Ministry of education and science, youth and sports of UkraineRivne State Humanitarian UniversityPhilosophy.Pedagogics.SocietyCollection of scientific works of the RSHU2ndIssueEstablished in 2011Rivne – 2012
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 3Editor in Chief:L. M. Shugaeva – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head ofPhilosophy Department of Rivne State Humanitarian UniversityEditorial Board:I. I. Bulyha – Candidate of Philosophy, assistant professor ofphilosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University (Executive Editor).V. V. Verbets’ – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head ofArts and Pedagogics Department of Rivne State HumanitarianUniversityM. M. Hon – Doctor of Sciences (Political Sciences), Professor, Headof of Political Sciences Department of Rivne State HumanitarianUniversity.V.I. Dokash – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head ofSociology Department of Chernivtsi National University named afterYuriy Fed‟kovychT. D. Demjaniuk – Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Head of Theoryand methods of education Department of Rivne State HumanitarianUniversity, Honored Worker of Education of Ukraine.I. M. Dychkivs’ka – Candidate of Pedagogy, Associate Professor ofthe Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of Rivne StateHumanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS (executiveeditor).S. I. Zhyliuk – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head of theDepartment of Religious Studies of National University "OstrogAcademy"S. A. Lytvynenko – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor,Professor of Applied Psychology and Psychotherapy Department ofRivne State Humanitarian University.I. V. Malafiyik – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head ofDepartment of General an Social Pedagogy and acmeology of RivneState Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSN.R. V. Pavelkiv – Doctor оf Sciences (Psychology), Professor,academician of the Academy of Sciences of Higher School of Ukraine,Director of the Institute of Psychology and Education, the head of theage and pedagogical psychology department of Rivne StateHumanitarian University, honored Educator of Ukraine.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 4S. S. Pal’chevsky – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor,Professor of general education and acmeology Department of RivneState Humanitarian University, honored teacher of Ukraine.O. B. Petrenko – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professorof age and educational psychology Department of Rivne StateHumanitarian University.T. I. Ponimans’ka – Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Vice-Rector,Head of Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of RivneState Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS,excellent public educator of Ukraine.R. M. Postolovs’ky – Candidate of History, Professor, Rector, Head ofWorld History Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University,Honored Scientist of Ukraine, Corresponding member of InternationalSlavic Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of APSS.P. Y. Sauh – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), professor, academicianof the Academy of Sciences of High School of Ukraine, HonoredAcademician of the International Academy of Personnel, Rector, Headof the Philosophy Department of Zhytomyr State Ivan FrankoUniversity named after I. Franko, honored educator of Ukraine.N. H. Stokolos – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head ofPhilosophy and Social Sciences Department of Rivne Institute ofSlavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavic University.G. M. Shvetsova-Vodka – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor,Professor of library and bibliography sciences Department of RivneState Humanitarian University.P. L. Yarots’ky – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, ChiefResearch Specialist of Religious Studies Department of the Institute ofPhilosophy named after H. Skovoroda of National Academy of Sciencesof Ukraine.Published under decision of the Academic Councilof Rivne State Humanitarian UniversityProtocol № 7 dated 27 January 2012.Editorial address:Department of Philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University,Ostafov Str., 29, Rivne, 33027
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 5CONTENTPhilosophyBabak I. V. 9 Phenomenology of national and ethnicidentity in the context of individualself-awareness developmentDokash V. I. 17 Predestinational EschatologyLishchuk N. D. 24 Believer‟s Existential Motives ofConfessional Membership Optionin the Content of Modern ReligiousLife TransformationMel‟nychuk M. S. 33 Philosophical and religious analysisof modernization trends in theProtestantism‟s artMel‟nychuk Y. I. 42 Orthodox sermon as a socio-culturalachievement of the Ukrainian nationMyshkov V. Y. 52 Old Believers polemical literature ofthe 18th century and its philosophicalmeaningKobernik N. I. 62 Social-cultural factors influencingthe worldview formation of cyril andmethodiusRudenko N. M. 71 Problem of non-violence inChristianitySugayeva L. M. 77 The main trends of religiousdevelopment in global worldShamsutdynova-Lebediuk T. N.86 Modern relations of men and womenin Islam
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 6Shevchuk K. S. 96 The main problems of Georgii Chelpanovcreative work in his Kyiv periodPedagogicsVerbets‟ V. V. 109 Phenomenological principlesof students‟ spiritual worldDziubyshyna N. B. 119 Reformation of education in thecontext of Czech national revival(the end of 18th– the first halfof 19thcentury)Domanyuk O. M. 128 Forms of work of preschooleducational establishment and familyon issue of social development ofpreschool children in the theory andpractice of preschool educationKokareva A. M. 135 On the Problem of the Peculiaritiesof Educational Process Organizationaccording to the Credit ModuleTraining TechnologyLytvynenko S. A.,Pavelkiv K. M.141 Formation of reflexive culture in theprofessional training of future teachersMysyk I. H. 149 The peculiarities of the Instituteof Continuing Education in UkraineMyshkariova S. V. 162 Organizational basis of the orthodoxsocieties in Western Ukraine in theinterwar period (1921-1939)Nechyporuk L. I. 169 Dialogue in the personalitycommunicative activities as a socialrequirement of the 21 century
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 7Pal‟chevsky S. S. 178 The problems of the educationalcontent in the light of it‟s modernphilosophyPetruk L. P. 185 Thinking-speech culture formationfor specialists‟ for humanities in thecourse of rhetoric studiesRudenko V. M. 192 Pedagogical reflection of cultureunder the educational globalizationSmolinchuk L. S. 201 Tests as a vital part of methodologicalsystem in evaluation of educationalstandardsSorochyns‟ka T. A. 207 Principles of moral culture formationof Soviet for teachers in Rivnepedagogical institutions (1939–1950):historical and pedagogical discourseTadeyeva I. M. 215 Qualities education in talented juniorschoolchildrenTymochko I. B. 225 Creating of public libraries andreading rooms as one of educationaland civic activities of the Volynbraternities (second half of the XIX –beginning of the XX centure)SocietyHon M. M. 234 Peculiarities of the Ukrainian historicalmemory formation during thedemocratic transitHrypych S. N. 246 Informatization of modern society:state, problems, prospects
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 8Desyatnychuk I. O. 256 Freedom of speech and influenceof public opinion in Czechoslovakiain the period of "Prague Spring"Lukoms‟ka O. I. 267 State regulation levers of bankinginvestment activity in UkrainePavelkiv R. V. 280 Understanding of individual moraldevelopment in line with psychologicalparadigmPerzhun V. V. 292 Social solidarity as a factorof consolidation of Ukrainian societyStupnyts‟ka N. I.,Stupnyts‟ky V. V.302 Philosophy of TV leisure as areflection of the Ukrainian economyPhylypovych L. O.,Havrilova N. S.311 Religious education in Ukraine: stateand prospectivesShkriblyak M. V. 321 Historiosophical analysis of archivalsources about the role and placeof „secular element‟ in social andreligious processes of Berestechko andpost-Berestechko periodYamnyts‟ky V. M. 337 Spirituality of a personality:psychological approach
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 9PHILOSOPHYUDC:37.013.44:159.923.2I. V. BabakPHENOMENOLOGY OF NATIONAL ANDETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF INDIVIDUALSELF-AWARENESS DEVELOPMENTІn this article, the interpretation issue of ethnical and nationalidentity as main factors of self-consciousness formation is beingexamined, for identification of national and ethnical identity takes placewhen the notion of nation is being interpreted as ethnical nation andwhen national and ethnical identity denote different notions when theidea of nation-state is considered.Key concepts: identity, nation, ethnos, national identity, ethnicalidentity.Determination of the problem. The late XX – early XXIcenturies saw the growing interest to the phenomenon of identity, theorigins of one‟s nation and ethnicity observed in Ukraine and othercountry with the general change of outlook.This is what makes such research up-to-date. Very often whenlooking into the issue of national and ethnic identity as the key factorsof conscious personality formation these notions are taken to be thesame or used interchangeably. Thus, the objective of the research is todiscern the idea of the category of "identity" and consider the categoriesof both ethnic and national identities.State of the scientific research of the problem. The categoriesof identity and identification are relatively new for psychology andsociology. Zigmund Freud was the first to point out the need of a childto identify oneself with a particular outward object in that allows it togrow cognizant of what it is itself. E. Ericsson was among the first whopioneered the theory of identification. The academic stressed that anindetity of an individual originates from personal association withceaseless existence in time and space dimensions and comes from theacceptance of such association by others. Studying the human life cycle
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 10he arrived at the conclusion that identity is "mechanisms of individualintegration into groups of different levels be it a family, work team,people and general public". This way, the focus was on the social aspectthat validates idea of individual identity. Psychologists Adler, Allport,Kettel, Rodgers and others look upon the category of identity as acertain interpretive system that enables cognizance of similarity anddifference of separate objects as well as awareness of homogeneity ofan individual personality. In other words what is emphasized here isindividual an social aspects of identity formation.With all the factors that condition the personal development itmakes sense to discern psycho-phisological, personal and socialidentities. The former one assumes cognizant acceptance of an ownorganism, unity of psychological and physiological processes that takeplace within.The second one finds its ground in the agreement of aims, motivesand value objectives. As the Ethnic reference book states the personalidentity takes in one‟s attitude to one‟s own past, present and future.At the same time this category is characterized by agreement ofcertain social norms, roles, statuses, and involves one‟s understandingof personal belonging to the certain social group or category. It finds itsexpression thru such main sorts of social identity as national and ethnicidentities.The notion of ethnos comes from Greek (a stranger, a pagan) andetymologically defines a herd, a group, a crowd of people, a people, atribe, a kin etc. The Dictionary of terms for intercultural communicationdefines the term as "a category of evelotionary chain of genesis andbuild-up of an ethnos in its broadest meaning". It entails the category ofethnic identity the definition of which Ethnic dictionary gives as "asense of belonging to a certain ethnic community, and ones‟ uniformitywith other members that comes from the shared historical memory,remembrances about the ancestors that binds one to their fatherland".There are several conceptual percpectives of how to regard thecategory of ethnic indentity. One of those considers the latter as"development of processes of genetic selection and accommodation toenvironment". Such ethnic identity is looked upon as a combination ofhistoric and cultural attributes, namely group self-title, common historicmemory, a sense of Fatherhood, etc.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 11Depending on the levels of individual self-consciousness andhomogeneity one observes either relaxation or reinforcement of one ofthose components. Thus, some scholars like B. Andersen, F. Bart,D. Gorovets and others consider the ethnic identity as a variable thingthat has a situational character.The difference in this respect accounts for different typologies ofethnic identities. American scholars J. Mackey, and F. Lewins definefour types of it. The first type is the one of minimum identity that takesin accommodated indivudials with low ethnic self-awareness. Thesecond one is about the ones of relative ethnicity, these are those whoretain touch with the members of their ethnic group though their ownethnic identity is developed inconsiderably. The third type involves themarginal ethnicity that is attributed to so-called ethnic orphans whohave a clearly formed ethnic self-awareness yet have no touch with theirown ethnic group. The 4thtype of maximum ethnicity goes forindividuals with the high level of strong ethnic self-awareness whoactively contribute to the group activities and guard its interests.Canadian ethnosociologist R. Breton comes up with a slightlydifferent typology based on the factors that unify an ethnic group. Thescholar defines the first type as the one of the identity based on thespecific objects of symbolic meaning (food, clothes, artwork). Thesecond type takes in individuals whose identity relates to traditions andcultural life of the ethnic group. Identity that comes for the ethnicitynative tongue is the one of the third type while the fourth type derivatesfrom "friends" of own ethnos. The fifth type, according to R.Breton,relates to identity formation of which takes place on the grounds ofneeds and objectives of a certain ethnic group.The nature of thnic indentity makes it multilevel. This wayindividuals can be self-conscious of their belonging to ethnic groups ofdifferent planes, for instance, a Ukrainian comes as an ethnos, while agutzul and a Slav stand for subethnos and meta~ethnic unityrespectively. In our view it is reasonable to apply this sort of typologicalapproach in regard to the caterogy of national ethnicity as well.When evolving ethnic identification comes in few stages whichas the Jean Piazhe concept of a child development has it are correlatedwith the stages of a child psychological formation that build up the ideaof belonging to the certain ethnic group. A 6~or 7 – year old child gets
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 12only fragmentary and unsystematic of its ethnic belonging. In 2 yearstime a native tongue and home location makes a child be clearly awareof its ethnic origins. The age of 10–11 years forms understanding ofethnic identity that comes from one´s unique history of a people,specific cultural conventions that put one apart from other peoples orethnic groups. Consequently it leads to emotional and assessingawareness of one´s belonging to a certain ethnic group in the time ofadolescence. Though J. Piazhe makes the notions of ethnic and nationalidentities equal, in our view these two are different in some respects.The idea of national identity is derivative of an idea of the nationwhere the latter comes as social and political category that outlines therelations between a people and a state that takes in the citizens of thisvery state. Arrival of a nation is defined by longtime processes thatestablish interpersonal bonds within the group through a buildup ofsocial communication and mobility, and transformation of a politicalsystem. Ernest Renan who came forth with the psychological theory ofnations claimed that a nation is, above of all, a great group of peoplebonded with a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moral awareness.He found a proponent of the theory in the American academic WalkerConnor who presumed that one of the main attributes of a nation is theirintuitive perceptions of common kinship and uniqueness. Andindividual objectively at his birth comes to belong to a certain nation hetakes himself to be a part of the latter and identifies himself wit it.The primitive society saw belonging to your kin or a triberegarded as one´s ethnos as a critical attribute of self-identification.With a growth of the numbers of tribes initially and locally tied anotherfactor came to matter. It was culture that took in a native tongue andreligion. Once a national state emerged cultural attributes of self-identification gave way to social and political ones. Establishment ofnational states saw a simultaneous formation of national self-awarenessof an individual that consolidated people and made them more mobilesocially.The category of "national" implies cultural attributes of a people(language, religion, philosophy, genera outlook) while the category of"ethnic" evolved through kinship relations that defined a belonging ofan individual to a certain group. This is can be regarded as the mostobvious difference between these two categories.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 13Thus, a national self-conscience forms in a particular period ofstate history as a consequence of political, economic and socialprocesses that drive a society at this very moment. L. Zaliznyakbelieves that Ukrainian ethnic nation formed throughout the period of16-17thc.c. as a result of social and cultural processes of the epoch.J. Piagei identifies the notion of ethnic and national identity,although, in our opinion, there existed a significant difference.Definitions of national identity stems from the concept of"nation", which refers to the socio-political category that indicatesrelationships with people of a certain country and combines the citizensof this state. Because of nations is the result of a long process ofdeveloping interpersonal relationships between group members throughthe development of social communication and mobility, transformationof the political system. Founder psychological theory of nations, ErnestRenan, noted that the nation – "is, above all, a large group of peopleunited by a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moralconsciousness" [1, p. 223]. Similar opinion has American scientistWalker Connor. He noted that one of the main features of the nation is‟intuitive sense of kinship and uniqueness" [1, p. 223]. Individualobjectively from birth belongs to a nation, he considers himself a part ofit, that identifies itself with it.So in primitive society was the main feature of identificationbelonging to a tribal group, means ethnicity. With an increasing numberof communities of the same type and their relatives from each locationto the forefront another unifying factor – the culture, the basis of whichat the time was the language, religion. With the emergence of thenation-state cultural factors identify changing socio-political.Simultaneously with the formation of national states to consolidatepopulation and its social mobility emerging national consciousness ofthe individual.Category indicates the national cultural characteristics of thepeople (language, religion, philosophy, and worldview). While the term"ethnic" arose from blood ties, that indicates the individual belonging toa particular ethnic group. This is what we think is the differencebetween national and ethnic categories.Thus, national identity is formed in a specific historical period ofdevelopment of the state as a result of political, economic and social
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 14processes that prevail in society. According to L. Zaliznjak Ukrainian nation was formed during the XVI-XIX centuries. Influencedby social and cultural processes of the time. With XVII century andnineteenth centuries ethnic consciousness was transformed into anational liberation wars as a result, the common market, the formationof language, national culture, which led to the formation of nationalidentity. In turn, the basis of national identity is national identity. Itfollows the definition of national identity as "forms and processes inwhich there is self-identification of individuals with a certain nationalcommunity" (with M. Makhniy) [5, p. 60]. At the same time, a sense ofnational unity does not arise spontaneously, and, largely, is formed as aresult of purposeful activity of parents, caregivers, teachers, and publicpolicy.According to surveys conducted by the Kiev InternationalInstitute of Sociology, the determining factors of the nation 51.1% ofrespondents indicated the language [8, p. 8]. But there is acontradiction – in one state citizens can communicate with two or morelanguages. In Ukraine, for example, during the Soviet era Ukrainianlanguage was demeaning, optional for study. In the independent state ofthe Ukrainian language enshrined constitutionally, but in spite of this, asnoted above, a significant percentage of native Ukrainian considerRussian language as their native language. So, the question, "Whatlanguage do you think native?" 60.64% chose the Ukrainian language,36.63% consider Russian their native, and the remaining respondentschose another language [8, p. 6]. Also, the main feature of the nation‟s41.06% of the respondents called culture. And at different stages of itsdevelopment, as a consolidating factor, stopped, there was destructionof the achievements of the nation. Today the situation has improvedthough, but due to the difficult economic situation, not enough supportfor the rehabilitation and further development.Simultaneously a significant role in the formation of theUkrainian nation plays a religion. But in Soviet times, there were nonew religious formations, and the Orthodox Church was in decline.Lack of religious education, we believe contribute to the moraldegeneration of the nation. Therefore, at the present stage ofdevelopment of the state focuses on the restoration of religioustraditions as a source of renewal and memory consolidation.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 15However, national identity includes and political identity that isformed in the process of formation of separate states, and as a result –the creation of political and social institutions, the main task – theconstitution of political community and distinguish among othercommunities. It follows that the concept of national identity synthesizeshow cultural factors and socio-political.In the book "National identity" Anthony D. Smith identifies fivekey elements of national identity:1) historic territory, or homeland;2) historical memory;3) a common mass culture;4) common legal rights and duties of all members of the nationalcommunity;5) a common economy with the ability to move within thenational territory .M. Ihnatyef identifies the following elements of national identity:- Community of equal citizens;- Patriotism, which is shared by all representatives of politicalpractices and beliefs .Ethnic identities as a scientist examines a set of language,religion, traditions, simultaneously, are integral elements of the nationalidentity .Thus, the phenomenon of national identity lies in recognizingindividual a part of the community and because of the existence in it.The formation of national identity is a series of stages in itsformation. For example, A. Volkogonov and I. Tatarenko identifiedthree main phases:1. Phase of ethnic differentiation. At this stage, the awareness oftheir own group, the differences between we and they.2. Phase of development of auto-and hetero-stereotypes. Formednational character, knowledge of psychological features not only theirethnic group, but also other ethnic groups. Ethnic stereotypes create asystem that collects standardized collective experience and is part of themass consciousness.3. Phase of formulating national ideal. This stage is a kind ofcombination of the previous two, because the idea of combining theirown ethnic group and its social and historical value orientation. At this
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 16stage, emerging model of the future, the foundation of which is thepartial or complete change in the established order of things .The organization of national identity mainly distinguishes twocomponents : cognitive and affective components. Such asknowledge, understanding of the peculiarities of their own group and anawareness of it that have motivated ethnic differentiation signs, and asense of belonging to the community, assessment of its own position inthe union.Conclusions. Thus guided by research of Anthony D. Smith andO. Volkogonov, I. Tatarenko the national identity is seen as belongingto a particular individual national community based on certain spiritualand psychological characteristics of the individual, which are formed inthe process of socialization in a historic environment and manifestlifestyle of the individual. Meanwhile, as the ethnic identity of theindividual – is the awareness of being part of a particular ethniccommunity. Accordingly, awareness of their own national identity andperception of themselves as members of ethnic groups not only providesoptimum socialization of the individual, but also allows for personalfulfillment in the process of matching their own attitudes, beliefs,values, norms of one national community to which a person identifieshimself. Therefore, in our opinion, that the identification of the conceptsof "ethnic identity" and "national identity" is possible only when theconcept of nation is treated as an "ethnic nation", and have differentmeanings when talking about "nation-state."List of sources and literature1. Бацевич Ф. С. Словник термінів міжкультурної комунікації /Ф. С. Барцевич. – К. : Довіра, 2007. – 205 с.2. Волкогонова О., Татаренко И. Этническая идентификация илиискушение национализмом [Електронний ресурс]. – Режимдоступу:http://www.hse.Ru/journals/wrldross/vol01_2/volkogonova.htm.3. Эриксон Э. Идентичность: юность и кризис [Електроннийресурс]. – Режим доступу:http://www.zipsites.ru/psy/psylib/info.4. Залізняк Л. Від склавинів до української нації [Електроннийресурс]. – Режим доступу:
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 17http://militaryhistory.narod.ru/natiota4yn.html.5. Картунов О. В. Вступ до етнополітології: Науково-навчальнийпосібник / О. В. Картунов – К. : ІЕУГП, 1999. – 300 с.6. Рудницька Т. Етнічний довідник [Електронний ресурс]. –Режим доступу: http://etno.uaweb.org/glossary/i.html.7. Сміт Ентоні Д. «Національна ідентичність» / Д. Ентоні Сміт. –К. : Основи, 1994. – 224 с.8. Хмелько В. Лінгво-етнічна структура України: регіональніособливості та тенденції змін за роки незалежності /В. Хмелько // Наукові записки НаУКМА. – Соціологічнінауки. – Т. 32. – 2004. – С. 3–15.UDC: 9274.38-175(492) „15/16”V. I. DokashPREDESTINATIONAL ESCHATOLOGYThe article examines the predestinatsion eschatology of JacobArminius, it shows the position regarding the theory ofpredetermination of Calvinism. Displayed specific doctrine ofarminianism – the concept of universalism, which will be saved for all,not just selected ones.Keywords: predetermination, infrasupralapsarism,supralapsarism, salvation, grace, soteriology, universal redemption,free will.When it goes about Reformation in modern scientific literature, itis all about such personalities, as Luter, Calvin, Tsvinger, andsometimes Muntser. One forgets about the fact, that all of them used tohave opponents. That‟s why, it should be pointed out, that there is anopinion among the Protestant theologians, which originated from theXVI century, when two traditions came into being – Calvinism andArminianism: it seems impossible to imagine the Reformation period inthe history of Protestantism without John Calvin and Jacob Arminian.Both of them are considered to be the founders of Reformationmovement, since they created the fundamental principles ofProtestantism. Thus, in terms of our study we will deal with the analysis
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 18of the eschatological ideas of these theologians, in particular thedebatable problems, arising among them.It‟s should be pointed out that there were a lot of discussionsbetween these theologians primarily about the doctrine of predefinition,which they called predestination (the concept, created by J. Calvin toname the theory dealing with the human fate, destined before the worldcreation. He rejected the opportunity for the human to deserve salvationby himself or to change his fate; he promised salvation only for thechosen ones, absolutized the principle of inevitability of mercy(guarantees the salvation for the chosen ones). Calvin understands it asundoubted double choice of some people for salvation, others – forelimination. Protestant theologian A. Negrov considers that basically,the dispute concerned 5 points of the theory of predestination as aneschatological program of salvation: a) the human‟s Fall; b) the God‟swork to choose the human for salvation; c) the global salvation ofmankind through Christ‟s death; d) the nature of God‟s mercy; e) thepossibility to loe salvation [3, p. 67]. According to A. Negrov, neitherArminius nor Calvin had created 5 points of predestination, whichdefine the dogmas of Calvinism and Arminianism [3, p. 69].Taking into account the fact, that the problem of correlation ofpredestination theory and Calvin‟s doctrine of predestination lacksdetailed study, it seems logical to analyze these opposing definitionsand to conduct the comparative analysis of these approaches in terms ofsalvation problem.The aim of this article is to define the peculiarities of JacobArminius‟ predestination eschatology and its difference from Calvin‟stheory of predestination.The aim defines the following tasks:1. To analyze the doctrine about predestinational theology;2. To conduct a research on the theory of freedom of human‟swill in choice of salvation;3. To conduct a comparative analysis of basic principles ofpredestinational eschatology and Calvin‟s theory of predestination.The problem under investigation is not studied enough. Fewscientists and theologians have investigated it, among them: D. Korner,T. Lein, A. Negrov, S. Sannikov, S. Golovaschenko, B. Hegglund andothers.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 19Determination of the problem. Theologians have differentpoints of view on the problem of predestination – the choice accordingto the realization of eschatological principles of salvation. It was mostlycriticized by Arminians, whose leader, the Danish theologian JacobHarmandzon (1560–1609), took the Latin name of Arminius. The basicfeature of Arminius‟ theory is the idea of predestination (predefinition),which, though, is understood in a different way than by Calvin, andwhich in this way gave birth to an alternative direction. According tothis, Arminianism can be considered a reaction to the Calvin‟s doctrineof predestination.In his work "Announcement of opinions" (1608) Arminiusrejected the idea of Augustine Calvin – the idea of undoubted choicethat God chooses people before salvation in spite of theirvirtues [2, p. 195]. However, Arminius agreed with the fact, that theability of doing something good depends on accepting God – mercy.Besides, Arminius gave a man freedom to accept or to refuse from thismercy or salvation correspondingly. Thus, God‟s choice(predestination) of people, according to Arminius, isn‟t founded onGod‟s separate choice, but on the preknowledge of human‟schoice [2, p. 86]. Rejecting ultra-predestinational ideas, Arminiussuggested new understanding of eschato-soteriological ideas of Calvin,emphasizing the incompatibility of Calvin‟s statements about the factthat God can be the initiator of sin and also about the fact that a humanis always manipulated by God‟s power [3, p. 69].It should be pointed out that only after a year on Arminius‟ death(1610) his followers formulated their theory of predestinationaltheology and explicably reflected their ideas in a number of works, firstof all in the document, called "Remonstrance" (Latin Remonstro –refuse), which was presented to the Danish government (Calvinism wasan official religion those days). That document looked like asystematized answers to the Calvin‟s dogmas [3, p. 69-70}. Thus, thereis an opinion, that Arminianism started with Remonstrance, in otherwords, with the application from the 14thof January 1610, whichrevealed 5 articles, representing disagreement with the predestinationdoctrine. Remonstrance was signed by 46 church preachers of the DutchReformational Church. The first part of Remonstrance included theprotest against supralapsarism (Calvin‟s theory about the fact, that
