Readings provided as a starting point to exploring wider literature.
This learning material offers one perspective with a view to providing
a coordinated story, but there are other perspectives in occupational
psychology that you will encounter in a professional capacity and
which you must try to accommodate.
How Training Benefits Sonia industries ltd:
Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards
Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization
Improves the morale of the workforce.
Helps people identify with organizational goals.
Helps create a better corporate image.
Fosters authenticity, openness and trust.
Improves relationship between boss and subordinate.
Aids in organizational development.
Learns from the trainee.
Helps prepare guidelines for work.
Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization.
Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skill.l
Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.
Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel,
Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for bein
g c o mp e t e n t a n d knowledgeable.
Improves Labour-management relations
Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation.
Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires.
Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools).
Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication.
Aids in improving organizational communication.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE
SONIAderive competitive advantage from training and d
e v e l o p m e n t . T r a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p me n t p r o g r a m, a s w a s p o i n
t e d o u t e a r l i e r , h e l p r e mo v e p e r f o r ma n c e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n employe
e. This is particularly true when – (1) The deficiency is caused by a lack of
ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform,(2) The individual(s)
involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job
better,and(3) Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors
Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation.
Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires.
Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools).
Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication.
Aids in improving organizational communication.