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 20predefinition on salvation existed before the Fall, and it was exactly it,which led to the Fall) and infrasupralapsarism (Calvin‟s theory whichconfirms the fault of a human in his Fall, and only after the Fall God‟spredestination revealed itself, choosing some people for elimination andothers for salvation) and also against the idea of limited expiation(Protestant theory about the fact that only predestined chosen humanshave the right to be saved, which is traditional for Calvinists) and thetheory of eternal safety of a Christian, the idea of which lies in the fact,that predestined and saved people would under no circumstances losesalvation. The second part of Remonstrance dealt with understandingthe doctrine of choosing:a) predestination is determined by faith, condemnation – byunfaith;b) Jesus Christ redeemed everybody through his death, but onlybelievers will receive forgiveness;c) faith doesn‟t come from human, but from God;d) mercy is beyond everything;e) it helps to stay in faith till the end and to saveoneself [2, p. 186].As you can see, everything in the five articles of Remonstranceclearly points to human free will and its part in the process of salvation.Arminius, similarly to Calvin, considered the man absolutely sinful, andhe didn‟t believe that people could choose the side of God of their ownfree will. However, when Calvin went much further and stated thatSalvation was inevitable (meaning that it didn‟t depend on the sinner‟spersonal desire to be saved), Arminius claimed that God‟s mercy couldmerely provide balance for the sinful elements in our souls, so that wecould decided on our own whether or not we wanted to be saved. Weought to note that unfortunately most of Calvinists consciously orwithout thinking accused Arminianism of pardoning the man for hisrighteous merits or good deeds [1, p. 54–55]. Accordingly, in return,Arminians often deliberately distorted the teachings of Calvinism,stating that its followers allowed people to live irresponsibly, since theywere already pardoned for every misdeed ever committed.It should be stressed that the dispute between Arminianism andCalvinism continued during the entire history of Christianity and hadreached its culmination in the XX century [4, p. 301–302]. Arminius
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 21distrusted the eschatological fate of the principle of predestination whenhe created the teaching of the all-embracing mercy (which was reservedonly for the chosen in Calvinism). On the ground of this beliefArminius also rejected the teaching of eternal damnation [1, p. 54–55]that was a characteristic part of Calvinism.Arminian positions in defense of human free will, as opposed tothe teaching of predestination, were listed in the following five articlesof Remonstrance:1. Predestination is not absolute but conditional (since the finalsalvation depends on human free will).2. The ultimate redemption (salvation is offered to everyone, butonly those who truly believe can receive it).3. The man has the right of free will, but only his faith can bringsalvation (as he cannot achieve it and be redeemed without God‟smercy in Christ through the Holy Spirit).4. Overcoming of salvation (God‟s mercy is all-embracing, butnot everyone is willing to accept it).5. Lack of confidence in the inevitability of salvation for thechosen (because the Gospels do not declare that salvation, onceachieved, cannot be lost again) [1, p. 499–500; 3, p. 70–71].`When we examine the eschatological functionality of the doctrineof predestination in the scope of these articles, we can clearly see theessential difference when comparing it with the Calvinistic approach.First of all, if Calvin brings out predestination of salvation and places itahead of the predefined will of God, Arminius talks about God‟ssovereignty. Secondly, Arminius, unlike Calvin, raises the question ofsalvation for everyone who is willing to accept Christ‟s mercy. Thirdly,even if he relates salvation to God‟s mercy, Arminius never stops takinginto consideration human free will, when Calvin rejects it completely.And fourthly, if Calvin declares the inevitability of predestination forthe chosen, Arminius assumes the possibility of the loss of salvation.Revisiting the five principles of predestination which disagreewith Calvinistic dogma, we can discover numerous interpretationaldifferences, provided by Arminius‟s followers. For instance, if they donot reject Calvin‟s idea of the sinful, Jacob Arminius considers the "sin"more like a "necessity" than a "loss". Yet he also finds human willextremely weak and not worthy of salvation without God‟s mercy.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 22In common opinion, the followers of Calvin accused Arminius ofbeing biased when he correlated salvation and human deeds or humanfree will, since in his teachings the human couldn‟t accept God withouthis mercy, and yet people were able to resist God‟s intentions byvoluntarily committing evil acts. At that Arminians believed that not onlythe chosen ones, but all people were capable of answering the Gospelcalling (it was another cardinal disagreement with Calvinism). Arminiansclaimed that without God‟s mercy there could be no salvation. Thedegree of sinfulness or righteousness had little to no effect on humanability to choose "good" by turning to God, or "evil" by rejectingpresented salvation. According to their doctrine, God in his mercy,through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, had opened to all men the possibilityto be saved from eternal damnation (Jhn. 3:16), but the ultimate decisionto accept salvation remained entirely in the hands of the human [3, p. 74–75].There is yet another contradictory matter of "unconditionalatonement" which Arminians did not discard, but reinterpreted in aradically new way: 1) Christ was predestined to be the savior onmankind; 2) those who believed in Christ were consequentlypredetermined to salvation, and the unbelievers were fated to go to hell;the acceptance or refusal of Christ had no connection to God‟s divineplans; 3)God ruled over people wisely and justly by offering them themeans of faith and repentance; 4) the enactment of salvation ordamnation of a particular person was based on God‟s predestination forthose who would accept his forgiveness and be saved, as well as forthose who refused it and consequently were doomed. Taking it all intoaccount, the general conclusion was such that the believers in Christwere fated to be saved, but the acceptance or refusal alone was notpredestined by God.Acknowledging God‟s sovereignty, without endowing it withabsolute power, Arminians believed that God‟s spirit or his divine willalways remained an inseparable part of his heavenly character, and thusit was equally righteous, loving and just when dealing with sinners aswell as with those who deserved to be saved.Appealing to the principle of justice, Arminians, unlikeCalvinists, supposed that all people – not only the chosen ones – werecapable of accepting the gift of salvation which was universally offered
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 23by Jesus Christ [3, p. 76–78].In the context of the discussion of Christ‟s redemptive sacrifice,there were several points of view on the subject of atonement for humansins; one of the was the so-called "unlimited universalism" (Christ‟ssacrifice allowed everyone to be saved, that idea was supported by theUniversal church and Arminius‟s followers); "inconsistentuniversalism" (the protestant doctrine, according to it, God hadpremeditated salvation, but not everyone was fated to be saved)accepted by a number of liberal theologians, Lutherans and certainArminians; and, finally, "restricted salvation" of Calvinists, whosupposed that God‟s will as a means of deliverance was directedtowards everyone, however, only those who accepted the Gospels, orthe good news of salvations, were predestined to be saved – that ideaalso became an integral part of the theory of "limiteduniversalism" [3, p. 79–81].The central point that unites the theological theories of Arminiusand Calvin is that salvation cannot be achieved without mercy, since theconsequences of the Fall make it impossible for the man to save himselfalone. However, Arminius denied the principle of inevitable salvation.According to his conviction, the human can accept or deny not only thegood news of salvation in faith, but the salvation itself (freedom ofhuman will makes it possible). Since this gift is offered as a free choice,it is considered "acceptable by all" in Arminianism (Calvinists considerit an act of human will, without the consequences of potentialacceptance or refusal) [3, p. 82–83].Calvinists and Arminians also disagree on their interpretations ofthe principles of the insistency (or firmness) of saints. If Calvinistsclaim that the chosen ones remain firm to the end, Arminians, withoutrejecting the possibility of the saints to keep firm in their convictionsand ultimately be saved, suppose that any believer in Christ is capableof loosing his faith which leads to damnation. They also accept thepossibility of consequential forgiveness and redemption which theyconsider "repeated conversion" or a renewal of the very first, originalrepentance [3, p. 84–85].Conclusions. Summing up our analytical studies, we can say thatthe eschatological views of Jacob Arminius are more realistic andpositive than those of John Calvin. Predestinational eschatology of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 24Arminius has a strong propensity toward anthropocentrism, while theone of Calvinism is absolutely christocentric. If Calvin offers the manonly the faith in the potentiality of salvation, Arminius makeseverything depend entirely on human free will. Arminius, realisticallyconsidering the phenomena of faith, rejects the Calvinistic principle ofinevitable predestination and accepts not only the loss of faith, but alsothe possibility of the right to accept salvation once again throughrepentance. The predestinational eschatology of Jacob Arminius doesn‟tlimit the number of those people who can be saved; it anticipates thepossibility of salvation of everyone on the basis of consistent faith andGod‟s mercy.List of sources and literature1. Корнер, Дэниэл Д. Вечное спасение на условии веры / Корнер,Дэниэл Д. – Title Verlag, 2003. – 588 с.2. Лейн Тони. Христианские мыслители: Пер. с англ. / ТониЛейн. – СПб., 1997. – 352 с.3. Негров Александр. Кальвинизм и арминианизм. Сравнениедоктрин / А. Негров // Богомыслие. – Вып. № 6. –Одесса, 1997. – С. 677–88.4. Санников С. В. Двадцать веков христианства. Второетысячелетие / С. В. Санников. – Учебное пособие по историихристианства: В 2-х т. – Одесса, 2001. – Т. 2. – 700 с.UDC: 291.4N. D. LishchukBELIEVER’S EXISTENTIAL MOTIVES OFCONFESSIONAL MEMBERSHP OPTION IN THE CONTENTOF MODERN RELIGIOUS LIFE TRANSFORMATIONThe article deals with the modern person’s motivation of choiceof belief as the search of way out from the "unreal existence".Humanism based on the principles of Christianity causes the necessityof independent responsibility for the fullness of life. The perspective ofconstructive religious life transformations in Ukraine is connected with
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 25the growth of influence of the directions that accent belief as self-determination of a person.Key words: social interaction, an active activity, personal faith,salvation, freedom, responsibility, evangelical Protestantism.Determination of the problem. After political declaration of exitfrom totalitarian forms of social organization and the proclamation ofUkraine‟s European choice the biggest challenge of the present stage ofnational history is the formation of a new way of life with a newoutlook and behavior. Recreation of old forms of social interaction isimpossible because of the loss of their system background. Hence, it isappropriately to identify new incentive factors of effective socialcooperation. In a totalitarian country different means of individualactivity, constructive initiative and enterprise of its citizens are ofparticular importance. New social ideology requires support in suchforms of social consciousness, which have the most widespread impactand admittance. The combination of these elements are inherent inreligion. The Soviet regime artificially restrained deployment of selfreligious communities, thus overcoming ideological alternative andrecognizing its effectiveness veiledly. As since religion can become adriving force of positive social changes in Ukraine the impact on theorganization of individual and social life, which is carried out byassociations of evangelical Protestants should be examined. First, theseareas of modern Christianity do not have internal church statusdifferences resolved by Ukrainian Orthodoxy that prevent theunification of society. Secondly, the successful development ofEuropean countries of the modern epoch and the USA is associated withthe influence of Protestantism.General analyses of studies of the problem. Ukrainian scholarshave resorted to a comparative analysis of the Protestant communitiesabroad and Ukraine, and they apply the method of historical analogy,investigating a question of the social transformation and the emergenceof civil society in Ukraine. Various aspects of these issues are examinedby such authors as P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, M. Cherenkov,O. Spys and others. The articles and monographs reflect methodologicalprinciples of philosophical and religious studies of Protestantism and itsmain directions. The position of consideration of Protestantdenominations as a phenomenon of culture is perspective one.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 26A universal side of culture comes forward as an alternative toideological monologism of the previous position of opposition to somehistorical forms of Christianity. These aspects, in particular, areexamined in the works of V. Litvinov and S. Shkil.A position of consideration of the modern protestantism as afactor of religious freedom has a constructive content. Ukrainianscholars - P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, V. Nichyk analyze the issue ofreligious freedom in the context of existential aspects of sacred life. Inthese works the authors draw a reasoned conclusion as for generaltrends of Ukrainian classical philosophy to examine religious ideas inconnection with existential questions.The a im of the article. In spite of the specific historical differencesof the content of life different epochs and generations the problem ofrealization of an individual of himself as a subject of being is still urgentbecause of the constant reproduction of its fundamental attributes. In thephilosophy of the twentieth century this problem was considered frompositions that are different from the methodological requirements of theparadigm of postmodernism of the XXI century, and it encourages theestablishment of dialogic communication and pluralism.In this approach, not a single ideological position can be the onlycorrect one, and the one that exhausts the true meaning of any of theissue. In this connection, it is expedient to analyze whether the directionof modern Christianity offer constructive guidance on the challenges offreedom, or offer "escape from freedom" through the entire externalregulation of lifestyle. In this subject any direction of modernProtestantism should be investigated, and especially Pentecostalismshould be investigated which is the most common in Ukraine.The main material. Pentecostalism as a direction of theevangelical Protestantism is based on the belief in personal salvationthrough personal faith. Emphasis on a personal content here is notdefined by anthropocentric self-sufficiency, as it has happened invarious historical forms of ideological paradigms. Stressing allocationof a person‟s position in formation of his life behavior, evangelicalProtestantism is based on Christian theology. Defining principles ofhuman existence are submitted beyond the human world here. Personalnature of faith relates to revealing to subjectivity of a believersbehavioral orientations. Since a believer is a conscious subject in the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 27acts of faith, and not a passive object of ritual manipulations, themeasure of his freedom and responsibility is increasing.Protestant evangelical movement essence as representatives of aradical reformation is found in declaring their independence fromgovernment and politics. The evangelical community is not focused onisolation from public life, but distinguishable from the subordination ofsocial hierarchy. Not a single person, following a status or economicgrounds of ambitious claims to dispose lives of others, can not reach thelevel of capabilities of the Trinity. This basic idea of Christian teachingis an essential element of conservative evangelical faith content thatdefines the limits of human identification. An underlined difference ofGod and human nature characterizes the essence of theocentricaloutlook which Protestantism does not change. Man is not equal to Godin the possibilities, so man is not able to obtain salvation. Protestantismadvocates this study of Christian soteriology by teaching people not togo wrong by life choices. What combination of radical and conservativeelements of evangelical movement does contribute to their rapid spreadin different continents? Why is evangelical Christianity growing moredynamically than historical churches, if, in pertinent remark ofM. Cherenkov: "In today‟s world, people do not inherited religion, theychoose it?" [1, p.66].In the case of spiritual searching, selecting areas for developmentand communication modern man first shows interest to those forms ofcommunication that are different from the known and familiar ways ofsocial interaction. Having a choice in the search for faith, the individualis trying to compensate the absence or lack of severity of response to hisrequests known for him by social institutions. Institutionalized form oforganized interaction of programmed functions that minimizes theimportance of personal manifestations of the individual, is one of thedefinitions of "unreal being" in the philosophy of existentialism.If the experience a previous relationship is suffering due to lackof disinterested attention, sympathy from others, a person, keeping hopefor positive changes, looks for fundamentally different basis forcommunication. When a person‟s loneliness is associated with apermanent impression of undervaluing of his merits and possibilities, hefinds the need to go beyond the limits of previous ideologicalorientations, including religious.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 28Exploring religious experience in its diversity, William Jamesopposes the church and evangelical faith as a social institution and asthe appointment and status of spiritual life. Identification ofevangelical Christians as members of the spiritual movementdetermines V. Haradzha determines in such way: "Not as a publicauthority, not as a church – organized force, but primarily as aspiritual and moral force, religion now has the opportunity to enterinto dialogue with the world, whose fate now depends on the moralcapacity of society, from the solution of global problems" [3, p. 215].After an initial refusal to focus on the materiality of the hierarchicaldivision of social and religious life, as well as qualitativeheterogeneity of the late Protestantism as a spiritual movement it isopen to representatives of any social strata. Dynamic spread of thismovement is associated with openness to finding new forms ofrelations between subjects of social structure.Membership in the Protestant community with its social andtheological position encourages the individual to activity. Activity as anormal everyday behavior is part of media rights as a subject ofindividual and social life. Subjective activity is not considered to be aprerogative of some famous people. Isolation of a human from massdoes not provide for its opposition to others. The essence of this changein the relationship that stop the practice of dissolving the individualnature of the mass. Understanding of being chosen becomes differentfrom previous corporate traditionalist norms of justification. In aprevious history of Christianity religious institutions allocated just forthemselves a closeness to God and brokering the appointment of its ownmission to determine the mass form of communication with the Creator.With the appearence of Protestantism faith had to awaken in mandifferent way of orientation of behavior, because there was a publicdemand of capitalism, which began to emerge at a greater measure ofautonomy of the individual. So "human dignity which was oftenneglected by historic churches through denial of human rights for directcommunication with God was restored" [6, p. 37]. Immediacyimplement human tasks in harmony with religion at this time and withsimilar demands turn to self-responsibility in all these spheres. As sincemodern civilization has not departed from this set orientation, and hasreasons to deepen it, should further consider the relationship of renewed
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 29Protestant religion with renewed dignity. Can this renewal be a basis forovercoming the alienation between people and leaving the "unreal life"?Human dignity in the context of its direct relationship with Godmeans to determine its capacity to a level of communication, and that itis worth it. God‟s perfection requires improvement from man himselfwho is a direct participant of communication. A removal initiateschanges intermediaries and former static image of man.Activity is a basis of the dynamic transformation of the individualand his relationship. A negative motivation of alienation changes – "Ido it for someone, but not for myself. "The level of freedom that opensto believers the later Protestantism is not only a present, but also it is atest. This is particularly evident when considering the history of theEvangelical Church during the totalitarian state. Freed from what it didbefore the church, the believer gets rid of guaranteed care, a choicemade by others. Responsibility of permanent search for solutions lies ona believer. Protestant author V. Karpunin observes: "Freedom couldgive people "a burden "because its implementation is often associatedwith overcoming of doubts and hesitations, with sustained resistance tosuffering, with worthy endurance to carry a cross, which God put oneach of us" [ 4, p. 30]. The difference between religious and secularunderstanding of freedom is explained by comparing of their results.Proclamation of complete independence of free personality, which isitself a support often leads to rampant acts of tyranny. Christian authorsexplain the importance of the principle of solidarity (subsidiarity) thatbalances self-determination of a person. H. Neuhaus justifies it thisway: "The principle of subsidiarity puts the human person at the centerof making any decisions, so that the community becomes closer to theman and his problems and thus proclaims priority of small livingenvironments to large anonymous community" [5, p. 51]. Restriction ofpersonality in teaching of modern evangelical Protestants is determinednot by control of other people, but by the objective correlation ofelements of a being that in religious interpretations is expressed as alack of comparability of God and man. Freedom of the life process as anindefinite flow reflects the irrationality of the human dimensions ofexistence. Manifestation of superhuman irrationality in expression offreedom the evangelical Protestantism examines through the idea ofbeing chosen. Exclusivity does not come from causation available to a
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 30human thinking and it does not subject to their unambiguous simplicity.Only God as the determining basis of the laws of existance is its source.Human freedom can not be absolute, because a person does not have thecharacteristics and capabilities of the absolute.Thus, the guide and support of human freedom is God. "Godspeaks to a personality, to the individual, and therefore you can not hidebehind the other, you can not dissolve in a meeting of people but youhave to bear personal responsibility before Him" [6, p. 33] – explains therepresentative of evangelical Protestantism I. Podberezkyi. Issues that gobeyond human capabilities of salvation and eternal life, go beyond humanfreedom. The Bible directly expresses these boundaries through Christ‟sanswer to the question of desciples "Who can be saved?": "It is notpossible for a man." History and purpose of God coming to the earth isconnected with the inability for the person to solve the question ofsalvation. The idea of a primary human sinfulness is defined by reallimitations of the human race. The humanity can‟t solve the problem ofsin, therefore, the humanity can not be guided by the principle of internalself-determination of tribal life. Thus stating the sinfulness of a man, hisconnectedness with the evil the Protestant doctrine does not permitfreedom of evil and sin in any case. Evil – is something that exists and isinherent in man, but it is not what it should be, as an acceptable norm.Since the determination of a human being is beyond the possibilities of ahuman race, and the norms of moral goodness in their biblical meaningreflect the ontological significance of constructively creative orientationof behavior. In moral prescriptions of the doctrine of evangelicalProtestantism our contemporary in search of a new faith, finds a supportof one‟s hope for the best, because one is convinced in the lack ofnecessary character of evil. At the same time the required content isproved by not only correlation of the world‟s existential definitions, butalso by the understanding of life as formation. On the human level, thiscreates a demand for fair labor, which stands out among the most visiblesigns of evangelical Christianity and stems from their content.Protestantism in general has changed the previous valueorientation of religious activities. In medieval times the religiosityexpressed through mystical contemplation; Protestantism hasestablished a norm of activities both in church and in everyday life. Ademand for active relation to reality, which is the only way to convert
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 31and save the world, connects other parts of evangelical faith of itseschatology. The definition of finitude of human existence orientatesthe problem of the sense of life on limitation of personal consumptionand waste, motivates charity and enterprise.Charity or stimulation of enterprise is not essential for understandingthe motivation of commitment to late Protestant directions. Thecombination of these behavioral requirements is important, because none ofthese elements in this system of belief is not the goal in itself. Activity ofabeliever in its directions foresees an achievement of well-being with asocial result, but not with individual or collective result.By focusing on the allocation of the individual as a subject offorming of his own views and behavior the same individual isaccostomed not to oppose his needs and desires of others, and to act onthe basis of solidarity. The emphasis on the necessity of solidarity inconjunction with the requirements of the general welfare attracts toevangelical Protestants those citizens for whom the outlook is asignificant issue of patriotism.The idea of necessity of achievement a welfare by the individualnot for everyone, but for himself – this idea meets the objectives of amarket economy. The combination of a market and private property, asthe real history shows,can make extremely dehumanizuyuchyy impacton the individual, on the one hand, or it can lead to situations of loss ofthe meaning of existence on the other. Both extremes are closely linkedwith the forms and manifestations of alienation of "unreal being."Therefore, the behavioral system of recommendations as for directionsof evangelical Protestantism continues to rely on a combination ofmoral and economic values which is mentioned M. Weber‟s work "TheProtestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." A source of problemsfacing the man, are not the type of economic relationship itself. Thelater Protestant doctrine proposes the organization of life, based onentry of a human in the real world as it is. According to biblicalteaching, private ownership is the right for a person‟s trust ofmanagement of things that ultimately belong to the Creator. Throughthe work a man can not only be approved by the Executive functions,but also to create, to manifest himself.. Self-expression in creation asthe ability is considered a reflection of human Godlikeness. They arguethat the work expresses a human nature, so it is a vocation of a man, and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 32an entreprise as a creative approach to labor is connected with the desireto make a profit that exceeds the required measure of family support.The growth of profit doesn‟t have a sel – consumer aim,it is not a signof higher values of some people over others. Human talents are God‟sgifts, they are presented possibilities of individual origin anddestination. Charity through internally motivated intentions must reflecta believer‟s assimilation of a moral duty, his grateful understanding ofGod‟s grace, the origin of life success from the Creator‟s suppor. In thisconnection we can emphasize on key element of Pentecostalism- thedoctrine of one of the most common denominations of evangelicalProtestantism. Here, more than in other directions, the stress is laid onarguments that human capabilities which are higher than naturalaverage level and are determined by the manifestation of grace throughreceiving spiritual gifts because of the baptism of the Holy Spirit.Conclusions. A modern globalized society despite of theconsiderable impact of scientific and technological achievements showa great interest in matters of religion. In particular, a confessionaldynamics is the element of social transformations in the world and inUkraine. The question of motivation of choice of a belief as a person‟sideologically – behavioral orientation is essential because of itspractical implications. A content of modern correlation of individualand general social factors of social changes finds its expression in termsand ideas of existential philosophy of "real" and "unreal" life, libertyand responsibility. A change of social communications goes fromorientation that is necessary to ensure their liability to the motivation ofa subjective expression as a condition of constructive cooperation in allspheres of life. To such needs are close social and religious movementsthat in their structure and orientation express these current positions.The most dynamic prospects are the denominations that provide aconstant dialogue with their followers and promote their creative self-expression actualization. Freedom of self-expression provided by thebelievers in evangelical directions of Protestantism, creats one of theessential basis of the large spread of these directions in the world andUkraine. As a caution on conversion of human freedom on the elementof arbitrary nihilism in the content of the Protestant belief is a numberof requirements on the orientation of lifestyle adherence to moralobligations. A system of life behavior has to accustom a believer to
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 33combine the principle of individual activity with a norm not to contrasthimselfnot contrasting with another God‟s creation.Studies of contemporary evangelical Protestantism in the futureshould be more related to aspects of philosophical anthropology,sociology and because of Religious interpretation of this phenomenonin the Soviet literature presented extensively.List of sources and literature1. Черенков М. М. Європейська реформація та українськийєвангельський протестантизм : Генетико–типологічнаспорідненість і національно–ідентифікаційні вимірисучасності: Монографія / М. М. Черенков – Одеса :Християнська просвіта, 2008. – 566 с.2. Яроцький П. Л. Протестантизм як предмет релігієзнавчогодослідження / П. Л. Яроцький // Академічне релігієзнавствоУкраїни. Історія і сьогодення. – К., 2006. – С. 171–186.3. Гараджа В. И. Социология религии: Учеб. пособие длястудентов и аспирантов гуманитарных спеціальностей /Гараджа В. И. – М. : Аспект – Пресс, 1996. – 239 с.4. Карпунин В. А. Христианство и философия /В. А. Карпунин. – СПб. : Библия для всех, 2002. – С. 30–31.5. Нойхауз Н. Ценности христианской демократии /Н. Нойхауз – М. : Республика, 2005. –192 с.6. Подберезский И. В. Христианская личность // ПутьБогопознания / И. В. Подберезский. – 2000.– Вып.6. – С.33-44.UDC 291.1М.S. Мel’nychukPHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS ANALYSISOF MODERNIZATION TRENDS IN THEPROTESTANTISM’S ARTThe article describes features of the modernization of the artsystem in modern Protestantism.Key words: protestantism, art, modernization, suggestiveness.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 34Problem statement. Protestantism, which originated and wasformed during the Reformation radically redefined institutions, ideasand practices of the Western Christian church. General analyses ofstudies of the problem. This phenomenon, and the value of art in itdevoted his work as a Soviet researchers (L. Uspensky, A. Chanyshev,E. Yakovlev), and modern Ukrainian scientists (I. Bohachevsky,V. Bodak, V. Lyubaschenko etc.).Even before the XVI century became clear that the Protestantchurch requires fundamental reforms. "It seems that the blood ceased toflow through the vessels of the Church. Their legal system requiredchanges, and incapacity and corruption of the church bureaucracy wasgenerally known. Moral clergy often been disbanded, causingembarrassment flock. Clergy (even at the highest levels) was oftenabsent in the parishes and dioceses. Appointment to the highestecclesiastical position was questionable means, attention is mainly paidto political or financial position of the candidates, not their spiritualqualities. " So the overall picture depicted the decline of contemporaryCatholicism prominent Protestant theologian A. Mahrat [2, p. 12–13].Thus the purpose of our study is to analyze the modernization trends inthe art of modern ProtestantismSpeaking of harsh criticism all the basic principles ofCatholicism, Protestantism proposed variant of "cheap" Christianchurch, which has to abandon many external attributes and focus on"organizations" direct "communication with God". Thus, the firstProtestant churches modest architecture, which differed simplearrangement without icons, crucifixes and lamps and professionalpriests. The main element of worship here was the sermon, which wasto help believers to comprehend the truth of Scripture and charged withthe responsibility for instilling and deepening the believers cornerstonedoctrine – salvation by faith. So from the very beginning inProtestantism diverted most important place "ministry of the word" orthe art of words.Exploring the history of this type of service, Protestanttheologians emphasize that in the first centuries of Christianity havebegun to recognize the need for careful attention to the sermon andimprove this type of service to the Church. This was the desire topreserve the best of sermons. Therefore, the first books on homiletics
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 35(the study of preaching) were collected best sermons. Concern forquality content and form of the Protestant sermon ever got bigger.Leading centers of Protestant churches and denominations issuedannually for elders and preachers of all its communities advice and tipsfor worship every day of the year. In the journals that publishedreligious centers continuously printed instructional materials to helpthose who preach in the community. Thus, in Lutsk for this purpose forEvangelical Christians-Baptists of all Ukraine is printed and publishedbimonthly magazine "Messenger of Truth" – a body of UkrainianEvangelical Baptist Fellowship (centered in the U.S.). Since the mid 90-ies of the last century, in the regions of Ukraine are printed edition oftheir local communities, experience their evangelistic work("Candlestick. Journal for the Church and the Church", published in theRivne).Subjects sermons in each community will be at least one month.In cities topics posted near the houses of prayer, while, besides ageneral overview, bet on those believers who for some reason can notattend all the prayer meetings, but reading through this plan, everyonewill do good to come and listen to those sermons considers particularlyuseful. When planning than the calendar of religious holidays or biblicalevents included specific moral or spiritual needs of the community, theresponse to social events and responses to them co-religionists, etc. –that is, the sermon being targeted, theme and content of their definedlife-spiritual relevance.According to Protestant theologians, the main advantage ispreaching and action that it has on the audience. One interpretation ofthe sermon is finished speech that pronounced on religious gatheringsand aims to call sinners to repentance and faith, teachings orstrengthening believers in the virtues and explaining the teachings ofChrist. The success of the sermon are important personality preacher,and his attitude toward ministry sermon content, form and methods ofexpression.All of this requires not only a preacher stresses spiritual effort,but preaching talent. Sometimes, not every priest can match the skill ofhis preaching of Protestant preachers. In addition, Protestantism is notnecessary to practice the complexity of presentation topics to avoidcharacter "phenomenon lectures" in sermons. For disclosure of religious
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 36truths, where possible, advise, except the Holy Scriptures, to examplesof life. Prized living example of the power of imagery and words. Anexample of this would be one of the preachers sermon: "In early spring,I had to go in a birch grove. I went to a beautiful curly birch trees, nearwhich was unknown and a meter from the ground drilled a hole in thetrunk. To my remark that bindweed from this dries , the strangerreplied: "I do not regret that birch wither and perish – I like being withher flowing juice." his work and answer moved me in a domesticsituation of believers. How many cases of flesh here is similar to"work" my interlocutor! How many cases family life is only forpleasures of the flesh. This is - debauch passions that unsettles healthand prematurely old and wears out the body... " [7, p. 145]. Thus, thetouching image of a young birch preacher used for establishing the ideathat a person should not be healthy for his earthly happiness, and toserve God.In Protestantism believe the undisputed fact that the preachermust first be very sure of the truth of what preaching because itprimarily ensures perception believing that convey to their hearts andminds. It is important not to say, and how to say it. That sermon shouldcome from the depths of the soul, with well matched tone and even, ifnecessary, with enthusiasm, that in general the success of the sermon.Preacher, usually, not always build the propaganda of religious ideas onrational basis and logical arguments. "A fervent speech speaker –teaches ... – causing listeners emotional exaltation which inductivelyhampers and present experiences, and results of past experience.Gradually abolishes man (gast) their previous assessment of events andphenomena ceases to be critical of the words of the speaker, takes itassessment of his views. A inhibition own activity leads to stimulationmechanisms imitative behavior, willingness to follow the speaker.should be emphasized that this is a suggestibility (suggestion), that theimposition of reasoning without logical proof of their truth. Instill – notto prove by arguments addressed mental. suggestion in most cases justaimed at overcoming logical arguments, it appeals to the human senses,not her mind "[4, p. 66-67].Preaching in Protestantism is always based on the interpretationof Scripture. An experienced preacher on this occasion said: "The themeis contained in the text (Scripture) as the core of nut. Our task – not to
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 37remain on the periphery and to penetrate into the core ... Only in thisway can we get in the intimate meaning of the text. Topic should not besuperficial, little substance, many times chutoyu. "Topic Title must beborrowed from the Bible, for example: "Go forth and sin no more!"(John 8, 11), "Repent and believe in the Gospel" (Mk 1, 15), "You - thelight of the world" (Mt 5, 14), etc. Theologians are not recommended todefine the topic in a word, such as "Love", "Freedom", "good" and soon. This theme hides a danger to spread preacher in the sermon on thedifferent opinions and things unrelated to deprive sermon substantivefocus and clarity [3, p. 42].Preachers, especially late currents of Protestantism, not counting along time his sermons. According to our observations, in the communitiesof Rivne region sermon on average lasts about 10 minutes. The fact thatthe prayer meeting provided two common prayer – the initial and finalmay be common prayer, for any occasion (for example, recovery ofpatients): execution chants – choral, general, and where possible – solosongs and declamations , melodeclamations. All these kinds of serviceinterspersed with sermons that happens, depending on the circumstances,from three to seven or eight. Typically, the prayer meeting does not lastmore than two hours. Incidentally, the liturgical practice of Protestantsand acts as a kind of prayer ministry said. Zh. Kalvin in his "teaching theChristian faith" (Institution) emphasized that prayer as defining exerciseof faith, "...because we receive daily gifts of God" [1, p. 126].As follows from the above, Protestants use in their prayermeetings not only the art of speech, but singing – both accompanied bymusical instruments, so without them. Overall prayer meetingProtestants significantly different from worship in Catholicism andOrthodoxy. In both of these churches liturgical ministry ruled approvedby literally scenarios – ranks. Since they are provided to all serviceliturgical year, the faithful have become accustomed to them, they knowthat now sing the priest and the deacon, and the chorus or klyrosis. Thisone tradition extinguishes attention to the content of the spoken or sung,for the faithful know in advance their contents, expect this and notsomething else. Listening and introduction to singing, blending inharmony temple ceremonies Catholics or Orthodox feel of this aestheticpleasure that distracts, putting chants and deliver content, because theyworship the work of familiar – "nothing new" and they did not expect.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 38In Protestant churches is only stable schemes prayer meetings,but every time the course of gathering updated with new psalmsongs,sermons and prayers. This collection has more on the minds ofbelievers, teach them first of all strengthen their religious beliefs.Although aesthetic pleasure not removed, it is much inferior to theinfluence on the minds of dogmatic, theological dominance worship. Inaddition, each prayer meeting in the communities of Protestants issubject to certain, predetermined topic. So when should happen breakbread, prayers, sermons and hymns on the topic of Golgotha Christ.Clearly and unequivocally held meetings on the occasion of the eventsin the life of the Son of God on earth or acts of the apostles (egPentecost). The various currents of Protestantism has its special holidayas a harvest festival or celebration of unity in Baptist, dates associatedwith the history and functioning of various Protestant denominations.In Protestantism there is a whole repertoire psalmsongs forworship. In this area there were many religious poets and composers.They created and multiplied for their co-religionists songs, occasionallybetrayed their collections that organize the principle of certain needsand opportunities of church life. Numbering works and categorizationby content-themed destination providing usability Works on gatheringsof believers. In print, many believers in using manuscript collectionswhich rewrote the believers.In Protestantism, however, there is no sustainable repertoire ofsacred songs, he filled them neoplasms – text and melodic. Incommunities where there are choirs, their repertoire is almost constantlyupdated, and what was done before, copied now as common heritage ofsinging. That is a constant updating of malignancies.Protestants also, in many cases accompanied by singing playingmusical instruments. Until recently, the villages often used for thisaccordion, and even the once very popular accordion – "helihonka".However, not all communities have at least a simple musicalinstrument. In cities were popular piano, harmonium, lately becomefashionable synths.For icons in Protestantism, in its prayer houses and churches,even in rooms believers, no place. Against the worship of icons andtheir veneration strongly and categorically opposed JohnCalvin [1, p. 145]. With reference to the Saints Scripture, he proves that
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 39lie "offend God‟s honor if ascribe to him some pictures. Law of Godsays:" Do not make for yourself any graven image, or anylikeness" (I, 11.1). Immediately recalls the Bible: "You heard the voice,and did not see any figures" (5 M. 4, 2). And if someday God appearedto man, it was a warning of future revelation in Christ. Recalls Calvinand patrystiv. Yes Augustine clearly expressed, not allowed, not only todeal with a prayer to the icon, but even to think of it themselves, as ifthe image of God, for because of this decrease is subtracted and the fearof God (I, 11). They do not worship the cross, because he was theinstrument of suffering and death of Christ.Instead of icons on the walls of Protestant houses of worship andhomes of believers – only artistically written statements from Scripture:"God is love" (1 Jn. 4, 8), "One Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph.4.6), "We preach Christ crucified" (1 Cor., 1.23) and so on.Transfer Protestantism attention believer of worship and ritualsfor preaching and personal faith led to some changes in his religious andartistic integrity. Instead Organ music, monumental murals andpaintings, lush decor clothes priests and Catholic churches came interiorart expressive black-and-white prints (this was confirmed in the earlyProtestant churches – Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism),sincere preaching, singing with accompaniment and humble Clothingpastor, elder and preacher [5, p. 236]. Simplification of religion inProtestantism manifested not only in lifting a large number of religiousfestivals and special services to honor saints and the Virgin, but inabolishing major iconic event, which in Catholicism and Orthodoxy arecalled sacraments. Of these seven sacraments – baptism, anointing,confession, communion, priesthood, marriage and Sick – there weretwo: baptism and communion (break bread). But their action was deniedspecial magical power, because it directly depending on personal faith.Incidentally, all of the above applies to the ideal of Protestantism,which in reality is not. Because Protestantism – a large number ofrelatives while slightly different from each other churches,denominations, sometimes – and sects. Reform requirements andprinciples and are available in various Protestant denominations indifferent ways, with varying degrees of completeness, and sometimeswith a fairly substantial cult and even dogmatic differences(Pentecostals, Jehovah‟s Witnesses, Mormons and others.). As late
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 40Protestant congregations in Ukraine, then they remain in positions ofconservatism and rejection of any innovations in worship. Believers donot use artificial jewelry, considering them unacceptable, sinful. Forexample, women do not use any makeup or jewelry. Men do not wearbadges, some state symbols, icons. Most people avoid family evenwearing rings on his hand. That is, a complete ban that can affordOrthodox or Catholic, without risking a cause for condemnationCoreligionists.But some religious innovations, modernization elements ofProtestant worship still occur and are usually associated with foreigncenters of Protestant ministries for viewers Ukraine. A sample of aSunday program "Life in the Word", which preaches and sings JohnMayer. In it there is a lot of unusual things that do not fit into thetraditional Protestant cult that exists in communities throughoutUkraine. It‟s more like the Christian entertainment talk show. On stage,young girls, dressed in white, each with a microphone in hand, singingspiritual songs. Soloist clearly stands out from among them, a littleolder than their colleagues with clips in the ears, with expressivemakeup on her face. Speaker is indulging openly and clearly to thecalculation methods of artistry. She sings beautifully, but obviously anartistic manner – walking across the stage, raises his hands. Girls onstage to join in their song structure, but also transcend from foot to foot,clap their hands over their heads. Meanwhile, in the audience all stoodwobbling in time to sing and also drive their hands. This can beobserved in the transmission of "Good News with Rick Renner". He isin his sermons clearly unable to acute phrases: supposedly preachesextemporaneously, and it allows him to occasionally suspendedsearching for a word or phrase for which there react hilarious revival,and even laughter. Acknowledge your joke and preacher – he did notsmile restrains ... This transfer can see every citizen of Ukraine, whowatches TV.However, all of these things – natural. Life is richer and morecomplex than any dogma. Various forms of Protestantism – is adaptingabstract schemes to the needs of a changing life. For all its diversityProtestant denominations have two common features: first, they follow(albeit with different sequence) of the basic principles of Protestantism,and secondly, have their historical roots in the Reformation, being
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 41directly or indirectly its products [6, p. 15]. Finally, the process of"cloning" all the advanced Protestant denomination is not over yet.Under the pressure of life can occur following varieties ofProtestantism, which ultimately may go in the opposite direction – tothe Catholic or Orthodox orthodoxy. Moreover, in the practical life ofbelievers and Protestant communities in Ukraine in generalsusceptibility to most innovations embodied in the program of theirsocial service. It is, firstly, update Luther‟s doctrine of "good works".Second, believing it is considered as evidence of meaningfulness of hisearthly existence, search the most effective means of practicalrealization of Christian precepts. Thereby Protestants Ukraine catchingup still not implemented its social and ethical potential. Since beggingin early Protestantism, especially in reformation and genetically relatedto him later as a result of trends prohibited laziness, unwillingness toobey the commandments of God, in the program of social servicereferred mainly moral support. However, Protestants and avoid materialphilanthropy, such as donating invalids, pensioners, the poor, those whohave suffered from natural disasters. "Let it be prosaic work, but realizethat it is for the good of man and the people, turning them intosomething sacred" [3, p. 158].Conclusions. So with regard to modernization of worship, then itis in Protestantism is taking its first steps. Especially fixed serviceimprovements word as traditional brief sermon on the topic of biblicalquotations are outliving itself. To enhance the role of suggestive wordsin Protestantism stock piled unused potentials that are generated bytechnical progress in the field of audio and visual media. However,provide any specific scale and pace of innovation rise in the practice ofProtestant worship no reason. As for painting, sculpture – theyProtestantism still remain beyond the need to worship.List of sources and literature1. Кальвін Ж. Інституція, або Навчання християнської віри / ЖанКальвін. – Репр. вид. – Атланта ; Торонто : [б. в.], 1986. – 239 с.2. Любащенко В. І. Історія протестантизму в Україні /В. І. Любащенко. – Львів : Просвіта, 1995. – 350 с.3. Настольная книга пресвитера. – М. : Всесоюз. совет еванг.христиан-баптистов, 1987. – Вып. 2. – 239,  с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 424. Симонов П. В. Метод К. С. Станиславского и физиологияэмоций / П. В. Симонов. – М. : Изд-во Акад. наук. СССР,1962. – 139 с.5. Успенский Л. О материалах в церковном искусстве / Л.Успенский, Л. Успенская // Журнал Московской Патриархии. –1988. – № 11. – С. 20–21.6. Чанышев А. Н. Протестантизм / А. Н. Чанышев. – М. : Наука,1962. – 216 с.7. Яковлев Е. Г. Эстетическое сознание, искусство и религия /Евгений Георгиевич Яковлев. – М. : Искусство, 1969. – 175 с.UDC: 281.9:264-74:159.923.2(=161.2)Y.I. Mel’nychukORTHODOX SERMON AS A SOCIO-CULTURALACHIEVEMENT OF UKRAINIAN NATIONIn the article the analysed features of the Ukrainian orthodoxsermon as the specific communicative phenomenon which depends onsocial realities and is the certificate of kul’turnogo-dukhovnikhtraditions of Ukrainian society.Key words: sermon, communicative system (communication),social conditionality, sociokul’turne phenomenon.Problem. Orthodox sermon as centuries of social and culturalheritage of the Ukrainian people, originated and evolved within theEastern Christian tradition, attracted attention because of its scientificand theoretical understanding. Aspects of the study of this problem isinvariant, multifaceted and determined by various factors.Level of development problems. The problem of language relatedto the issue of linguistic relativity, which consider Edward Sapir and W.von Humboldt, the question of language liturgy – T. Gorbachenko,N. Mechkovska, I. James. Investigation of internal inflection seen in thewritings O. Potebni, as well as modern scientific achievements of localresearchers, including Slad mention I. Bohachevsku, M. Holyanycha,T. Horbachenka, L. Drotyanka, T. Kyyaka, N. Myhyrina, B. Plotnikova,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 43V. Rusanivskoho et al. Figuring features preaching the word asoratorical genre became an object of scientific interest M. Bahtina,F. Batsevycha, A. Vezhbytskoyi. Analysis of the linguistic-pragmaticfeatures sermons carried N. Arutyunova, Yu. Lotman, Ch. Morris andCh. Pirs. Finding a new structure in sermons, as works which displays anumber vzayemopov‟yazuyutsya communicative subjective wreathmade T. Van Dyke, L. Ivanov, V. Maslovym, Z. Turayevoyu in thiscontext it is worth mentioning and intelligence representativesteolinhvistyky (O. Hadomskyy, H. Hrinenko, N. Mechkovska). Thus, inmodern philosophical, cultural and others. studies vidshukovuyemoconsiderable interest from the sermon as a special type of speech that isendowed with certain symbolic meanings-load, the problems of textualinterpretation sermons and preaching activities in the context of thehistorical realities of society, it updates the specific study of thephenomenon in terms of both theoretical and practical grounds.We aim to characterize features of preaching in the context of theUkrainian Orthodox apostolic tradition, forming a task of this work: toanalyze the features of the role of speech and outline the nature, purposeof preaching, preaching separation as a specific communicativephenomenon and its dependence on social realities, preaching ascultural heritage.The main material. Before turning to direct our coverage statedthemes appropriate to describe (in general terms) the specificity of theUkrainian Orthodox sermon as a religious phenomenon. It reflects theessence of the teachings of a religious nature, which is inextricablylinked to that observed semamy sacred content. As a guide to preachingand vyholoshuyetsya oral or recorded in writing, it is a communicativephenomenon which is characterized by the transfer of information as areligious content and its relationship to life followers, ie semanticallysermons linking spiritual and earthly life. We can say that in the processof formation and development of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (fromthe introduction of Christianity in the Ukrainian lands to the present)preaching constantly evolving, and therefore, in essence, this is adynamic phenomenon that has meaning and performs various functionsin the religious and social life of the Ukrainian nation. Yes, I. Ogienko[12, p. 87] proves the presence of preaching distinct nationalcharacteristics, resulting from the isolation of the Ukrainian Orthodox
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 44Church in the tenets elections clergy, worship, chynopokladannyah, weshould misyatseslovi, holidays ikonomalyarstvi and temple architecture.Indisputable is the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon typicalsocial significance, as expressed in the relationship of religious canonsand social realities that appear in an emotionally filled text throughwhich affects the preacher, feelings and outlook of believers.Topreacher could achieve the desired communicative effect, it usesimplikatory communicative, emotional and sponukalnist, imagery,belief. Another characteristic feature of preaching the word – thepresence of a supernatural, on this T. Gavrilyuk [4, p. 278], analyzingthe notion, suggested that it is a product of social and human creativityand a subjective objective. Speaking consequences of religious andphilosophical reflection on the meaning of life, supernatural means thethose aspects of human life that are not verifiable by scientific methodsand express a reality that stands on the foundation of natural primary,epistemological embodiment of gods, spirits, souls, etc., and sacredconnection „connections and properties of real objects and phenomena.It is in the category of the supernatural, says researcher expressedimportance not only religious images and ideas, but also the overallcertainty existential human condition that is characterized by itsspontaneous ontological relation, we notice the following constants inthe studied phenomenon.Analyzing Printed text sermon can trace certain trends semanticload, which reflects the moral and ethical issues from the Bible, lives ofthe saints, but each time it is some new vision of the eternal problemswhich should be tangent soul worshiper. The believer is filled withconfidence to a spiritual leader, a deep faith in God and strive toimprove their own souls and dobrochestya [10, p. 54]. According to D.Brala, striving for perfection makes the preacher changed his attitudetowards communicative audience, and the subject of his mission is not"herd management, and people management" [2, p. 15]. In theologicalstudies, we find the statement that "the Christian church guideline aimsto clarify the audience doctrine of Christ" as a lively, sensual statementbecomes essential characteristic of her: "The word priest more thananyone‟s attracting people‟s attention. According possible to defineinner world: directing her thoughts, state of mind and feelings. Wordsanger testifies to the passion of pride, condemnation, rage, rude words
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 45indicate discourtesy, promiscuity. On the contrary, the words are clear,restrained, considerate, sometimes with good humor suggests that theyare generated disciplined, sharp, thinking mind " [9, p. 50]. Preachingthe word is a special communications system, including M.Petrushevych argues that religion forms of communication systemsserve to transmit information back to the mandatory understanding ofcommunication systems, ie the ability to decode a specific religiousinformation. According to researcher [13, p. 82], we consider theinteraction of existential and dialogical communication, based onChristian love. Note the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon fromthe very beginning of its formation appeared in his own identity datainformation we we find in the writings of I. Ogienko . Thanks Printedtexts, we can trace those traditions that are specific to a particularhistorical period of time becoming orthodoxy. The emphasis on thisparticular due to the fact that due to language semam cleric can affectthe ideological foundations of faith adherents, such as their culturallevel and standards of behavior in society.Perceiving the sermon as a communication system, pay attentionto the study of L. Vyhovsky "Functionality religion: nature andmanifestations", which clarifies the system level functionality religionand its social manifestations, and its evolution. He examines therelationship and the specific operation of the main structural elements ofthe religious complex in society. In particular, the system identifies fourfunctional religion ideologically-sensotvirnu, value-regulatory, social,organizational and communicative-translationally.In this sense religiouscommunication - a dialogue between believers within the denomination,it means understanding and reproduction of identity and integrity of theperson in the religious plane. Religious Communication has a structurethat includes various processes of interaction - communication,socialization, transmission of religious experience, sharing, learninginformation, strengthening relationships – between individual believers,between believers and religious communities, religious institutions,clergy, religious organizations between different religious . Religiouscommunication is both phenomenon zahalnouniversalnym andindividually specific to any particular religious system [11, p. 124]. Thesubject of this communication system is a preacher, whose role is toensure that in the spiritual tension, reflection, report deciphering sacred
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 46information that needs to distribute among the people. Around the entityformed by concentric circles of communication, and accordingMechkovska N. B., preaching is fundamental, original genre ofreligious communication and "photo of his time" (Lyekoy whereMarsh) [11, p. 210]. And then all of a reflection of social and culturalheritage of the people, including Ukrainian.Word – a unit of communication system, understanding theimportance of words, according to V. Bychkova, in Christianityinfluenced three key provisions Christianity. First, more pessimistic,according to which God is the root cause and Creator of the world isone that can not be expressed in words, the other two implementoptimistic soul who seeks to understand Christianity. The first iscontained in the original words of the Gospel of John: "In the beginningwas the Word, and the Word was with God ..." (Iv.1: 1 – 3). His WordGod created the world and man. And if the word is at the beginning, itis vain and human speech. Further strengthens this belief in Christianityposition of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, which is compared with theexpression of thought in words. As the divine Logos in Christ becamethe mediator between God and man, and the human word can be amediator of truth. Hence believers hope for the possibility of verbalcommunication between God and man [1, p. 24].The spiritual life of society – is not static integrity of variouscomponents combined will of some higher unseen entity that can doeverything on their own, self-sufficient entity. Therefore, the spiritualityof the Ukrainian society has countless features and a variety ofapproaches to its analysis, attempts to systematize structuralcomponents, the hierarchy, coordination and subordination of parts. Inany case, society is unacceptable to identify a set of components thatcan build up in the chain sequence, identifying causal relationships andanticipation of subsequent events based on analysis of real concretegivens. Man is the creator of the society, it is of its interests to do reallydesire.Affirm the sovereignty of an independent Ukrainian state leads toincreased scientific research language problems of modernity,pereduvsim native language and its application in the confessional use.In the past she suffered long repression, but remained a reliable sourceof strength and unity of the people, there is the factor of eye identity of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 47the individual, in particular in the religious environment. To clarify theissue of socio-cultural characteristics of the Ukrainian Orthodoxsermon, consider retrospective of his existence.Church sermon delivered in natural language has become a specialphenomenon of the Ukrainian people, which in retrospect was oriented ona combination of the spiritual foundations of Orthodoxy with specialhistorical realities, this particular wrote to I. Ogienko [12, p. 110]. As hewrote M.Hrushevsky, even from the beginning of Christianity in Russia.Metropolitan paid attention to the development of religious consciousnessand religious exclusivity among believers [5, p. 18]. During the life of theUkrainian Orthodox Church preaching the word reflects all the realities ofthe present, which is indicative of their understanding reflected in theoutlook of people. All this can be traced from preaching sermons deliveredHilarion to his contemporaries. Let‟s just do it, but also bring social andhistorical background of the sermon existed and exist today and have aplace of reflection. Since ancient times, we vidshukovuye in preachingsocial foundations that can tell us about contemporary society – its socialand cultural, moral, axiological level. For example in his sermon Hilarion"Sermon on Law and Grace" we we find the statement that: "This gloriousVladimir Kagan our vehicles glorious born, noble noble units. And, comingyears and vigor, zmuzhnivshy in the power of strength and perfect, courageand intent matured, yedynoderzhtsem was his land, conquering in thesurrounding side – the peace and unruly sword. So when he was in his dayshe lived and his ground pass true bravery and thought, hurt his God, lookedat him merciful eye good God and vozsiyav mind in his heart" [8, p. 1]. Wecan analyze this quote in terms of social status of a person, but at the sametime, we note that a considerable emphasis is placed on God‟s presence inall the actions of the ruler.Preaching the word acquired an acute social stress in the mostdifficult times of Ukrainian statehood. For example, from the end of theXV to mid-XVII., The views of a man and the earthly world in thesociety formed a new ideology. It was based not only on the ancientheritage, but the traditions of folk belief. This contributed to therebuilding of culture, which was based on the feeling of joy of life onearth, optimism, asserting physical and spiritual beauty of man. Changingattitudes to the category of beauty which is revealed in the person and realearthly world. All these factors contributed to the spiritual transformation
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 48of Christian culture, which enriched realistic features, exposed folkinfluences. Thus we find data realities in sermons L. Baranovych, whoseworks ("sword of the Spirit," "Pipes of words propovidnyh" and others),delineating the Ukrainian and Polish society of his government and theCatholic Church. Differences L. Baranovych also conducted between the"Little Russians" and "Moscow" [16, p. 7]. A. N. Petruk [14, p. 247]claims that he was always interested in the fate of Ukraine and its people.Lack of harmony in the state (namely "Accord states grow")L. Baranovych explained dimming Ukrainian soul and mind. "Unity ofGod and separation from evil spirit" – he wrote in a letter toF. Sofonovycha (1699), and continues: "It has long been plotting to, toshare it and thus weaken" [6, p. 92] . As suggested above mentionedresearcher in reasoning L. Baranovycha clearly expressed the need toachieve human solidarity and harmony. These findings it certainlysummed frequent conflicts in Ukrainian life, lack of unity andreconciliation, immorality behavior of politicians, relentless struggle forpower, arbitrary powers, constant war and strife. The time in which helived L. Baranovych and contemporary Ukrainian society he called"lyutыmy of time" because, in his opinion, people, as required by JesusChrist, should do everything possible to improve their lives. Reflectingthe ideal human community and the principles of its operation,L Baranovych actually offers a new model of the human self [14, p. 247].In the new socio-historical conditions orthodox sermon takes on anew sound that indicates a new level of existence. At this time dualisticview of human nature, the formation of a hierarchical system of socialvalues, orientation to the human way of reasonable self-terminating andself-conscious – this is where a new reading and perception of Christianliterature and struggle with low human passions and defend Christianmorality. Used in sermons means of natural language suggest-specifichuman faculty communication, reflection and learning environment,specific and universal means of objectification of both individualconsciousness and cultural and religious traditions, complex semioticsystem that develops with society constantly enriched and improved.Socio-cultural genesis reproduced in the language, and therefore in itsorganic component – word that functions as a multivalent always and inevery case can be uniquely human characteristics unique feature of humanactive principles. This multiplicity of words and creative human essence
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 49create the conditions for the prospects of understanding and interpretation,efficient communication and behavioral strategies followers. Extremelyimportant is the aspect of speech in a religious cult, it is not just a word, andits use can be productive or lead to devastating effect.Any word uttered preacher in its essence is the result of reflectionof a man of the world, the problems that exist at present in society.Language as a treasure of the people (and humanity in general) capturesnot only the important stages of historical development, but also thesubtle nuances of the personal life of the individual who interacts withpast and present generations and includes various forms ofcommunication - communication, where there is an exchange of views(sermon built in the form of questions), information (sermon instructivecontent), etc., is a specific form of interaction between people in thecourse of their cognitive activity. Then the priest educates, usesguidelines to its members of the religious community and in this caseapplies for patterns, orthodox traditions and norms of behavior that hasguided each of adherents according to Orthodox canons. Individualidentity and individuality delivered sermons only possible as theintroduction of such rules, which are caused by the needs of the believer.In the socio-cultural process word appears as fixation ethical,religious, aesthetic or other standards of conduct, which reflected thelevel of understanding of spirituality both in theoretical (or everyday)forms, and in practical application. "For moral velychi person as i formental – endless field of activity and constant development. But moralgreatness – is broader because it is available to everyone, while the topis a lot of mental development talent. In this moral velychi zaklykani allwe in Hrysti Isusi. For the development of moral virtues, to helpsubstantially larger Natural nemochi as sumniy legacy grave sin,podarovani us blahodatni power of the Holy Spirit. The word on the dayof St. Troytsi So the moral is that which corresponds to the law ofconscience. Why? Because the human conscience – the voice of God inthe human being. Ap. Paul says that the Gentiles without the law ofGod, doing good from nature, ie velinnyam conscience (Romans 2:15).I an. Peter said that everyone who does good – pleasing to God "("Christ is our life ") [15, p. 2].Since culture has different grades, it is important to address theproblem of human interaction that is the bearer of a society and the role
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 50of speech presented word priest. Here interacting two levels of realitythat are relations of part and whole: the worshiper (the person who isthe representative of a society and a representative of the Orthodoxcommunity) and semantic load preacher speech presented words. Onthis Filaret stressed in his sermon on such variety: "Many in our societybid exists from tiyeyi reason that leaders are not crazy. Some hook or bycrook i seek public office, and state of mind are not. From the State ofthe benefit of such nachalnykiv will not – some do confusion. Otherleaders have mind i know how to manage but do not have a goodconscience. The lack of it leads to abuse of power. When someone whonadilenyy power no deterrent principle that conscience, he could easilytake the path of crime "and" For a Christian any government – not theprosperity and honor, and heavy cross, coupled with large i numerouslabors and cares. Want to have power over others - be prepared fordifficulties i naberysya terpinnya "(" Against ambition ") [15, p. 3].Conclusions. Thus, summarizing the above, we express the beliefthat the Ukrainian Orthodox preaching the word, like religion ingeneral, are inherently social phenomenon and historical nature. Thisrealization provides prerequisites objective interpretation of thephenomenon – regular and repeater-old heir to the socio-cultural andspiritual traditions, reflecting all social transformations of the Ukrainianethnos in difficult conditions of its formation. Considerable attention tothe problems of preaching and preaching the word in church life, isunderstandable. She explained above the main function of the sermon asa special genre of oratorical prose and variety arts –communication,explaining its symbolic and sacred meaning.List of sources and literature1. Bychkova V. Aesthetisa ratrum. Aesthetics fathers of the Church[Text] / V. Bychkova. - M.: Ladomir, 19952. Braga D. How to prepare a sermon bybleyskuyu [Text] / D. Braga.- St. Petersburg., 2000. - 171s.3. Vigovsky LA Functionality religion: nature and manifestations[Text] / L. Vigovsky. - National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,Department of Religious Philosophy Institute. GSSkovoroda;Khmelnitsky University of Management and Law. - K.;Khmelnytsky, 2004.-340 p.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 514. Gavrilyuk T.V. Supernatural as a source of building laws of humansociety [Text] / T. Hawryluk / / Scientific Bulletin of ChernivtsiUniversity. Philosophy. Sciences. collection. - Chernivtsi, 2004. -Vyp.203-204. - S. 276-280.5. Hrushevsky M. History of Religious Thought in Ukraine [Text] /Hrushevsky. - K., 1992.-145s.6. Selected letters Lazarus Baranovych [Text] / / Chernihiv Athens. -K., 2002. - P.58-173, 927. Ivano IV On the Ukrainian literary Baroque [Text] / I. Ivano / /Ukrainian literary Baroque: Proc. Sciences. prats.-K.: Scientificthought, 1987.-P.30-302s.8. Hilarion, Metropolitan. Sermon on Law and vlahodat [electronicresource] / http://litopys.org.ua/oldukr/ilarion.htm9. Marusyak M. Pastoral Theology [Text] / M. Marusyak. -Chernivtsi,2006., P.50-5110. Matsko LI Matsko A. Rhetoric: Training. important among. - 2nded., Sr. [Text] / L. Matsko, O.Matsko - K.: Higher HQ., 2006. -311P.11. Mechkovskaya NB Language and religion. Lectures on thephilosophy of history and religion [Text] / N. Mechkovskaya. -Moscow, 1998.-352p.12. Ogienko I. Ukrainian Church: Essays on the history of theUkrainian Orthodox Church: In 2 volumes: T. 1-2. [Text] /I.Ogienko : Ukraine, 1993.-284s.13. Petrushkevich MS Elements Orthodox communication system[Text] / M. Petrushkevich / / Ukrainian religious studies. Bulletinof the Ukrainian Association of Religious Studies Department ofReligious Studies and Philosophy Institute. GSSkovoroda NationalAcademy of Sciences of Ukraine. - K., 2006. - № 39. - S. 79 – 92.14. Petruk NK Informal fellowship and formation principles of self-organization of society (based on the history of Ukrainian Baroque)[text] / N. Petruk / / Ukrainian Studies. - 2006. - № 1. - P.245-24915. Filaret Sermons [electronic resource] / Filaret /http://www.hram.kiev.ua/index.php?mode=books&cat=1416. Black L.Problema update Ukrainian society in philosophy LazarusBaranovych [Text] Abstract. dis. kand.filos.nauk ...: 09.00.05 / L.Black, Dnipropetrovsk National universytet.-D., 2011.-18C.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 52UDC 1:82-92«17»V. Y. MyshkovOLD BELIEVERS POLEMICAL LITERATUREOF THE 18TH CENTURY AND ITS PHILOSOPHICALMEANINGIn this article the author described the development of OldBeliever polemicalliterature in the 18th century, reveals itsphilosophical meaning and influence ofpolemical literature on theformation of Old Believer religious practice.Keywords: polemical iterature, split, Old Believers, old-printedbooks (books published in Russia before the 17th century), churchreform.Introduction. It shall be mentioned that the Rus‟ Old ritualism isa diversified phenomenon of not only Russian, but also Ukrainianculture, a peculiar phenomenon of our history. During more than threecenturies of its existence it showed an endless spiritual force and thesocietal opportunities, lying in its basis. In the XIX century, whilespeaking about the value of the Old ritualism, philosopherV. G. Senatov noted that – "it is a peculiar world, with its own ideas,culture, and its own historical and even universal tasks" [10, p. 17].It is worth saying that the reform of Muscovite Orthodox churchin the 60s of the XVII century, and, as a consequence, a church raskol(schism), gave life to such a complicated and controversial phenomenonas the Rus‟ Old ritualism. It was caused by the activity of MuscovitePatriarch Nicon who made adjustments to liturgical books andconducted reforms of church rites based on the Greek example.However, nonconformity with church reforms of the MuscovitePatriarch was only a superficial expression of social protest. The churchreform of Patriarch Nicon has not changed the main dogmas of theOrthodox religion. It was the centralization and reinforcement of churchpower that caused protests of all society strata.In her opportune remark L. M. Schugayeva noted that itbecomes clear that the fight for "old church" renaissance has unitedeveryone who was unsatisfied: using religious mottos the courtnobility (boyars) walked out against autocracy strengthening and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 53oppressions; the merchants were unhappy about economic conditionof the Muscovite State; the archers were unsatisfied with being putaside of military actions after creation of regular soldier formations;the peasants and the poor stood against increasing oppression andtaxes; the clergy – against authoritarianism and absolute power ofNicon [13, p. 23].However, the number of believers who joined the Old ritualistsallows speaking about religious and clerical importance of the Oldritualists‟ movement. It should be kept in mind that belonging to theOrthodox faith, not nationality or social status had a primary role inRus‟: a person who was baptized and joined the Orthodox church couldbe treated like a person of Rus‟ and be a part of one Orthodox people.From the moment of schism, a part of Muscovite society treated anotherpart, mostly the upper strata and the clergy as heretics, religiousapostates i.e. as such that belong to another people, another cultural andreligious community. This has created a deep spiritual and outlookcrisis. Tries of some people to come out of this ideological and outlookcrisis in the society resulted into new spiritual and polemical literature,in which the authors described their own perception of the churchschism problem.Research topicality. According to prevailing opinions inhistorical science of the Russian Empire period, Old ritualism is a sectwith an insignificant number of members, most of whom are low-educated and stubborn people, ready to die «for one az», who do nothave their own outlook priorities, philosophical search andeschatological ideas. This popular opinion which, unfortunately, stillenjoys a great popularity, was formed by Russian historiansV. Tatyshchev, S. Solovyov, S. Platonov to please the state authorities.During the Soviet period the issue of the Old ritualism philosophiclegacy was not covered. Passiveness of the scientists, when it comes tothis issue, resulted into the fact that the entire stratum of the Oldritualism literature is not studied, and its philosophical and historicalvalue is not revealed. That is the reason why our work is necessary andits topicality leaves no doubts.Statement of the research objective. The article is devoted toresearch of the Old ritualism polemic literature and its role in formationof philosophical views of the Old ritualists. It can be studied in the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 54context of historical science or be treated as an independent object ofphilosophical cognition. The main purpose of the research is to analyzephilosophical aspect of the Old ritualism doctrine; to show that theopinions of the Old ritualism thinkers in ontology, philosophy ofhistory, epistemology, and hermeneutics are genetically and logicallyconnected with previous Orthodox religious and philosophicalconceptualizations.Such specific problems are solved in the research in order toachieve the set objective: Determine ontological conceptualizations of the Old ritualistsabout interrelation of form and content, essence and phenomenon, thatare opened in polemics against change of external form of church riteand were later developed in the inner Old ritualists‟ discussion; Show ontological ground of conflict between traditionauthority and hierarchy authority, which creates an epistemological taskof choice to be made by a person while searching for the verity; Analyze hermeneutic principles and methods which were usedby Old ritualism scribes while interpreting and analyzing ancient textswith different grades of plausibility.Our work is aimed at studying philosophical respect of the Oldritualism which is defined above all not by national peculiarity but witha supernational common Orthodox outlook. We shall try to overcome astereotypic identification of national form of the Old ritualismphenomenon with its essence, and show that the latter, notwithstandinga common opinion, is of the Orthodox, not national nature.Research results. In accordance with the concept which is thebasis of our research, the Old ritualism literature, first of all apologeticand polemic, is an adequate spiritual reaction of a traditional Orthodoxoutlook at external violent infringement which threatened to distortimmanent properties of this outlook. Due to peculiarities of itsepistemological conceptualizations, Orthodox Christian thought hasalways been reactionary by its nature: deep philosophic anddogmatically substantiated presentation of the most important theses ofthe study was a consequence of necessity to react on externalinfluences – refute the heresy and false doctrine which wereinadmissible for the Orthodoxy. It can be said that intellectual activityof the Orthodox outlook defenders which found its expression in Old
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 55ritualism literature, can be described by a scheme «challenge-answer»А. Toynibi [11, p. 107].Let us state that before the Patriarch Nicon reform, Rus‟religious life, social conscious and life of the society in general havenot known any spiritual stresses of such a great scale. The churchreform has become a "challenge" which required a provable andsubstantial answer and combined logical correctness of Byzantium-Rus‟ Christian tradition. While solving the posed problem, Orthodoxtraditionalism, which was closed before that, opens up and expressesits opinions of the most important problems. In the course ofpolemics, in search of argumentation, the parties of the dispute havebrought into motion the religious heritage cumulated by Bizantium-Rus‟ philosophic thought.The dispute made the polemists research and study the notionalapparatus of the Orthodox outlook very thoroughly because everycategory, term and definition, from the most general to the most specificpassed a test by discussion. Observing the polemics between the Oldritualists and followers of Nicon, its inner logics, arguments of theparties and ways of the arguments application enables seeing theOrthodox religious and philosophic outlook "in action", defineontological and epistemological conceptualization typical for it. In orderto show how these conceptualizations, descending to early Christianityand patristics period were perceived, developed and elaborated by theOld ritualism thinkers we will briefly analyze philosophic andpublicistic heritage of the Old ritualism, in particular polemic literatureof the ХVIII century [1, p. 16].It is worth mentioning that critics of the Old ritualism point out atits narrow religious problematic, absence of famous theological andphilosophical figures, and in doing so – speak about deficiency ofphilosophic searches of the Old ritualists. We consider such opinion tobe incorrect, because among the Old ritualists there have been thinkerswhose spiritual authority was recognized by representatives of not onlysecular power, but also of the New ritualism Church. It is enough tomention Archpriest Avvacum, Icon Epiphany, «northern Zlatoust» – theideologist of non-violent resistance of the Solovki monk Gerontyi(Riazanov), famous polemist Hierodeacon Oleksandr Kerzhenskyi, theauthor of the theory of Old ritualism substantiation Andrii Denysov. It
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 56is also worth mentioning that the most famous philosophic works whichunfold religious search of the Old ritualists – works of Avvacum ,"Solovetskaya chelobitnaya (Solovki prayer) ", "Pomorski vidpovidi(Pomorsk answers) " , "Shchyt viry (Shield of faith) " , "Mechduhovnyi (Spiritual sword)" , theological works by Bishop ArseniiUralskii (Shvetsov), Andrii Denysov, Ivan Kyrylov and manyothers [1, p. 34].One of the most popular and honoured works in the Old ritualistcommunity was "Solovetska Cholobytna". The fifth prayer of Solovkimonks to Tsar Oleksii Mykhailovych of 22 September 1668 is famousunder this name. Monk Gerontii (Grygorii Ivanovych Riazanov) was itsauthor. The work offers a critical analysis of church innovations, pointsat totalitarian character of the convocation of 1666, which is untypicalnot only for the Rus‟ church, but also for the worlds Orthodoxy. Theauthority of New ritualism church and old Orthodox religious traditionare confronted in the prayer. The work is completed by a request to letthe monks retain the pre-Nicon liturgy and not make them pass to theNew ritualism [11, p. 58].Andrii Denysov (1674-1730) belongs to the greatesttheological figures of the Old ritualism. Being a member of theBezpopovtsy (priestless) community of Danylo Vikulich, in 1694 hebecomes one of the founders of Vygovski desert and gained anauthority not only among the Old ritualists, but also among a part ofthe Nicon clergy. Andrii Denysov was the founder of Vygovskiliterature-philosophical school which existed till the ХІХ centuryand had a considerate influence upon establishing of Old ritualistsphilosophical opinions.It has been proved that А. Denysov was the author of "Deacon(or Kerzhensk) answers", of 1719, written upon the request of abbotPityrym. The "Answers" present a deep comparative research of OldRus‟ and New ritualism church norms . As argumentation for hisopinion, Denysov gives examples from dozens of old Orthodoxbooks, Orthodox iconography, church archeology and history. Weemphasize that this book does not simply systematize separate facts.The author shows his analytical skills, ability to give logicalevidences, use polemic methods, which shows high educational levelof Denysov.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 57We would like to draw attention to the fact that the author‟stheological skills were mostly brightly expressed in his polemics withthe New ritualism missionary Neophyte, who concentrated on suchnotions as "ancientry", "history", "verity", "Orthodox tradition" in hisquestions. A. Denysov answered these questions in his work "Pomorskividpovidi (Pomorsk answers) " of 1723 . It was this work to becomethe first to present the Old ritualism not only with denying Niconinnovations, but also with sufficient historical and theologicalsubstantiation of its own outlook ideas.To our mind, this book is the most successful, full and consistentpresentation of the main principles of the Old ritualism and theirdifference from the New ritualism church. That is why it was spreadamong all the Old ritualists. However, some crucial moments of"Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers)" were written from theBezpopovtsy point of view. In this work А. Denysov proved to benot just an education historian, paleograph, but mostly a philosopherwith his own deep system of views at fundamental problems of churchhistory philosophy, cognition theory, interaction between the materialand the spiritual. Among the most essential outlook, theological andphilosophic ideas of "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers)" it isworth placing emphasis on a separate study of truly Orthodox belief as amain characteristics of the Church, which is more important than just aformality. The idea of forced filling of the material side of churchrituals with the belief, and of admissible diversity of forms forexpressing the church verity .On the whole, "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers)", hasbecome a formally completed work which generalized dogmaticdifferences between the Old ritualism and the New ritualism. In themiddle of the XVIII century the intellectual centre of gravity wasshifted to inner polemics between the Popovtsy (priested ones) and theBezpopovtsy (the priestless). "Shchit viry (shield of faith)" and "Mechduhovnyi (Spiritual sword)" are considered to be the most noted worksof this period."Shchit viry (shield of faith)" is a polemic work which formulatedanswers of the Old ritualist-Bezpopovets to 382 questions of thePopovtsy, Tymofei Andreyev is considered to be the author .Therefore, the above mentioned work is a fundamental monument of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 58polemics between the main streams in the Old ritualism. "Mechduhovnyi (Spiritual sword)" – is a work by Old-ritualist BezpopovetsOleksii Samoylovych, and is directed against the religious practice ofthe Old ritualists-Popovtsy .It could seem that the dispute about whether the New ritualismchurch has fully lost its blessing, spiritual sense, or it was only damagedby the innovations and whether its bishops and priests who wanted tojoin the Old ritualism could be accepted, had a very narrow specifics.However, the counter-parties of the polemics, mostly the Bezpopovtsy,referred to the grounds of their own outlook, to the most generalprinciples of the Bizantium-Rus‟ philosophical thought. The polemicsraised the following questions: interconnection between the form andthe content of the religious being, realization of historical contextprinciples and ways of texts interpretation, eschatological problem ofthe end of the universal history, study of spiritual communion andspiritual Antichrist. Solving these problems should have correlateddogmatic conclusions with historical reality. The dispute among the Oldritualists has raised the religious-philosophic conscience of the Oldritualism thinkers to a new qualitative level [5, p. 78].It should be noted that all the members of the Old ritualismcommunity could participate in the discussion, not just the educatedelite. The polemics could take place among ordinary readers fromdifferent villages with the active participation of the entire population.According to О. М. Shahov: – "It could happen only among the Oldritualists when an entire village, having taken a cart with books, went toa neighbors‟ village to hold a dispute about belief. While the polemicswith synod missioners was mostly of self-protection character, themotive power of internal Old ritualism polemics was a striving to getback "the lost lambs" to the Gods truth" [12, p. 107].We emphasize that a desire to participate in religious discussionsdemanded a high competence and education, which was generallytypical for the Old ritualists. This opinion is confirmed by the works ofpre-revolutionary researches of Old ritualism who state that theeducative level of the Old ritualists was much higher than that of thepart of population that belonged to the Synod church. Among the Oldritualists, illiteracy was more an exclusion than a rule, even in the mostremote settlements, and even among the women. The constant need to
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 59protect the ideals of their own belief stimulated the development ofmental activity. It was exactly this that was described byM. I. Kostomarov, "… a Russian man in a schism received a kind ofeducation, formed his own culture and learned the script more actively.The schismatic outlook was extended as much as reading of the Holyscript and spiritual literature favored it. Even if the disputes abouthallelujah of supplication and eight pointed cross seemed deprived ofsense, they trained an ability of the Russian man to contemplate in orderto substantiate and defend his own opinion" [6, p. 94].Let us note that in spite of the fact that education was mostly ofreligious direction, it was typical for the Old ritualists to have deepknowledge of secular sciences – history, paleography, philology. Thepolemics between the Bezpopovtsy and the Popovtsy became definedand stabilized in outlook sense at the beginning of the ХІХ century andwas maintained by partial elaborations of historical, church and legalcharacter.Conclusions. Thus, the Old ritualism is a prominent but detachedphenomenon in the Russian culture of the XVIII century. Inphilosophical and ideological sense it stands closer to philosophicalsearches of the Medieval Rus world, than to the world culturecontemporary to it.Let us mention, that the eighteens century was a period ofintellectual rise in the Old ritualism. It was exactly that time when themain ideological problems were solved in the Old ritualists‟environment. Those were the problems that completed and developedthe system of the Orthodox study regarding the new historical situationwhich did not have direct analogues in the past.Leaving the Orthodox dogmatics outside the scope of research, itmust be admitted that the conclusions and interpretations, made by theOld ritualism thinkers, descending to the Orthodox ideological axioms,obtained by means of reasoning, are rather well substantiated from thepoint of view of general laws of thinking. In philosophical respect, onecan trace logical interconnections of ontological, epistemological,historiosophical and text interpretation ideas in the Old ritualismdoctrine. These ideas could be substantiated by the way of developmentwhich was typical for the intellectual legacy of the Bizantium-Rus‟religious and philosophical ideas.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 60At the initial period of the schism and during the ХVІІІ centurythe problem of distortion of the relationships between the God and theman which appeared due to reform of the Patriarch Nicon and theconvocation activity of 1666-1667 was in the centre of attention of theOld ritualism theologians. We have analyzed the ontological sense ofthe conflict between the Old ritualists and the Reformists. The Oldritualism literature contains a detailed discussion of the study aboutunity of verbal and nonverbal means of verity expression. In accordancewith this study, the verity had two forms of expression which wereinterrelated and could not exist separately. The material form of verityexpression is represented by symbols and images which express theideal sense. The external form is self-exposure, expression of the senseof the acting subject.Thus, the idea of the inseparable connection of the ideal andmaterial form of verity expression was substantiated in philosophicaldoctrines of the Old ritualism thinkers which stated that distortion ofexternal forms of the church rituals could not influence their idealinternal content. Therefore, the transcendent blissful sense stoppedexisting in them, and, consequently, the Nicon church became a human-made organization, deprived of the blessing and connection with thehead of the true Church – the Christ.The performed analysis of the sense and content ofepistemological aspect of polemics between the Old ritualists and theNew ritualists enables stating that the Old ritualism works of theXVIII century contain an all-round comprehension of interrelationbetween the notions "verity – authority – personality", which is basedon ideological and theoretical heritage of the eastern Orthodoxy. Thechoice between the two sources and two criteria of verity – the authorityof the church Script and Reproduction, and the authority of the rulinghierarchy was made by the Old ritualist based on methodology whichdescended to the most general principles of the Christian outlook,historical and philosophical science. This enables speaking aboutpresence of a system of epistemological conceptualizations, constructedin accordance with the general laws of thinking. The system is usablefor deduction of the conclusions which are connected with theestimation of specific historical situations.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 61List of sources and literature1. Бахтина О. Н. Старообрядческая литература и традициихристианского понимания слова / О. Н. Бахтина / – Томск. :Изд-во Томск, ун-та, 1999. – 261 с.2. Денисов С. Виноград Российский или описание пострадавшихв России за древлецерковное благочестие. – / Симеон Денисов/ М. : Старообрядческое изд-во «Третий Рим» – 2008 – 355 с.3. Диаконовы ответы // Приложение к журналу «Старообрядец»,Н. Новгород, 1906. – 8, XXII. – 294 с.4. Житие протопопа Авакума, им самим написанное, и другиеего сочинения. – М. : Госполитиздат, 1960. – 479 с.5. Кириллов И. А. Правда старой веры. /И. А. Кириллов / – М. :Тип. Тов-ва Рябушинских, 1916. – 546 с.6. Костомаров Н. И. История раскола у раскольников // Собраниесочинений / Н. И. Костомаров / – СПб., 1905. – Т.12. – 418 с.7. Меч духовный. – [Електронний ресурс]. Режим доступу:http: // starajavera.narod.ru / . Дата доступу: 10.11.2011.8. Поморские ответы («Ответы пустынножителей на вопросыиеромонаха Неофита») – [Електронний ресурс] Режимдоступу: http://www.pomorian.org/archives/27. Дата доступу:23.11.2011.9. Пустозерский сборник: Автографы сочинений Аввакума иЕпифания. – Л. : Наука, 1975. – 263 с.10. Сенатов В. Г. Философия истории старообрядчества / В.Г. Сенатов / – М. : Изд. Союза старообрядческих начетчиков. –1908. – Bып. 1. – 104 с., вып. 2. – 95 с.11. Тойнбі А. Дослідження історії – / А. Тойнбі / – К. : Основи. –1995. – 614 с.12. Шахов М. О. Философские аспекты староверия /М. О. Шахов / – М. : Третий Рим, 1998. – 207 с.13. Шугаєва Л. Православне сектантство в Україні: особливостітрансформації / Л. М. Шугаєва /– Рівне, 2007. – 190 с.14. Щит веры. [Електронний ресурс] Режим доступу:http: // starajavera.narod.ru / . Дата доступу: 17.11.2011.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 62UDC 27:140.8N. I. KobernikSOCIAL-CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THEWORLDVIEW FORMATION OF CYRIL AND METHODIUSThe article is devoted to the analysis of the essential religious,scientific and cultural factors influencing the worldview formation ofCyril and Methodius.Key words: Byzantine culture, Christianization, iconoclasts,iconodules, Scholasticism, Christianity.Problem Statement. Historical-philosophical process – is notjust abstract ideas, views, opinions, but also people with their search oftruth, doubts, opinions and beliefs. Therefore, an integral part ofhistorical-philosophical research of any thinker and his doctrine, shouldbe research of factors that influenced their formation and development,identifying traditions that had an impact on their conformation.The task of this article is to analyze political, social and culturalfactors that had some influence on worldview formation of twobrothers – Cyril and Methodius, which entered our intellectual cultureas Slavic apostles, creators of Slavic writing system and liturgy inAncient Slavic language, teachers, philosophers, founders of modernintellectual culture of Slavs. In ecclesiastic tradition they are calledSaints Cyril and Methodius and in Orthodox tradition they are alsoequal to apostles. Both brothers were canonized by both Eastern(orthodox) and Western (catholic) church. In 1980 Pope Ioannes PaulusII declared Cyril and Methodius "patrons" of Europe.Summary. Who were they in fact? What is their phenomenon?What ideas inspired and shaped their philosophical views and vision ofthe world? To answer these questions, let us analyze social and culturalenvironment in which the future apostles and teachers lived.Constantine (monk name Cyril) (826-869) and his elder brotherMethodius (820-855) were from an honorable aristocratic family, whichlived in Solon in Macedonia. Solon, in those times, was the secondcapital of Eastern Roman Empire – Byzantine. It was an importantcenter which spread culture among Slavs. Christianity appeared inSolon very early, it was implemented there by apostle Paul. The
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 63population was divided into two classes – the upper, city class whichconsisted of Greeks and the lower, consisting of Slavs. Such socialdivision was influenced by economic and trade relations betweendifferent ethnic groups, which lived on the territory of SouthernMacedonia and Eastern Roman Empire [4, p. 14].Byzantine civilization had an exceptional place in the historyof world culture. All eastern provinces of Roman Empire were partsof Byzantine: Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, part of Transcaucasia,Syria, Palestine, Egypt. The population of Byzantine, which wasabout 30-50 million people, consisted of different ethnic groups.However the primary role in economics, political life and culturewas played by the Greeks; the state language since VII century andtill the end of Byzantine was Greek. Byzantine culture is a synthesisof Western and Eastern cultures, intertwinement of European andAsian influences, Greek-Roman and Eastern traditions. Greek-Roman, in fact Byzantine culture was enriched by elements ofcultures of many Eastern nations. Byzantine culture had a significantimpact on culture of Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro,Bosnia, Albania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Armenia. Onthe other hand, Byzantine contacts with such countries as Georgiaand Armenia and also constant constructive contacts with Slaviccultures, which excepted Byzantine model of Christianity, enrichedthe culture of Byzantine.In IX–X centuries Byzantine culture was connected with a newrise of Constantinople and other provincial cities, such as Solon.Byzantine apostles lived and worked in this period [2, p. 153].The basis of Byzantine culture was Christianity. Ideologicalconception of Byzantine Christianity was first formulated by Eusebiusof Caesarea (265-339) who was a contemporary of Constantine theGreat. The conception stated that each conquest of nations by Byzantineempire was an accomplishment of Christianity. Therefore, religion andpolitics were united in their goals, the main of which wasChristianization of Slavs, which populated Central, South-Eastern andEastern Europe in.IX-X centuries. It was Christianization which played a crucialrole in nations establishment, softening of interethnic conflics,consolidation of countries, structuring and sacralization of hierarchical
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 64power. It guaranteed unity of each nation based on their religion,language, culture; it opened ways to enter European culture process. Onthe other hand Byzantine imposed its diplomatic relations.Byzantine led continuous ideological wars in the North, West,East and South. In order to keep a powerful position in the world, itwas important to convince gentile neighbors in advantages ofByzantine orthodox Christianity. It was necessary because newnations that settled next to the Empire faced a choice of differentreligions that existed in those times and consequently chose thecountry which would be a guide in their own cultural development.Therefore they had a choice between Muslim Arab caliphate, Judaismor Catholicism of new Roman Empire of Charles the Great. Apartfrom ideological trend, christianization of nations had its politicaltrend. In the middle of IX century the country with its center in Kyivgets its political and military power. Byzantine was worried with thedevelopment of a new state. Construction of defense walls did notgive its results. Byzantine decided to protect its interests by spreadingChristianity in the area of Southern Black Sea region because it didnot hope to suppress the expansion of Kyiv Prince (Kyivskyi Knyazh).In those times the Southern Black Sea region was under the influenceof Khozar country. Islam and Judaism, as well as paganism, hadstrong positions in Khozar society; but there were Christians there aswell. However there was not enough strength to start Christianization.This issue became especially relevant after a successful campaign ofPrince Askold on Constantinople in June 860. And as stated by M.Kril – a respected historian, professor of Lviv National Universitynamed after I. Franko – "this political situation was one of the reasonsof missionary of Constantine and Methodius to Khozar country, whichhad, first of all, a diplomatic goal to protect near-border lands ofByzantine from external attacks" [1, p. 2].Later missionary brothers would nail down their experience inCentral Europe, where in the middle of IX century a powerful Slavicstate appeared – Great Moravia with its center in Velegrad. In Moravianmission the byzantine emperor and patriarch saw a wonderfulopportunity to free Great Moravia from the influence of Roman church.Of course, such mission could only be accomplished by very educatedand intelligent preachers. Such were Constantine and Methodius.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 65Even though Christianization came from two centers –Constantinople and Rome, flexible policy of Byzantine church turnedout to be more effective, since it was led by more diplomatic ways. Theheiress of ancient culture – Byzantine was striving towards ideologicalinfluence through education and instruction, relying on its theologicalresearch authority. Byzantine not only helped to translate SacredWritings into other languages but also create writing systems for nationswhich did not have it. That‟s how Christian Egyptians, Goths,Armenians, and finally Slavs got their writing systems.Special importance in the development of Byzantine Christianitybelongs to such phenomenon as confrontation between Iconoclasts andtheir opponents, iconodules. Iconoclasm – is a social-political andreligious movement in Byzantine in VII–IX centuries, against the cultof icons. Iconoclasm is the belief that there should not be religiouspictures or sacred images or religious monuments because they are seenas a form of idolatry. Iconoclasm condemned the making of any lifelessimage (e.g. painting or statue) that was intended to represent Jesus orone of the saints. For iconoclasts, the only real religious image must bean exact likeness of the prototype – of the same substance- which theyconsidered impossible, seeing wood and paint as empty of spirit andlife. Thus for iconoclasts the only true (and permitted) "icon" of Jesuswas the Eucharist, the Body and Blood of Christ, according to Catholicdoctrine.Iconodules proved different. They stated that the icon should beviewed as the visible vision of a prototype. Therefore when a personworships an icon, it is not just an image but a prototype. One of themost famous leaders of iconodules was a scholar and a philosopherJohn of Damascus, a follower – Theodore the Studite – author ofcanons, sacred songs, epigrams of monk‟s life.The striving between iconoclasts and iconodules ended with thevictory of the later. This period should be considered an importantperiod of Byzantine culture development, when medieval patristics wasintensively established and formed [3, p. 155–156].Besides, striving between iconoclasts and iconodules – is aconfrontation between two views of Greek intellectual – conservativeand liberal, which influenced the work of Cyril and Methodius. Unlikeconservatives, who were not very educated, did not like science and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 66considered it useless and even harmful for religion, liberals, on thecontrary, highly praised education, adjusted to political situation of thetime, conformed not only traditions but new achievements of culture aswell. Besides they were very open-minded in religion and religiousmatters, they supported and lobbied the idea of using alive nationallanguage, for example, Slavic in a church liturgy. Liberals fought notonly against the conservatism of Ignatius, but also maintained theirindependence from Rome, Western church, which supported threelanguage heresy [3, p. 36-39]. In those times, it was considered thatliturgy is legitimate only if it is in one of three languages – Latin, Greekand Ancient Hebrew.This ideological fight influenced the views of Constantine andMethodius in a way that they were the first to discuss the issue of aliturgy language. They not only translated the Sacred writings intoSlavic language, but also created the writing system of Slavs. Modernwriting system was implemented when Christianity was adopted.Moreover Christian apostles Cyril and Methodius are considered thefathers of Slavic literatures, first Slavic scribes and founders ofschools.Therefore, Christian religion became a significant source ofphilosophical ideas and views of Cyril and Methodius, changed theirworldview, shaped their way of thinking, directed their intellectualambitions. Their primary task was to introduce Slavs to Sacred Writing.The worldview formation of Slavic apostles was not onlyinfluenced by religion but also by world science. Byzantine science wasbased on Sacred Writing, on the one hand, and on ancient literaturewhich was widely read and studied, on the other. A famous Russianhistorian Lebedev A. P., when analyzing Byzantine culture, identifiedits three primary features: first of all, close connection between science and religion.Such union guaranteed successful development of the later. In schoolsstudents studied Law, Maths, Philosophy but also religious studies.Patriarch Photios was a vivid example of such combination; he taughtHumanities in Magnaura School in Constantinople. His students werenot only scholars but also speakers, philosophers and mathematicians; second significant feature of Byzantine education – is lack oforiginality. Byzantine was a heiress of Ancient Rome and Greece. Its
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 67conservative intellectuals did not strive to expand their knowledge. Wefind very few unique works in history, poetry, philosophy, literature.Byzantine intellectual activity demonstrated itself in rare compilations.(compilation – is a collection of works based on someone‟sachievements without personal input and data processing). The mosttypical phenomenon in terms of compilation were two works – afamous Library written by Photios and no less famous work ofConstantine Porphyrogennetos "On Ceremonies of Byzantine Court"; the third distinct feature of Byzantine science – is generalityof knowledge of each scholar, in other words lack of scientificspecialization.However based on all features of Byzantine science we shouldnot make a conclusion that intellectual activity of Byzantine was low.On the contrary, Byzantine was center of literature, philosophy andcivilization. Young people from Italy, France, Bulgaria and the Eastwere moving to Byzantine.Byzantine was rather educated. Schools existed not only inConstantinople, but in small towns where Bible was studied and alsoworks of Greek and Roman scholars, poems of Homer, tragedies ofAeschylus and Sophocles.In the family of Byzantine midranking commander Lev, whereCyril and Methodius were born and raised, scholarship was highlyvalued. Methodius who was older followed his father‟s career of amilitary man. For his courage and bravery the emperor appointed himthe governor in one of the conquered Slavic lands. This, apparently, lethim get acquainted with language, customs, culture of local population.Having served in military for 10 years and having made quite aprominent career and promoted to the level of a governor in one ofMacedonian provinces, Methodius abandoned family life, became amonk and a prior not far from the city Olympus.A younger brother – Constantine was distinguished for hiscapability to learning from early childhood. He received his educationtogether with the young emperor Michael III in one of the bestinstitutions in Medieval Europe, which from the beginning ofVII century was The School of Constantinople (founded in 425). One ofits lecturers was a famous scholar Leo the Mathematician, who travelleda lot and visited different monasteries, studied philosophy and math
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 68with a famous teacher Michael Psellos, spent days and nights in thelibrary. His main achievements were in Astronomy and Geometry.Emperor Fiofiy opened for Leo the Mathematician a public school inMagnaura palace, where the scholar taught philosophy. Leo theMathematician was awarded with honors and privileges and in 839 hereceived a title of an archbishop. One of his students was a famousSlavic apostle – Constantine [3, p. 135].Of one Constantine‟s most famous teachers was Photios (futurepatriarch) – famous writer, state and religious leader. He gathered a lotof students and turned his own house into an academy. Photios assignedhis students to create a huge Lexicon based on previous editions ofdictionaries, Ancient and Byzantine literature. The most prominentwork of Photios is – "Bibliotheka" or "Myriobiblon" which consisted of28 chapters. It contained information about Greek grammarians,speakers, historians, philosophers, doctors. According to some scholarsByzantine period of the IX century should be called "the area ofPhotios" because of the influence that he had and the impact of hisworks on future generations. Photios achieved great success in allsciences – poetry and philosophy, medicine and law, philology andrhetoric [3, p. 132–133].The state secretary and Minister of Finances himself wasresponsible for Constantine‟s education. Constantine studied grammar,rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, dialectics, showedinterest in Homer‟s poems, Sophocles‟ tragedies. He paid significantattention to the works of Gregory the Theologian – one of the mostprominent religious leaders.It was Constantinople where the future Slavic apostle Cyrilformed his mature philosophical orientations on the Christian basis.However spells of philosophical thinking appeared in his young age.Constantine, as a son of rich parents, together with his peers wenthunting for hawks. As soon as he let the hawk a strong wind blew andcarried the hawk away. The boy was very upset. Thinking about theconsolations of life, Constantine said, "What kind of life is that whenhappiness soon brings grief. From now on I will follow a different path,better than this one, so that I could escape from vanity oflife" [4, p. 328].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 69During his studies Constantine showed interest in philosophy ofPlato and Aristotle. Generally speaking Platonism and Aristotelianism –are two trends that had a lot of followers in Byzantine church. As statedby the Russian researcher of the history of church "Aristotle and hisphilosophy played the primary role in Byzantine church of those times".This is due to the fact that church doctrines had already been set andjustified. The church only had to reveal and understand them. And thisis possible with the help of logical, analytical and forms of Aristotle.Any scholastic forms could be built based on Aristotle‟s dialecticswithout touching upon the content of theologian doctrines. AroundIX century "The father of Byzantine scholastic" John Damascus, authorof "Fountain of Knowledge" showed a sample of applying Aristotle‟sdialectics to developing religious questions. Photios was also thesupporter of Aristotle. In his theologian works he followed the wayintroduced by Damascus. He allowed together with Aristotle thedivision of philosophy into natural, ethic and metaphysics [3, p. 140–141].Constantine himself identified "philosophy as perception ofGod‟s and people‟s deeds since the person can approach the God; itteaches the person through some actions to be closer to ourcreator" [4, p. 330].Young Constantine studied all sciences, learned languages, wrotepoems, was the master of philosophic discussions and debates, readreligious works. After finishing his studies he worked as a librarian in acathedral of St. Sophia in Constantinople. Soon he took the gown andwas appointed the first secretary of a patriarch.Later Constantine left the capital and despising the advantages ofhis status, secretly went to the monastery on the coast of the Black Sea.Around 851 the emperor appointed Photios a state chancellor.Constantine took his position of a philosophy lecturer. Since that timehe took part in different discussions in philosophy and theology, whichprove Constantine‟s art of speaking, logic of teaching andargumentation of statement. Victories in debates with famous scholarsand theologians won him wide popularity in Byzantine‟s capital.Apparently, that‟s why he was called a philosopher [1, p. 2].Since then the emperor together with Photios constantly sent
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 70Constantine and Methodius as Byzantine ambassadors to neighboringcountries to strengthen and extend Christian doctrines.St. Cyril and Methodius got the right to be called Slavic apostlesbecause they were the first to translate church books into the languageunderstood by wide population, evangelize the culture of Slavic nations.Lead by the idea of Christian love, which they advocated, trying to savethe soul of every person through Christian values, Solon brothersConstantine and Methodius carried the source of culture and spirituality,in advance of his time for many centuries.Conclusion. The formation of Slavic apostles Cyril andMethodius as cultural and spiritual leaders happened in religious,Christian, scientific, social and cultural atmosphere of Byzantine inIX century.Their outreach activities were oriented towards transformationinto the Slavic world all achievements and Greek-Roman Christianthought. They recognized themselves as descendants and successors ofancient tradition. The main source of their philosophic ideas, theprimary factor which formed their ideals to understand the world andthe person was the Gospel Book.List of sources and literature1. Кріль М. Святі Кирило та Мефодій у духовному ікультурному житті слов‟янських народів / Михайло Кріль //Історія України. – 2003. – № 13.2. Кордон М.В. Українська та зарубіжна культура: Курс лекцій /Кордон М. В. – Київ : Центр навчальної літератури, 2005. –584 с.3. Лебедев А. П. Очерки внутренней истории византийско-восточной церкви в ІХ, Х, ХІ веках. От концаиконоборческих споров в 842 г. до начала крестовыхпоходов – 1096 г. / Лебедев А. П. – Санкт-Петербург :Издательство «Алетейя», 1998. – 306 с.4. Огієнко І. Константин і Мефодій. Їх життя та діяльність / ІванОгієнко. – Вінніпег – Канада, 1970.5. Ростовський Д. Жития святых / Дмитрий Ростовский. – СвятоУспенская Почаевская Лавра, 2003.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 71UDC 141.7:128 (043.3)N. M. RudenkoPROBLEM OF NON-VIOLENCE IN CHRISTIANITYThe basic going is analysed near interpretation of concept«unviolence». Philosophical essence opens up as to the major value.Principles of unviolence in christianity, different aspects of non-violentactions are examined.Keywords: unviolence, christianity, culture, civilization.Problem Statement In recent years there has been a significantincrease activity in communities of different areas of knowledge(historical, philosophical, cultural, psychological, educational, social,economic, political, legal, etc.) to explore issues of morality. Scientistsare increasingly focusing on the study of important aspects of humanvalues, due to the severity of the current global challenges facing theworld community: overcoming the ecological crisis, the threat ofnuclear war, ethnic conflicts, the fight against hunger, disease and soon. Because of this, mankind faced the necessity of selection andinterpretation of moral guidelines that would provide an opportunitycivilization progress. These guidelines, which are understood by peopleirrespective of their social class, place of residence, religious,philosophical or other beliefs, called universal values [10, p. 6].The concept of "value" was first introduced in the scientificcirculation in the 60th years of XIX century. In philosophy andsociology of "value" is interpreted as a term used "to refer to human,social and cultural importance of certain objects and phenomena",which refers "to the proper person, the target, the semantic foundations,to the Absolute" [7, with. 798].In studies related to the detection of substance, structure,conditions of human values, N.S. Rozov, for example, provides: own values (goodness, beauty, favor, justice, freedom, art,social equality); ideals that combining different value categories (human ideals,civil government, school, management); principles of consciousness, combining valuable category ofmental schemes;
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 72 specific goals (value category together with a description of thespecific characteristics of objects) .By values should include also "non-violence". This is due toseveral factors. Firstly, non-violence as a value is recognized in manyreligious concepts: Christianity, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam and others.Second, a similar view is held by representatives of variousphilosophical and ethical movements (Gandhi, M. Roerich, Tolstoy,Thoreau, Schweitzer et al.) .The concept of "non-violence" not only describes a specific typeof relationship between people, but also evaluates it. Often it is opposedto the notion of "evil." The word "violence" in ordinary language meanscompulsion to anything by force, against their will. According toA. A. Guseinov, "nonviolent rightly assume only those actions that arecarried out in the space of free will and are subject to moral sanction.Specialization violence - the relationship of human wills" . In otherwords, the meaning of violence is to block the free will of individualsand get them to the actions defined by those who exercise violence.In continuation can give a definition of this concept, for example,in the interpretation of teacher-scholars V. A. Sytarova andV. G. Maralova: "Violence – a form of coercion by one group of people(individual) in relation to the other groups of people (other individual)to acquire or retain certain privileges, conquest of political, economic orany other rule" [11, p. 7].Consequently, the resulting analytical survey of opinions ofphilosophers, sociologists, educators, psychologists can come to theconclusion that the concept of "violence" means coercion to forceanything against the will.Modern historical trend shows that at the beginning of theXXI century in the world community there are fewer true defendersforce for conflict resolution, life conflicts, as well as those who see thewar and violence positive factor or manifestation of civility. It is amistake to consider the fact that all previous history – a history ofviolence, that in different culture of past effective last there was onlyone value-regulatory system, which contained basically the idea ofsuppression and violence, confrontation. In human history appearedmany studies and theories aimed at approving nonviolence. Such value-regulatory system was based on the rejection of violence, the desire to
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 73suppress and exploit, manipulate and conquer the warring parties, inrecognition of her dignity as equality of partner dialogue.The middle of I millennium BC interesting because almostsimultaneously in Persia (Cyrus) and in Greece (Socrates, the Stoics),China (Confucius) and in Judea already formed by the time theunprecedented idea of universal unity, non-violence, compassion for theslave and the enemy, internal self-punishment for indecent act. The ideaof non-violence was initially hidden in the concept of love. EvenDemocritus claimed: "Wish to be loved ... because all who fear itself allfears" [8, p. 71]. Pythagoreans sought out friendship and learning toeliminate competition and rivalry, believing that it promotes coercionand even violence against himself and inappropriate development wise.Caution, restraint, suggestion in soft expressions considered them as themain methods of education.Mayevtyka (method of birth of true knowledge), which ispracticed by Socrates, also provided a complete rejection of coercionpet to a certain way of thinking and understanding. Knowledge mustarise from a free art student.State of the scientific research of the problem. Wide analysis oftheories of non-violence as a subject of philosophical reflection in historicalterms and in the context of modern civilization calls made in the thesisV. S. Dudchenko. Author revealed, as in the Renaissance definite problemwere elaborated by M. Ficino, P. Pomponazzi, D. Bruno et al. Dreams of ajust ordering of social and political life expressed T. Mohr andT. Campanella. It wrote Leibniz, Locke D., D. Berkeley, D. Hume, Kant,S. Kierkegaard, Shestov, Berdyaev, Jean-Paul Sartre, Camus, H. OrtegaGasset, P. Tillich, R. Niebuhr et al. Various aspects of socio-philosophicalanalysis harmonious society was presented by Soviet philosophical thought(G. Batishchev, V. Belousov, A. Demichev, K. Dzhesku,V. Meshcheryakov etc.) As well as in studies of modern nationalphilosophy (V. Andrushchenko, A. Bychko I. Bychko, V. Ivanov,S. Krimsky, M. Lukaszewicz, M. Mikhalchenko, N. A. Petruk, S. Proleievfocus Ryabchenko V., V. Tabachkovskyy, V. Shinkaruk, A. Shevchenko,A. Yatsenko et al.) . So, in any culture of the past coexisted two valueorientations and two value-regulatory systems: freedom and coercion.Historical socio-economic changes in society have madesignificant changes to the traditional understanding of nonviolence. It is
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 74associated with the names of practitioners and those who acted as apersonality that prompted people of the Earth find what permanent thatdetermines the fate of every person and of all humanity. This –Emerton, Thoreau, Whitman (New England) ML King (USA), Carlyle,Vordevort, Coleridge (Old England) to Humboldt, Schelling(Germany), Rolland, Flammarion (France); Vyvekananda, Gandhi,Tagore (India), Leo Tolstoy, I. A. Ilyin, E. Trubetskoy, M. Voloshin(Russia), H. Skovoroda, P. Jurkiewicz, K. Ushinskiy,V. A. Sukhomlinsky (Ukraine) and others. According to manyphilosophers, scientists, writers, nonviolence is a strategy of therelationships between people in the future. History gives us examples oflarge Hindu, Muslim, Jewish and Christian saints and thinkers whofought against violence in their lives.It should be mentioned that there are differences in understandingnon-violence from the point of view of different traditional religions:when in oriental religions (Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism) the stress ismade on creating an internal purpose not to make harm to any alivething, Christianity sees non-violence as the ideal of social harmony .The most logical decision of the non-violence problem is foundin Christianity, especially in its part which is concerned with non-resistance, love to the enemy. Non-violence is introduced as the formof goodness; violence and compulsion are understood as the forms ofevil.Let us consider the understanding of non-violence in Christianity.Non-violence is seen as the form which helps the self-destruction ofevil, and, at the same time, as the form of strengthening spirituality andfaith, which does not humiliate, but praises it. That is why theconditions of the non-violence act are patience and humbleness, whichhave a very important role. Patience is considered as one of the mostimportant virtues.What is the meaning of humbleness in Christianity? Humblenessis the virtue which is opposed to pride. A humble person bears in hisheart a conviction that he has nothing belonging to him, but owns onlythose things, which were presented by God; he can not do anythinggood without God‟s help. So a person should set hopes for everythingon God‟s mercy. In the New Testament we read: "…All of you, clotheyourselves with humility toward one another, because,“God opposes the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 75proud but shows favor to the humble. Humble yourselves, therefore,under God‟s mighty hand, that he may lift you up in due time. Cast allyour anxiety on him because he cares for you" [1, Ch. 5, v. 5–7]. In thisrespect, as in any other, the human life of the Saviour is the perfectexample and model for everybody.Acceptance of humbleness as the value leads to the own non-violent actions of a human being. At any rate there can be stated threeaspects of non-violent actions, which are grounded and developed inChristianity.First of all it is peacefulness as the ability to forgive offences, tosolve conflicts in a peaceful way, orientation towards the needs andmotivation of the opposed side of interaction, not requiring award forgood things: "So in everything, do to others what you would have themdo to you" [2, Ch. 7, v. 12].Second, a non-violent action is directly connected with the ideaof non-resistance to evil with violence, because it does not eliminate it,but multiplies it, that is why it is important to restrict yourself, not tofall in anger: "But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slapsyou on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. And if anyonewants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well. Ifanyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles" [2, Ch. 5,v. 39–41].Third, a non-violent action is not limited by passive non-resistance, it is active, especially in respect of those who make evil.Non-resistance to evil is not enough, a human being must answer it withgood things: "But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those whopersecute you" [2, Ch. 5, v. 44].So, in Christianity we find the characteristics of non-violencewhich full enough, comparing to other religions, it differs from them bygrounded and integral representation, the stress is made on the moralside.Conclusions. Nobody denies the fact that peace is better thanwar, non-violent forms of solving conflicts are better than compulsion.Non-violence can be understood as a specific ideological "field", aneutral territory, where the opinions of quite different people cancoincide. But the culture of non-violence does not form itself on itsown. It requires long and slow work on creating the conditions for its
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 76development. The culture of non-violence must be formed from earlychildhood, and to reach this end the process of education and up-bringing must be build on the non-violent foundation . A schoolteacher must have the ability to form life activity of children on theChristian principles of love, patience and non-violence, which can bethe basis of humane pedagogics.List of sources and literature1. Новий Заповіт. – Перше Соборне послання св. АпостолаПетра.2. Новий Заповіт. – Євангелія від св. Матвія.3. Гусейнов А.А. Этика ненасилия // Вопросы философии. –1992 – № 3. – С. 2-81.4. Дудченко В.С. Теорії ненасилля як предмет філософськоїрефлексії в контексті сучасних цивілізаційних викликів:Автореф. ... канд. філософськ. наук. – К., 2008. – 20 с.5. Козлова А. Г. Теоретические основы педагогики ненасилия. –СПб., 1997. – 372 с.6. Муравська С.М. Реалізація принципу ненасилля впедагогічній концепції О.С. Нілла (1883–1973):Автореф. …канд пед. наук.– К., 2008. – 17 с.7. Новейший философский словарь / под. ред. А. А. Грецанова –Минск, 1999. – 896 с.8. Пчела: Слова и мысли из Евангелия, и из Апостола, и изСвятых отцов, и знания светских философ // СредневековаяРусь в текстах и документах. – Хрестоматія / Авт.-сост.А. В. Мартынюк. – Минск : РИВШ, 2005.9. Розов Н. С. Культура, ценности и развитие образования /Н. С. Розов. – М., 1992.10. Ситаров В. А., Маралов В. Г. Педагогика и психологияненасилия в образовательном процес се / Под ред.В. А. Сластенина. – М., 2000. – 216 с.11. Ситаров В.А., Маралов В.Г. Педагогика ненасилия –гуманизм в действии. – М., 1990. – 92 с.12. Скрипник А.П. Христианская концепция зла // Этическаямысль: Научно-публицистические чтения. 1991. – М., 1992. С.56–73.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 77UDC 2:316.32L.M. ShugayevaTHE MAIN TRENDS OF RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTIN GLOBAL WORLDThe author analyzes the main tendencies of development ofreligions in a modern globalized world. The focus in on changes, thathappened at the of the XX century – beginning of the XXI century, andalso on the perspectives of development of world religions.Key words: globalization, secularization.Problem Statement. Discussions around the term"globalization", its application to the whole range of social-political andeconomic issues, which became reality on the edge of centuries,convince us that the problem of globalization has not acquired the exactdefinition. As a rule it implies both universal problems and theconsequences of integration processes in the form of establishment ofthe world market, free flow of goods and capital and also informationdistribution. The debates are also about information revolution and thebirth in the near future of a completely new person and a global form ofcommunity – megasociety, megaculture, superethnicity.In this sense we agree with a famous Russian scientist F. Kessidi,who thinks that globalization, Internet and other sources of informationcan contribute to revealing best or worst sides of a human‟s nature. Butthey are not able to bear a new person, that is a new person outside thespecific ethnicity and the primary civilization, and also outside powerfulethnicities, history and culture of which are thousands of yearsold [2, p. 76]. Therefore hope for integration of cultures, that is creationof united (world) culture and even "fusion" in the near future ofethnicities (nations and peoples) in some planetary "superethnicity" or"megasociety" seems very and very problematic and questionable.Among norms and ideals, which are mostly offered asalternatives for maximization of profit and consumerism, there arenorms and ideals that are related to religions. Religious norms andideals are often considered as the least approachable out of all culturalphenomenon of the real dialogue and they come to mind since the timeof attacks on the World Trade Center in New York which were in the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 78name of militant Islamic fundamentalism. And therefore we think thatreligions can be considered as possible blind corners – invinciblebarriers, which remain even after all blocks are removed on the way tointercultural dialogue. In that sense comments of V. Makbraid seem tobe quite fair. He states that there is very little difference in how tworeligious people understand the same religion and what it means forthem [5, p. 82].Religion as the fundamental and autonomous system has alwaysbeen closely connected with ethnic cultural tradition, which she defined.This tradition, formed by early religious beliefs, which relied on theexperience and ideas of hundreds of generations, gave the religiousnorm its sacral holiness. Moreover, national-cultural tradition with itspowerful conservative inertness created the power of internal firmnessand opposition to external influences, which tells religion as a system(religion in a broad sense); the tradition created a protective layer,which defended the structure from destruction under the influence ofexternal forces.And even though the definition of the term "globalization",methodological approaches towards this phenomenon are still at thestage of debates, only the blind can be opposed to globalizationprocesses. Globalization today influences all aspects of social andcultural life, changes stable beliefs and values (not always for the best),engages representatives of different cultures in a constant dialogue,destroys boundaries among national economies, states and culturalworlds, and on the other hand, promotes drawing new borders andboundaries.Expansion of world religions, first of all Christianity and Islam,was an important step towards overcome of tribal and ethnic restraint. Itfurthered formation of a definite cultural sociability of nations, whichfollow these religions. However, neither political nor religious factorshave not led to the creation of the "new world", "unitary civilization".The real basis for this was laid by economy development, and alsoadvance of technology. Never has humanity used so many naturalresources and the waste into natural environment has never been sohuge. The world has never known such enormous integration of worldeconomy, sole information system. On the other hand the humanity hasnever been so close to self-destruction.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 79The modern state of civilization is completely different from allprevious stages of its development. G. Kruglova emphasizes that inmodern conditions the more evident is "an obvious unsteadiness of theworld situation. We observe an enormous and unexpected of its resultsdrift of meanings, beliefs about humans, society, civilization" [3, p. 12].And such reconsideration of reality seems to be the most difficult today.State of the scientific research of the problem. In the 70-s ofthe XX century representatives of Christian churches, who realized thedifficulty and the menace of the situation, engaged in development oftheir own framework of global problems. The milestone is that "catholicglobal studies" are based on encyclic of Pope John XXIII "Pacem interries" (1963) (Peace on Earth), which for the first time in history wasaddressed not only to catholics but "all people of good will". Its biggestdevelopment "catholic global studies" received in works of Pope JohnPaul II, who puts forward "the principle of solidarity" as a source ofinspiration "which leads to mind transformation and soul and formationof "sole Christian world" [1, p. 58]. The necessity of a detaileddevelopment of global modern problems is also mentioned by bishopsof Russian Orthodox church. This is proved by the Orthodoxdevelopment of “ecological ethics" and "orthodox mirologia (scienceabout the world)" in the middle of 70-s XX c., and the idea of orthodoxideologists" that "the biggest problems of humanity are spiritual"testifies about quite high positions of orthodox church in terms ofproduction of the concept of global problems of the modern world. Byintroducing their concepts, the ideologists of Christianity are trying tostrengthen their positions in society and expend the influence ofreligious ideology.The interest of theologians to global problems of modernity isdetermined by a whole range of serious reasons: striving to develop ageneralized religious approach to important problems of humanexistence; an attempt to form attractive directives for religious people;an attempt to establish connection between religious views anddirection of social development and therefore strengthen positions ofchurch in society; desire to strengthen the church influence on stateideology and politics. To justify such social-political trends withinChristianity in the 60s-70s XX c. we find such notions and concepts as"theology of reconciliation", "theology of peace", "new Christian
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 80ascetism", "evangelization of the world", etc. Based on such theories(concepts) in the 80-s of the XX c. a common trend "Christian globalstudies" was formed as a separated trend within Christian philosophy.Theologians develop their own new specific projects of solving globalproblems by elaborating on general thesis.Globalization implies engaging different countries and continentsin common world (global) economic, social, political and culturalscope. Globalization is particularly active in the last years of theXX century, when as a result of transport and communication meansdevelopment the boundaries between states and cultures became "moretransparent" and religions: each person got a chance to choose religionaccording to own taste and not by birth.Globalization influences all aspect of social and cultural sphere,changes stable values, destroys usual lifestyle, engages representativesof different cultures in a constant dialogue, at the same time buildingother bounds between them. At the same time, the global culturalscope is quite far away from ideologic, axiological and normative drabexistence. The cooperation of different cultures often leads toconflicts.While researching the essence of global problems we cannot talkabout ideologic-political unity of different doctrines even within thelimits of one country. An unusual number of parties, non-governmentalorganizations and movements, interested in solving these problems,develop their own solution programs and suggest social policies andperceptions in global studies, which correspond with their politicalgoals and tasks.A significant position in this sense belongs to the so called socialtheology, different movements of which are trying to propose their ownunderstanding of current (first of all global) problems. Among the mostimportant trends are: theology of labor, peace theology, ecotheology,theology of politics, theology of culture, theology of revolution, etc.Special attention should be paid to "Christian global studies".The world-historical indicators of epochal change of paradigmsare: the change of modern Eurocentrism into postmodern globalpolycentrism and the first time there is a possibility of human self-destruction. We agree with the opinion of Hans Kung that with the endof World War II started the break-up of homogeneous affiliated
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 81environment [4, p. 225]. During the First World War the basis of the oldsystem of modern values was shaken and the world ruling of Europeancountries (new powerful forces such as the USA and the USSRappeared on the world arena), and the result of WWII was that thesystem was completely destroyed. The third and global and this timenuclear war would mean the end of humanity.The cultural-political indicator of epochal change of paradigms isthe lost of ruling, dominating forces and values of modern Europeanculture.Postmodernism in the light of global processes opens newpossibilities for religions. Modernistic process of Enlightenment andsecularization cannot be and should not be reverse. During the paradigmchange religion should not become neither secularized nor clerical.Revival of religious culture is not identical to revival of churches, whichall have one drawback – decreasing of readiness of ministers to becomeresponsible for the fate of humanity. Partially this happens because ofliberal adaptation and the lost of own independent position, andpartially because of Roman integrality of Catholic church.A modern person which follows religious beliefs, does not see thenecessity to speak against modern achievements, against freedom,equality, brotherhood, against democracy, human rights and socialjustice. Modern religious world view and scientific views to a not sogreat extend exclude each other.The modern model of postmodernism can be identified asecumenic paradigm, which purpose is to unite Christian church, peacebetween religions and commonwealth of nations. Transfer towards theera of transcultural multireligious postmodernism is related, first of all,to solving problems which face world religions.Changes of the last decades, which are connected to the loss ofreligious influence, expansion of the role of science, education, newtechnologies and nanotechnologies, and also society secularizationlead to the spreading of ateism and religious indifference, thenecessity to address the global problems of the modern world(ecological, the problem of famine, the threat of hydrogen war, etc.)could not but cause any response on the behalf of religious people andinstitutions. Many representatives of different religions have come tothe conclusion that it is necessary to create some changes in religious
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 82life, which, on the one hand, would lead to better understanding bymodern people of the mission that is implemented by those religions,and on the other – won‟t distort the essence of this mission. Thisdouble task of adaptation to new conditions without changing of theinternal essence of any religion was not brand new in the history ofworld religions: religions faced a similar task every time the societyfaced some radical changes.The task of adaptation obliged religious thinkers and theologiansto separate elements of religion that should be preserved from elementsthat should be and have to be changed. In this context it is necessary todistinguish conservative religious movements directed at fullpreservation of immunity of forms of religious life which developedearlier. And movements which advocate for rather radical renewal.In the first century of the XX century many people believed thatthe process of secularization is inconvertible and that religiosity in themoder world is gradually fading. However, the second half of the XXcentury can be called a period when religions tried to win back theirprevious role in the life of society and state.In the 80-s of the XX century the influence of protestants in theUSA has risen, with the president having to take into account religiousvalues of his voters. At the same time in Europe the number of peoplewho call themselves Christians as well as the number of people whoregularly attend church is decreasing: in countries of Latin America,Asia, and Africa the number of Christians is increasing.The collapse of "communist block" after the revolution of 1989in Easter Europe, and the following collapse of the Soviet Unionstrengthened the role of religions even more since the atheistpropaganda diluted. In the former Soviet republics, and today‟sindependent states, in the countries of Eastern Europe religion iscoming back to public life.However, Christianity remains the most powerful world religionwhich is believed in by around the third of world population.The second religion is Islam the part of which is one fifth of theworld‟s population. An interesting fact is that unlike Christianity thenumber of Islam followers has risen over the last one hundred years andis constantly increasing. This is caused by high birth rate in Muslimcountries and also by newcomers.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 83The third biggest religion is Hinduism. The reason of its growthis also in extremely high birth rate in XX century. Unlike worldreligions that are popular on big territories, Hinduism is concentrated inone country not including diaspora (communities that live in othercountries) which appeared quite recently in Europe, America andAustralia.The fourth position among powerful world religions is taken byBuddhism which unites sometimes quite different schools.Chinese ethnic religions – is a special category, which is on thefifth place because of a huge population in China: it includes Taoism,the cult of local gods and the cult of ancestors.Besides, the sixth of world‟s population are ateists or nonreligious people.It is necessary to keep in mind that the radical renewal ofreligious life does not necessarily mean "compromise" with the ideasand values of nonreligious, secularized world: on the contrary, it oftenpersecutes the goal of returning to the initial essence of such religion. Inthe modern era, as claimed by many theologians, the church can beitself as in early Christian times: it does not need the union with thestate which is connected to state control and the duty to sanctify thestate policy. Now Christianity can attract people just like Christianityand not based on the fact that only Christians have full rights, such asthe right to vote and occupy government positions, etc. At the sametime other groups of Christians can appraise secularization, onlynegatively and insist that expansion of Christianity is only possibleunder the full support of the government – for example, lessons atschool, and policy of mass media.Changes which occur in different groups of Christians due to thechanges in modern world can be quite different. Representatives ofdifferent religious affiliations started using modern means ofcommunication exclusively to broadcasting religious services on TVand the Internet. Some religious groups started using new technicaldevices in missionary work. In Catholic church, starting with theII Vatican convocation (1962–1965) the new era started – adjournment,which implies the dialogue with the modern world. In different groupsof protestants, catholics and orthodox modern music is popularly usedduring the church service.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 84Different religions show interest to contingency, to searchingcommon source of spirituality. Christianity bore a new ecumenicmovement aimed at uniting all Christians.The term fundamentalism is used to representatives of differentreligious movements, which try to resume the genuine grounds ofreligion; but such use of the term is being discussed among scientists.As a rule, fundamentalism is related to urge to radically reform societyaccording to the principles, which are considered to be basic for eachreligion – in this sense it counters secularization. A vivid example isIslamic revolution in Iran in 1979 which proclaimed return to genuinefundamental values of Islam and differs by warlike attitude tosecularized Western world as a whole. The second example is Talibanmovement in Afghanistan, some countries have groups of Wahhabi,etc.Part of the religious life of XX – beginning of XXI century wereexample of political radicalism, which sometimes seemed liketerrorism. This relates first of all to conflicts between groups ofrepresentatives of different religions (for example, between Muslimsand Hindus in India, between Catholics and Protestants in NorthernIreland, between Buddhists and and Hindus in Sri Lanka, betweenHebrews and Muslims in Palestine, between Christians and Muslims inSudan, Bosnia and Kosovo). It is necessary to keep in mind that inreligious radicalism the key role is often played not by religiousdifferences but conflict political interests. The most terrible events ofsuch case happened at the beginning of the XXI century onSeptember 2, 2001 when people who called themselves Shakhidsdirected four airplanes on several crowded buildings. In the result ofexplosion about 3000 people died and two New York twin-skyscrapers(USA) of the Center of International Trade were destroyed. Later therewere explosions in Madrid, London, Moscow and other cities of theworld.There is constant discussion whether terrorism is born by religionor terrorists just use religious ideas and symbols to justify "in God‟sname" their ideas. Most theologians of all religions firmly demureviolence and terrorism. Religious conservatism does not always call forviolence. Conservatism is first of all firm return to purity of religion, itssources.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 85Such processes as secularization, governments and globalizationinfluence the development of religions in modern world.Globalization – that is including different countries and continents inunique, world (global) economic, social, political and cultural space.More often globalization is connected to the last decades of XX century,when during the development of transport and communication bordersbetween states and cultures became more "transparent", when a hugenumber of people are have moved either in reality or virtually from onepart of the planet to another. Together with the population religions alsostarted "travelling": people got a chance to "choose religions accordingto their taste", unlike previous times when people belonged to aparticular religion "by birth".Globalization touched upon all world religions. In this sense notonly the dialogue with Christian churches (where controversialquestions, which led to church separation, are solved only on theory andin practice it is far from solution) but also the dialogue with with otherworld religions will show whether Christian churches are able to reactchallenges of globalization.Deep devotion to one‟s religious beliefs and full openness toother religious traditions do not exclude one another. This is a waywhich leads to understanding, which allows not to create one religionbut encourages real reconciliation between religions.List of sources and literature1. Ахнезар А. С. Диалектика урбанизации и миграции /А. С. Ахнезар // Общественные науки и современность. –2000. – №2. – С. 54–61.2. Кессиди Ф. Х. Глобализация и культурная идентичность /Ф. Х. Кессиди. – Вопросы философии. – 2003. – №1. – С. 76–79.3. Круглова Г. А. Социально–политические аспектыглобальных проблем современности и их место вхристианстве / Г. А. Круглова. – Минск: БГУ, 2003. – С. 123.4. Кюнг Х. Религия на переломе епох. Инностраннаялітература / Х. Кюнг. – 1990. – №11. – С. 223–229.5. Макбрайд У. Глобализация и межкультурный діалог /У. Макбрайд. – Вопросы философии. – 2003. – №1. – С. 80–86.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 86UDK 282T. N. Shamsutdynova-LebediukMODERN RELATIONS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN ISLAMIn the article the analysis of modern model of mutual relations ofman and woman is given in the conditions of globalization.Keywords: Islam, family, woman, marriage,khidzhab, polygamy,segregation.Problem Statement. European Christian world actually from thevery beginning of Islam had a contact with representatives of thisreligion. Contacts were different – both negative (military conquests)and positive (trade, cultural exchange).The Europeans, getting acquainted with the Muslim world, couldnot but pay attention to the fact that in Islam a woman is not in the sameposition as in European society, much different relationships arebetween man and woman in Islam and Christianity, particularly in senseof family relations.State of the scientific research of the problem. The literature inwhich this problem has been examined is quite diverse varied in itsconceptual directivity. European authors writing about the problem ofthe relationships of a man and woman, for the most part (and it is in itsown course) have a Eurocentric approach. The situation of a woman inIslam, the specifics of her relations with her husband in the context ofthe Muslim way of life are perceived by European authors mostly as"abnormal" and "uncivilized". A monograph of a German authorM. Koch "Is there violence in Islam? The struggle for the Islamic worldcommunity" is indicative in this sense. It was written in tendentiousspirit, it focuses attention on issues of violence against women in Islam."Violence, oppression and restriction of women‟s rights – we read inthe monograph – pierce through the entire history of Islam, beginningfrom the Prophet Muhammad‟s sayings and until today, when Islamiststry to justify similar situation" [8, p. 88]. Actually, the author tries tohold the view that the relationship of a man and a woman in Islam is acontinuous chain of violence of men over women.The main material. As a contrast to Eurocentric Islamic literaturein the Muslim, especially Arabian world, a lot of works of literature have
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 87appeared that try to protect traditional Islamic values, including thepeculiarities of the relationship between a man and a woman, which havearised in Muslim practice. The most interesting in this context are suchauthors as Mohammed Zikiria Al Bardisi, Jamal ad-Din, Shahada al-Khoury,Ibrahim Abdo, Shafiq Durriya and others. An issue of a place ofa woman in Islamic society had been examined in generalized works ofSoviet authors such as L. Klymovych, D. Yeremieyeva, T. Sayidbayeva.Analysis of the ideology and practice of Islam shows that in itsdoctrine, ethics and law, this religion is somehow idealizes andperpetuates patriarchal family relations. Describing the relationshipbetween a man and a woman in a patriarchal society, sociologistA. H. Harchev rightly observes that "a man linked to a woman as a man,the owner, as a part of such of social force that put itself into aprivileged position in relation to all women, jealously protecting theirprivileges that become habits at the end [10, p. 87]. "The man‟s habit ofpatriarchal family, in fact, has reflected and fixed in Islam".In general, Islam has put a woman in comparison with a man intounequal position. French islamologist Anry Massey, proceeding fromsome remarks of the Prophet Muhammad, concludes that "Koran" doesnot show any affection towards woman."The academician V. Bartoldnoticed that "Koran looks at a woman almost exclusively from the pointof view of a jealous man" [3, p. 36]. Although the Eurocentric approachis felt in these reflections, they should not be so easy to ignore.If Muslim means "obedient to Allah", so a Muslim woman,according to Islamic beliefs has to be submissive not only to Allah, butalso to her husband. "The feeling of superiority in relation to a womanwhich had been cultivating for centuries in the male half of thepopulation had been inculcating in a boy, teenager since childhood and,vice versa, the sense of inferiority which had been implanting amongthe female – all these things had consolidated a Muslim tradition: a manis God and the king of the family" – wrote D. Yeremeyev [4, p. 169]. Apopular hadith tells how Muhammad spoke of his first wife, Khadizha,"Oh, Omar (second Khaliph. – T. SH. L.)the most precious thing to aman is a virtuous wife who acts according to the commandments ofGod, who is obedient and brings joy to her husband…. When he ordersshe obeys, and when he is absent, she protects his rights for propertyand honor" [6, p. 112].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 88In an Islamic family a woman is considered to be an inviolableproperty. Based on patriarchal points of view Islam sought to restrict theactivities of a woman by the sphere of household chores. Expansion ofthese activities outside these areas, according to many Muslimtheologists would threaten to family relations, as long as a Muslimwoman in the first and foremost "must be a keeper of hearth, aneducator for children .... This is a natural element of the application ofher innate abilities and a display of feminine nature" . Some Islamictheologists say that since nature of a man and a woman is different, acertain special role in society is assigned for each of them. These rolescomplement each other and each of them is equally basic and necessaryfor the functioning of society.Some believe that the participation of a woman in social work isnot required, because the only decent place for a woman is a familyhome. "Man and woman complement each other. Allah has defined toeach of them such sphere of activity in which each of them can showtheir best abilities. On this basis, the sphere of a woman is a housewhich she has to keep so that man could find peace and quiet in it," –claimed one of the ideologues of Islam Attyiya Sakr [11, p. 51].However, most modern theologists do not oppose a woman‟sdesire to work. Muslim woman with the consent of her husband orcaretaker relative may engage by social work, her own business orparticipate in social and political life of society, to work for the benefitof the Muslim community (umma) in permissible occupation for her.Women, in terms of Muslim theologists "can contribute to societyaccording to their skills and interests, but on condition that they do notneglect their household duties and their activities do not threaten theirdignity and modesty" [9, p. 176]. As an example, The activitiesKhadizha, Muhammad‟s wife are given as an example who successfullyled commercial matters and thus was a loving wife and mother.According to these points of view, women "can occupy differentpositions in society with which they cope better or at least no worsethan men, for example, in some areas of medicine, nursing, education,social work, etc." [9, p. 176]. Today, most of the ideologists of Islam donot oppose a woman‟s desire to engage in socially useful work. Theyargue that Islam respects the right of a woman to have a work – creativework for the benefit of the family and society. However, taking into
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 89account the specific nature of a woman, shariat identifies severalconditions that must be provided with a woman engaged in sociallyuseful work.First, a woman should work separately from men, as sincecommon work with men is harmful for both women and men.Secondly, a woman who wants to work must obtain permissionfrom the hand of her husband, father, brother or guardian.Thirdly, the work should not adversely affect the physical andmental condition of a woman.Women are recommended to make their efforts in those fields inwhich all these things would be most effective. These fieldsa, in termsof Muslim ideologists are: a field of upbringing, education (especiallymaiden education), health care (especially gynecology), the productionof women‟s apparel, consulting services in the field of psychology,design, literary activities, the call to Islam.Thus women should not take too much time outside the home.After all, it is necessary to pay attention to themselves, children andhusband.Not accidentally Islamic theorists pay attention to someundesirable consequences of the situation when women are busy atwork outside the home. First, they note that the crowded daily trafficproblems specific to the industrial cities, adversely affect on theappearance and inner spiritual condition of women.Secondly, excessive employment at work distracts a woman fromhousekeeping, upbringing of children. Nevertheless a man wants to seein his wife not a first-class worker but a beloved wife and good motherof his children.Thirdly, often business relations of men and women who aremembers of the same office, enterprise, grow into intimaterelationships, and this eventually leads to the breakdown of family ties.Fourth, the fear of losing their jobs, mothers are forced to leavetheir children alone without care, and this leads to all kinds of casessuch as fire and others. On the other hand, children who are left withoutmothering care and kindness, can replenish the ranks of sociallydangerous criminals.In the fifth, the woman who runs for the strained freedom,removing the man from the work heaps burdens on their shoulders.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 90You can not say that these arguments are unfounded. Indeed,industrial development, urbanization led to a number of problems thathave a negative impact on family life and parenting.And although today the Muslim women are becoming moresocially active, yet many of them are focused on family values. Family,parenting, housekeeping are priorities for them. This is not the lastfactor of survavility and dynamism of Islamic civilization.The meaning of life of the Muslim woman by creed of Islam, isto prepare ourselves for the future eternal life. Those women who arehumble with their men and perform all the requirements of faith willenter paradise, those who were not obedient would find their place inhell, where they would be punished by eternal torment.Muslim scholars defined the qualities which a woman who wantsto enter the gates of heaven must have.First, she must be obedient to God and his Prophet. According toone hadith, Ibn Hibban conveyed that the Prophet said: "If a womanprayed five (required) times a day, fasted in the month of Ramadan,guarded her honor and was submissive to the husband, then on aJudgment Day it will be said: "Come to paradise through any gate" .Second, she has to obey her husband unless he asks her to dosomething against the law of Allah. An-Nasann conveyed that when theProphet was asked about what kind of women were considered to be thebest, he replied: "Those who satisfy men and those who are obedient."Muhammad also said: "If I could order a creature to make aprofound bow to someone other except Allah, I would have ordered awoman to do it for her husband. I swear on Him in Whose hands is mysoul, if a woman does not fulfill her obligations as to her husband, thenshe does not fulfill her obligations to Allah" .Thirdly, if a wife has enraged her husband, she must hurry to doeverything so that he could forgive her. Ibn Ribbani mentioned in ahadith: "If a husband is angry with his wife then her prayers are notaccepted and her good actions do not rise to heaven. However, when awife does not agree to fulfil husband‟s desire which is not allowed byShariat, then it is not a sin. "In another Hadith the Prophet has attributedthe following words: "Those of your wives will go to paradise whotreated well their husbands, gave birth to children (if they were able)and always checked her husband‟s needs. If a man of this woman was
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 91angry with her, she took his hand and said: "I swear by Allah, I will notgo to sleep as long as you do not forgive me" .Fourth, a woman has to protect the honor and property when herhusband is absent. In support of this thesis the following words fromKoran are used: "So decent women obey Allah and men and in theirabsence protect everything that God commanded them tokeep" [1, 4:34].Fifth, a woman has to be gentle with her husband and to satisfyhis desires. In the Hadith, that was send by Muslim, the followingwords are attributed to Muhammad: "If a man calls his wife to bed andshe refuses, and he goes to sleep angry, the angels curse her untilmorning" .Sixth, one of the main functions of a woman is to give birth tochildren and to upbring them.Seventh, a decent woman doesn‟t ask for divorce for no reason.Muhammad in one of the hadith has warned women: "Any woman whoasks for a divorce for no reason, won‟t feel the sweet heaven" .Eighth, a woman should not do any harm to her husband, sheshouldn‟t be shrewish, she shouldn‟t blame him, tell words which mayhurt man‟s self-esteem. In a Hadith is mentioned that when a womanhurts a man, then his huria, that is his future wife in Heavens, says hernot to make evil thing to him, because she is temporary for him andsoon she will come to Heavens [1 7].Ninth, the woman doesn‟t carry an additional fast without thepermission of her husband. The exception here is, of course, only thefast in a month of Ramadan.Tenth, she should not tell others about the intimate side of familylife. "And decent women are devout, they keep the secret that keepsAllah" – says the Koran [1, 4:34]. Generally a private life, familysecrets should not be the subject of gossip among friends and wives.Muhammad has said in a hadith, " He who went to his family and cameout of it, closed the door and forgot, and then he tells other people whathe did with his family, he made haram" . In this respect, quiteremarkable is the fact that in the Islamic world, as a rule, an intimatelife has never been the subject of public discussion, the same thing cannot be said about secular countries where a Christianity was dominatedtill recently.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 92Tenth, a woman should not leave the house without her husband,even when she is going to relatives.In the eleventh, she has to realize and appreciate that her husbandis good to her, and to express her gratitude to him. Hakim sends aHadith: The Prophet said, "When I looked into Hell and saw that thereare many women." He was asked: "Oh, Messanger of Allah, why werethey there?" "Because they didn‟t understand the importance of goodthat did a man for them ," – said the Prophet" .In the twelfth, a woman should not require more than it isnecessary to meet the needs for food, cloth and furniture in the house. Ina Hadith it is said that man at the end of the world would lose his mindin his actions because of his wife and children. They would ask him formundane things, and he would lose both mundane things and faithbecause of this search .In the thirteenth, she should be well-wishing, friendly, she shouldnot contradict, do not raise her voice at her husband even if he issomehow wrong, to try to direct him to the right way not with the helpof shouting, but only with the help of the power of belief, asking for thehelp of Allah.In the fourteenth, the woman should also be sad when a man isfar away, to enjoy his return, she has to be able to lay the table quickly,to take care of his clothes, to take available household duties to help herhusband, even if the Shariat law does not require that from her.Islam, having defined an ideal of a respectable woman it hasoriented men on the humane treatment towards their women. Thus, inthe Koran we can read the following words: "Treat your women well asif they are your captives, they themselves have no freedom in anythingthat concerns them" [1, 4:39]. The Hadith, which Abu Daud gives,referring to Omar Abdullah, we can meet the following words of theProphet: "...Woman is created from the rib and the rib is curved on top.If you want to straighten it, it will break, and if you left it alone, it willremain distorted. Treat women well" [5, p. 9].Islam defines a set of rules that a male Muslim should follow inrelations with his wife [2, pp. .76–101].First, he should find in his wife only the best traits, he has to befriendly, he has to forgive her weakness, even if she says or doessomething offensive (in a condition that she doesn‟t break the laws of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 93Shariat). The woman is also has to be treated with compassion,especially taking into account the peculiarities of the female character.In this case, Muslim ideologists often refer to the words of the Koran:"Through all the good build your relations with your wives" [1, 4:21].The Muslim who is well behaved with his wife, is declared anexemplary member of the religious community. "He who possesses thebest traits of character has the most perfect and absolute faith, and thebest of you are those who shows good attitude towards the theirwives" – said Muhammad according to Tirmiza .Secondly, the male Muslim should keep good relations with hiswife even if he finds something unpleasant in her. In this case there isalso a reference to the Koran, in which it is said: "And live with them(showing them) good deeds, but if it happens so that they are unpleasantfor you then Allah will put blessing in things you don‟t like" [1, 4:19]According to Muslim theologists, this "aiat" keeps marriage from anyvagaries arising from changable feelings and inclinations.Thirdly, a Muslim man must keep the "golden mean" in relationswith his wife. He doesn‟t have to agree with everything that she wantsto do, but he can not severely restrict her desires.Fourth, he must be fair in order not to arouse in his wife her worsttraits of character as, because craftiness of a woman can be boundless.Fifth, a man should not have his doubts as to the faithfulness ofhis wife, he shouldn‟t make scenes of jealousy because of differenttrifles.Sixth, a man shouldn‟t restrict his wife‟s personal expenses andexpenses on house keeping . However, he shouldn‟t allow her to spendcosts.Seventh, it is forbidden to keep his wife on the funds receivedfrom the sale of alcoholic drinks and credits with interest.Eighth, Islam encourages man to pay more attention tocommunicating with his wife and children. In particular, it isrecommended for him to consume food together with the members ofhis family, and not separately.Ninth, the man should watch that a woman wouldn‟t leave homein seductive clothes.Tenth, man must be a mentor for his wife in matters of faith, hehas to explain her the principles of Islam, to talk about the things that
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 94are allowed and forbidden. He can not forbid his wife to ask thescholars for getting knowledge, if he can not give them.In the eleventh, the one who has more than one wife has to dividethe means and nights between them equally. If he spent the night withone wife, then the next day he should spend the night with another. Togo to one of the wives out of turn is possible only in case of her illness.He can not go to her during the day without particular necessity. Notvalid is a permission, which gives one of the wives who is afraid ofdivorce, that the time allotted for her, husband would spend withanother wife.In the twelfth, a husband should not limit the rights of a wife,pointing to the fact that he is stronger.In thirteenth-Muslim man should not put his wife in an awkwardsituation in public when he wants to express his condemnation, makecomments about her behavior or to correct any of her fault. For this, hehas to find an appropriate place and time.In the fourteenth, a husband should avoid insult of familymembers of his wife, her family, because it might put her in anawkward situation and hurt, and as a result she can also insult herhusband.In modern Islam, as it is mentioned a gender segregation persists.A set of principles that reflect the value system of the Islamic societyand its position in relation to the duties and responsibilities of man hasbeen defined [9, p. 78].The first principle is a prohibition of free communication with menand women. It has been always condemned, except the circumstanceswhen legal and important object is persued. For this reason, in manyMuslim countries, schools, colleges, hospitals,in public transport there arespecial sections for women and men. Houses are planned so that the malevisitor would meet a man. Women also have friends of their own, andwhen they come for a visit they do not meet men.The second principle is that when communicating both men andwomen should to stick to decency in language, attitudes and behavior.They must be reserved, to prevent any physical contact, not to look withinterest at each other.The third principle does not allow a man and a woman to stayalone man if they are not married or are not in relatives. Even if the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 95couple is officially engaged, they can talk and look at each other only inthe presence of close relatives (harems) to avoid a temptation and anopportunity for bad behavior.The fourth principle is that the Muslim woman should hide herbody with a strict clothing in order that everybody could understand thatshe is decent, modest, honest woman who does not want to demonstrateher sexuality in case.As we can see in Islam today there is an attempt to save apatriarchal model of relations between a man and a woman. Accordingto this model a man is regarded to be as an undisputed head of thefamily. A woman should respect her husband and obey him.In Muslim society emancipation by European women is notperceived. There is an understanding that emancipation can lead to thedestruction of traditional Muslim families, which is an important factorin this situation that helps Muslim civilization to compete with theWestern world due to demographic factors.List of sources and literature1. Коран / Перевод и комментарии И. Ю. Крачковского. –М.,1990. – 727 с.2. Аль-Хашими Мухаммад Али. Личность мусульманина.– М.,2003.– 414 с.3. Бартольд В. В. Ислам.- Пг., 1918. – 98 с.4. Еремеев Д. Е. Ислам: образ жизни и стиль мышления. – М. :Политиздат, 1990. – 288 с.5. Женщина в исламе / Руководитель-составительГ.Нуруллина. – М. УММА, 2003. – 283 с.6. Ирвинг В. Жизнь Магомета. – Ставрополь: Кавказкий край,1992. – 297 с.7. Ислам и женщины Востока (История и современность). –Ташкент: Фая, 1990. – 252 с.8. Коч М. Насилие в исламе? Борьба за исламское мировоесообщество. /Пер. с нем. – Германия, 2002.– 272 с.9. Ханиф С. Что должен знать каждый об исламе имусульманах. / Пер. с англ. – К., 1998. – 240 с.10. Харчев А.Г. Брак и семья в СССР. – М., 1979. – 367 с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 9611.(Атиййя Сакр. Хіджаб і робота жінки. – Каїр,1982.) (арабською мовою)12. Шарль Р. Мусульманское право. /Пер. с франц. – М. : из-воин. лит., 1959. – 142с.13. Адабы жены к мужу [електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:www.islam.ru/vera/eticka14. Ат-Тирмизи. Аль-кябир [електронный ресурс]. – Режимдоступа: www.kcn.ru/tat_ru/religion/islam/, www.Muslim.ru.15. Муслим. Сахих [електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:www.Muslim.ru.16. Роль женщины в исламском обществе[електронныйресурс]. – Режим доступа: www.islam.ru17. Усаймин М.С. Качества женщины, которую следует брать вжены [електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:www.islam.kiev.uaUDC 1.(091):159.9:37(082)K. S. ShevchukTHE MAIN PROBLEMS OF GEORGII CHELPANOVCREATIVE WORK IN HIS KYIV PERIODThe article is dedicated to the analysis of main problems in worksof Kyiv period of famous philosopher and psychologist GeorgiyChelpanov (1862–1936). Author investigates the scientific andpedagogical activities of G. Chelpanov and analyzes his mainphilosophical and psychological ideas.Key words: academic philosophy, materialism, Kantianism,perception of space, psychology, pedagogy, ethics.Actual problem of the investigation. The present situation inthe culture is closely connected to process of the revival of our culturalvalues and development of the philosophical traditions and ideas. Thephilosophers pay attentions to the analysis of fundamental philosophicalproblems, to the reflections on the background of individual and social
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 97being, and to the revaluation of the moral norms and ideals. This kind ofreflection is providing to the investigation of history of philosophy thatgives a possibility to answer a lot of fundamental philosophical, culturaland social questions.The history of philosophy in Ukraine is characterized bynecessity to investigate the forgotten names of the domestic philosophy.A positive aspect of this process, in particular, is making the complexstudies of academic philosophy XIX – early XX century . But stillnot investigated the scientific heritage of the famous scholar and teacherGeorgiy Chelpanov (1862-1936), who takes the important place in thedevelopment of domestic philosophy and psychology.For researchers of history of the academic philosophy in Ukrainethe name of this scholar is very important because fifteen years of hislife (1892–1907) he had spent in University of St. Volodymyr in Kyiv.In Kyiv, as V. Zen‟kovsky writes, the philosophical talent of Chelpanovhad being developed on high scale [9, p. 235]. In this period of his lifeChelpanov had prepared the master and doctoral papers. Also he hadpublished the fundamental works about actual philosophical andpsychological problems. These works and numerous articles inscientific journals (for example, "Вопросы философии ипсихологии", "Мир Божий", "Университетские известия" andothers) made Chelpanov acknowledged person in philosophical circlesof that time.General review and analysis of publications concerning theproblem of present article. Chelpanov‟s philosophical and psychologicalheritage was not the subject of integrated research. There is still nothorough analysis of his scientific and educational activities. And it is notdefined his place in the development of Ukrainian science. Until recently,the articles and monographs dedicated to the analysis of Chelpanov‟s ideaswere published occasionally. That‟s why it was impossible to expect thethorough study of his philosophical and psychological ideas. In the mostworks about the thinker, we can find only a general review of heritage andauthors are not carried its holistic analysis.The general characteristic of Chelpanov‟s ideas is presented in"History of Russian philosophy", written by V. V. Zen‟kovsky [9,p. 235–238]. The autor had maden the general presentation of mainaspects of Chelpanov‟s scientific studies and briefly considered the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 98most important works of him – "The problems of perception the space"and "Brain and soul".During the Soviet period the Chelpanov‟s name was concerningwith a lot of mistaken assessment and perversion. In single studiesdedicated to Chelpanov we can find such characteristic of hisconception as "reactionary idealistic" or simply as "obsolete". So, wecannot interpret such studies seriously, because it is only fluctuations inthe ideological language, but not in the study of historical facts andscientific heritage. The Chelpanov‟s name was recalled in negativesense as opponent of materialism and so called "materialisticpsychology", which dominated in Soviet science.Only in the 60–70-ies of XX century seen some growth theempirical details concerning research Chelpanov‟s activities (works ofO. Budilova , А. Petrovsky, А. Smirnova  and others). But anyresearcher then decided not to go beyond the established ideologicalschemes in the assessment of Georgiy Chelpanov as a philosopher,psychologist and teacher.Modern historians of philosophy and psychology are acutely awareof the groundlessness of attempts to review the history of thought onlythrough the prism of Marxism. Now it is a time of the holistic andcomprehensive reconstruction of the past on the basis of appropriativehistorical and scientific methodology. We can also state the necessity ofrethinking the well-known facts and finding the new ones. Some changeshave taken place in the study of Chelpanov‟s heritage. However, mostresearchers refers to the analysis of the Moscow period of his life.Highlights of scientific and educational Chelpanov‟s activities inMoscow discussed in the article by A. Nikolskaya . The authoranalyzes his teaching at Moscow University, its importance in thefoundation of the Moscow Psychological Seminary and PsychologicalInstitute.The Chelpanov‟s role in the formation of the national psychologyis analyzed in the article of O. Zhdan . The researcher exemines themain aspects of the life and activities of the scientist, focusing on theMoscow period of his activity.The problem of Chelpanov‟s belonging to Kantianism andNeokantianism is analyzed in the papers of Abramov  andE. Vodzinski .
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 99The scientific activity of G. Chelpanov in Kyiv period was notthe object of special philosophical investigation. The exception is onlythe paper of S. Bohdanchikov . The author examines the main aspectof scientific and teaching activity of G. Chelpanov in Kyiv: the teachingat University of St. Volodymyr, the organization of PsychologicalSeminary, the main problems analyzed in Chelpanov‟s works that hadbeing written in this period. But we don‟t meet the holistic analysis ofimportant questions.The G. Chelpanov‟s epistemological issues in Kyiv period worksare analyzed in the dissertation of V. Pluzhnik . First of all, theauthor refers to the work "The problems of perception the space".The Chelpanov‟s role in incipience of Kyiv academic philosophyis analyzed in monograph of M. Tkachuk . She pays attention to theinvestigation of teaching activity of G. Chelpanov in University ofSt. Volodymyr and organization of Psychological Seminary.General review of philosophical ideas of Chelpanov in Kyivperiod is presented in the particular articles of psychological andphilosophical teaching books (for example, V. Gorskyj ,І. Ogorodnik , V. Romenec  and others).Generally speaking, the absence of detailed investigation of Kyivperiod in life of G. Chepanov causes an necessity to make thefundamental analysis of these problems.The aim of present article is fundamental investigation of Kyivperiod of G. Chelpanov‟s academic and scientific activity, whichincludes the study of his pedagogical activity, analysis of the main ideaspresented in his works and the role of this scientist in development ofdomestic academic philosophy at the end of XIXth – on the beginningof XX th century.Georgiy Chelpanov was born April 16 (28), 1862 in Mariupol,Katerynoslav province. He had got the beginning level of education inthe local parochial school and the middle level of education – in theMariupol gymnasium, which he had finished with the gold medal in1883. After that he entered Novorosijsk University in Odesa. In thisuniversity G. Chelpanov studied on the historical and filological facultywhere the famous philosopher M. Grot was actually teaching. Afterfinishing studies at university, G. Chelpanov had a possibility to go toMoscow for Ph.D. educational trainings. In 1890 Georgiy Chelpanov
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 100had passed the master degree exam (philosophy and psychology) andstayed the private-docent of Moscow university. In 1892 he wasenrolled as staff private-docent of Kyiv University of St. Volodymyr.In 1896 G. Chelpanov had prepared the dissertation "Theproblem of perception the space in connection to the conception ofapriority and inherency" (part I) and got the master degree ofphilosophy. Since 1897 G. Chelpanov was the extraordinary professorof University of St. Volodymyr in Kyiv. In 1904 after defense ofdoctoral dissertation "The problem of perception the space" (part II), hewas nominated as ordinary professor of university.Georgiy Chelpanov is rare example of the successful combinationof disjoint scientist and talented teacher. We can notice the Chelpanov‟sextraordinary talent if we call the names of few dozen domesticphilosophers and psychologists, emerged from the his scientific"school" (for example, V. Zen‟kovski, G. Shpet, K. Kornilov,V. Ekzemplarski, A. Losev, O. Scherbyna and others). MykolaBerdyaev writes that "…in philosophy G. Chelpanov was ateacher" [2, p. 114].If we refer to Chelpanov‟s teaching activity and his pedagogicalideas, we can find the desire to improve the philosophical andpsychological education. This was embodied primarily in organizing thePsychological Seminary at St. Volodymyr University.The organization of such scientific center was a very hard case atthat time. But very quickly the Chelpanov‟s Psychological Seminaryevolved into a significant scientific center of academic education.Organization of the Psychological Seminary was extremely wellcoordinated. For studies here it were selected the most talented students.P. Blonsky recalled about studies at Psychological Seminary: "...Toenter at the seminary of Chelpanov was a hard case. He selected thestudents very scrupulously on the special exam. But if you have enteredat the seminary, you can proudly call himself "the member ofPsychological seminary". It was a manifestation of affiliation to theintellectual aristocracy" [3, p. 62].Thanks to the organizational skills of its leader, PsychologicalSeminary at St. Volodymyr University played an important role in thedevelopment of national psychology. M. Tkachuk rightly notices that G.Chelpanov presented the important step in development of Kyiv
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 101academic psychology at the end of XIX th and beginning of XX thcentury [16, p. 238].During the Kyiv period Georgiy Chelpanov was perceived astalented scientist. His ideas characterized by originality and actuality forphilosophical and psychological science. In Chelpanov‟s works we canfind the analysis of the achievements of domestic and Europeanpsychology and philosophy. On the basis of this he presented his ownoriginal conceptions. During this period G. Chelpanov demonstrated theextraordinary efficiency. The most important Chelpnanov‟s works ofthis period are: "The problem of perception the space", "Introduction tophilosophy", "Brain and soul"). Providing the scientific investigationsG. Chelpanov paid attention to the problems of different sciences:history of philosophy, logic, ethics, gnoseology, psychology and others.The positive opinion about Chelpanov we can find in works ofV. Zen‟kovsky. He writes: "G. Chelpanov has an deep vein of necessitythe philosophical argumentation" [9, p. 236].For the complex analysis of the Chelpanov‟s philosophical ideaswe should pay attention to his work "Introduction to the philosophy"where had presented his conception of philosophy.In Chelpanov‟s work we can find the aspiration to show the maintypes of philosophical theories, to present the history of philosophy andto analyze the actual discussions about the most important philosophicalproblems. The author emphasizes the importance of studying the historyof philosophy, which is "a necessary part of philosophyeducation" [18, p. 6].In the first chapter of "Introduction to the philosophy" Chelpanovdiscusses the problem of philosophy as science. He analyzes thequestion of the subject of philosophical reflection and gives a definitionfor philosophy. The ideal aim of philosophy is to be a comprehension ofthe world which can be the background for comprehension of the life.The difference between the philosophy and science, oh Chelpanov‟sopinion, can be presented in method of cognition or in subject.G. Chelpanov states that he cannot agree with idealistic philosophers(such as J. Fichte, F. Schelling) who opposed the philosophical andscientific knowledge. He was inclined to the position of hiscontemporaries, which based on the belief that the philosophy behindthe method of learning was not different from science. The difference
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 102between the philosophy and science, according to G. Chelpanov, wefind in their subjects. "The subject of philosophy, – he writes, – is thestudy of all reality, all existing" [18, p. 6]. No science does not raisequestions about the world in general, each study examines only part ofthe universe. Study of the nature of the universe has a philosophy thatstudies the whole reality, not just some of its areas. In this sensephilosophy should remains the system of sciences. Reproach towardphilosophy about her "inaccurate" and incompleteness are false,because the science itself is not complete; what we know for certain isonly a fraction of what we would need to know.Reflection on the nature of philosophical investigations wasclosely connected to the other problems that were presented inChelpanov‟s works of Kyiv period. The important place in his scientificheritage took the critical analysis of Kantian philosophy. FewChelpanov‟s works (for example, "The study of Kant about apriority","The review of books about transcendental aesthetics of Kant" (1870–1900), "Philosophy of Kant") were dedicated to these problems. Theimportance of the appeal to the philosophy of German philosopher,according to G. Chelpanov, not only because it had a significant impacton the philosophy of the nineteenth century in general, but also in thefact that "...the most important modern philosophical doctrinepermeated the views of Kant" [22, p. 1].Chelpanov‟s appeal the Kantian philosophy caused quite commonin modern literature description of his own philosophy as Kantianism .However, defining philosophy of G. Chelpanov as a kind of Kantianismis not quite adequate. Chelpanov never considered himself a Kantian orNeokantian. Nevertheless, in the works of thinker we can see deepinvolvement in the problems of Kantian philosophy. Chelpanov writesthat "…unlikely in the modern philosophy was another philosopher whohas had a greater impact on next philosophers than Kant, yet hardly anyphilosophical doctrine distorted more than the Kantian" [22, p. 17].In the "Philosophy of Kant" Chelpanov analyzed three Kantian"critiques": "Critique of pure reason", "Critique of practical reason" and"Critique of judgment". He also investigated in details the theoreticaland moral philosophy, aesthetics and Kantian conception of expediency.His general intention was to overcome the mistaken interpretations ofKantian philosophy.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 103The main merit of Kant, according to G. Chelpanov, was that heattached particular importance epistemology. We should say thatChelpanov himself paid the great attention to the problems ofgnoseology during the Kyiv period. The theory of cognition can be seenas one of important topics presented in the Chelpanov‟s works.A special place in philosophical studies of Chelpanov takes theproblem of perception of the space. In his work "The problem ofperception the space in connection to the conception of apriority andinherency" he analyzed the previous conception of perception the space(for example, geometry of M. Lobachevski, G. Riman). This analysisgave him a possibility to develop his own conception.The first part of the Chelpanov‟s study is devoted to the idea ofspace "in terms of psychology" [21, p. 2]. Chelpanov concludes that theidea of space consists of several senses: a visual, tactile andmuscular [21, p. 140]. It should be noted that the experimental study ofW. Wundt confirms this thesis. German scholar argued that theperception of spatial relations is definitely using the so-called muscularsensations associated with accommodative muscle activity and eyemuscles. Given that feelings are part of the representation space (visual,tactile) are subjective, G. Chelpanov concludes that "…therepresentation of space also must be subjective" [21, p. 154]. Hence, thespace appears to have fully determined the subject of perception.Having examined the problem of space perception from apsychological point of view, G. Chelpanov focuses on theepistemological aspect of the problem – the question of the origin of ourperception. The basic idea of the study the space from the perspective ofthe theory of perception Chelpanov presented in the second part of hiswork "The problem of the perception of space" as well as severalarticles, in particular, review the latest literature on the theory ofcognition in 1900, works "Kant‟s doctrine of a priori" and work"Apriority and empiricism" which comes in response to accusations ofprofessor A. Gilyarov put forward in his review of the second part of"Problems of the perception of space".It should be noted that, considering the problem of the perceptionof space in the epistemological sense, Chelpanov defends aprioristictheory. So he considers incorrect statement of empiricism, which isbased on idea that our mind is a reflection of the objective world events.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 104According to G. Chelpanov, in perception of the world our minds play"... an active role, it provides some form that it takes" [21, p. 34].The main property of space, according to the Chelpanov, isoverlaying. The term "overlaying" refers to the fact that all phenomenaas elements of space relations are laying in some order to each other.Keeping all elements simultaneously, consciousness can easily movefrom one to another in different directions.The second important problem Chelpanov had being interestedduring Kyiv period was materialism. His reference to such problemswas connected with intention to show the psychology as autonomyscience. Chelpanov‟s views on materialism are presented in his work"The brain and soul". He states that materialistic theory is metaphysical.Its essence lies in the recognition that only substance (or materialatoms) is the true reality of the world. These atoms occupy a certainamount of space and have the ability to move from them and create awhole reality.The analysis of main ideas concerning the materialisticconception gives for Chelpanov a possibility to state that argumentationof materialism based on statement about existence of substance asfundamental principle of reality. In other words this statement can bepresented as "any existence has only material nature, the existence ofsubstance surely than any other kind of existence". In Chelpanov‟sopinion, "…if possible to doubt the existence of some sort, it seemsespecially dubious existence of substance that consciousness exists – itis directly obvious, and that substance exists, it mustprove" [20, p. 163].The important role in the work of Georgiy Chelpanov duringKyiv period played developing the ethical issues . He stated thatethics often uses empirical method of understanding the reality. It usesthe deductive method, displays its own position, points to therelationship between things and proves this relationship throughexperience. However, the possibility of an empirical scientist condemnswithdrawal of ethics. Chelpanov argued that empirically derived ethicsmore like hygiene, which can not offer us an ideal which wore to thenature of binding, i.e., forced to perform it. Ethics should have suchobligation. Naturally derived moral principles will never cause us todesire their performance.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 105Overall, the analysis of ethical theories and exposition of hisviews, which is reflected in the writings of G. Chelpanov, is closelylinked with his philosophical views. Considering this or that ethicaldoctrine, he aspired to objectivity in the presentation of its nature,conducted in touch with the views of past and contemporary thinkers.Chelpanov‟s research interests during Kyiv period is not limitedto the analysis of philosophical and ethical conceptions and outliningtheir arguments on these issues, are also important for him thedeveloping theoretical and experimental psychology.Proclaiming the fundamental principles of his psychology,G. Chelpanov argues that mental phenomena can become known onlythrough introspection or inner experience. Introspection is thefoundation of psychology. Objective observation of mental processesmust be converted to a subjective ground. Sources of psychologicalknowledge scientists call living large human communities – the subjectof the "psychology of ethos" as well as the history of mankind, thedevelopment of language, the results of artistic activity. In addition, thethinker adds to this individual human development, abnormal mentalphenomena, mental life of animals. In his opinion, this whole hugeobjective material becomes accessible to man through introspection. Itaims to cognition, feelings and will.It should be noted that in the work of G. Chelpanov reflected thecontradictions in the process of separation of psychology independentbranch of knowledge from the depths of philosophy. In his works, hepoints to the necessity of distinguishing proper psychological approachof epistemological (philosophical), department of psychology fromphilosophy into an independent science.In the psychological approach Chelpanov meant nominated byW. Wundt program development of psychology as an independentscience. The essence of this program was to bring together introspectiveinterpretation of consciousness by Descartes and John Locke, theprinciple of association as a passive mechanism functioning minds – onthe one hand, an alternative to German philosophy put forward byLeibniz, H. Wolf, J. Kant and Herbart J. in the doctrine of apperceptionas an internal activity of consciousness – on the second, and thepositivist interpretation of the subject matter of psychology as a scienceof the "direct experience" – on the third.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 106The evolution of Chelpanov‟s scientific views in psychologyreflected all the changes in historical development and establishment ofthis scientific sphere of the 19th– 20thcentury. As an "empirical"psychologist G. Chelpanov originally promoted Wundt‟s experiment,then – data of psychologists from Warburg that have focused on inneractivity and extra-sensual thinking. Ultimately, the main task of thepsychologist he saw to "cleanse" the consciousness of the impact ofincentives used in the experiments (physical and verbal) in order tocontemplate the original essence, that its form.Generally, Chelpanov‟s philosophical and psychological ideasholds a significant place in the domestic philosophy of 19th–20thcentury. In his works thinker develops problems related to thevarious branches of the humanities: philosophy, psychology, ethics,logic, etc. Kyiv period of Georgiy Chelpanov‟s scientific activity playsan important role in the his biography. At this time is its emergence as ascholar and teacher. In Kyiv, he was working on a number offundamental problems that were developed by him later in Moscow.Consideration of the main issues over which Georgiy Chelpanovworked in Kyiv period of his life, can open up new aspects of hisphilosophical and psychological heritage, the role of the thinker in thedevelopment of the Kyiv academic philosophy, more fully reveal thepeculiarities of national historical and philosophical process of the lateXIX – early XX century.List of sources and literature1. Абрамов А. И. Кантианство в русской университетскойфилософии / А. И. Абрамов // Вопр. филос. – 1998. – № 1. –С. 58–69.2. Бердяев Н. А. Самопознание / Н. А. Бердяев. – М., 1990. –336 с.3. Блонский П. П. Мои воспоминания / П. П. Блонский. – М. :Педагогика, 1971. – 176 с.4. Богданчиков С. А. Научно-организационная деятельностьГ. И. Челпанова / C. А. Богданчиков // Вопр. психол. –1998. – № 2. – С. 126–135.5. Будилова Е. А. Философские проблемы в советскойпсихологии / Е. А. Будилова. – М. : Наука, 1972. – 376 с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1076. Водзинский Е. И. Русское неокантианство конца ХІХ-нач.ХХ веков / Е. И. Водзинский. – Л.: Изд-во Ленингр. Ун-та,1966. – 80 с.7. Горський В. С. Історія української філософії: курс лекцій /В. С. Горський. – К. : Наук. думка, 1997. – 287 c.8. Ждан А. Н. Георгий Иванович Челпанов / А. Н. Ждан //Вестник Московского университета. – Серия 14. –Психология. – 1994. – № 2. – С. 72–81.9. Зеньковский В. В. История русской философии: В 2-х т. /В. В. Зеньковский. – Париж.: УМСА-ПРЕСС, 1989. – Т. 2. –544 c.10. Никольская А. А. Институт психологии в Московском Ун-те / А. А. Никольская // Вестник МГУ. – Серия 14.Психология. – 1982. – № 3. – С. 34–41.11. Огороднік І. В., Огороднік В. В. Історія філософської думкив Україні / І. В. Огороднік, В. В. Огороднік. – К. : Наук.думка, 1999. – 471 с.12. Плужнік В. О. "Київська школа філософії": гносеологічніпошуки кінця ХІХ– поч. ХХст. / В. О. Плужнік. – К., 1998. –180 с.13. Радзиховский Л. А. Г. И. Челпанов – организаторПсихологического института / Л. А. Радзиховский //Вопросы психологии. – 1982. – № 5. – С. 36–41.14. Роменець В. А. Історія психології ХІХ-поч. ХХст. /В. А. Роменець. – К. : Вища школа, 1995. – 614 с.15. Смирнов А. А. Развитие и современное состояниепсихологической науки в СССР / А. А. Смирнов. – М. :Наука,1975. – 382 с.16. Ткачук М. З історії академічної філософії в Україні:Університет святого Володимира / М. Ткачук // Філософ.думка. – 1999. – № 1–2. – С. 213–241.17. Ткачук М. Київська академічна філософія ХІХ-поч. ХХ ст.:методологічні проблеми дослідження / М. Ткачук. – К. :Центр практичної філософії, 2000. – 248 с.18. Челпанов Г. И. Введение в философию / Г. И. Челпанов. – К.,1905. – 584 с.19. Челпанов Г. И. История основных вопросов этики /
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 108Г. И. Челпанов. – К.: Изд. В. Водовозовой и С. Эвенсон подредакцией лектора, 1897. – 148 с.20. Челпанов Г. И. Мозг и душа. Критика материализма и очерксовременных учений о душе (Публичные лекции, читанные вКиеве в 1898–1899 гг.) / Г. И. Челпанов. – Спб.: Тип.И. Н. Скороходова, 1900. – 368 с.21. Челпанов Г. И. Проблема восприятия пространства в связи сучением об априорности и врожденности / Г. И. Челпанов. –Ч. І. – К., 1896. – 387 с.22. Челпанов Г. И. Философия Канта / Г. И. Челпанов // МирБожий. – 1901. – № 3. – С. 1–23.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 109PEDAGOGICSUDC 371.322V. V. Verbets’PHENOMENOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF STUDENTS’SPIRITUAL WORLDThe article analyses the multi-valued problems of the systemforming of the spiritual values in the youth environment together with theproblems of requirements, necessities and social orientation of students.The process of the escalation of the social and the psychologicaldiscomfort in the students’ environment is represented together with theresults of the social monitoring of the youth public activity.Key words: spiritual treasures, requirements, necessities,orientation, spiritual and creative potential, social monitoring, publicactivity.Statement of the problem. The transformation in the society oftraditional structures of social, psychological, spiritual and culturalnature of the problem actualizes study requests, orientations andattitudes of students. We have to note that in the youth environment it‟soccurring the search for a new meaning in life, emerging new needs,interests, mutating motivations intellectual, vocational qualification andsocio-cultural activities. In addition with the positive trends – freechoice of values, effective implementation of socio-artistic, moral andethical activity and penetration into new socio-cultural space and time –the spiritual potential of youth is characterized by crises, instability,inconsistency, lack of newly humanistic, socio-cultural, normativebehavior and escalation social and psychological tensions. Incertitude ofyouth in choosing of the adequate guidelines of the socio-culturalactivities, and in some cases, marginality, is resulting in the destructionof spirituality, enhance of pragmatic and cynical attitude toward socialand cultural values, moral and ethical life. In youth there is thedestruction of the social and cultural traditions, moral and ethicalvalues, lost faith in the justice and humanity of the society, which leadsto frustration of outlook and distracts of the youth from social
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 110orientation in life. However, depending on the nature of interaction ofsubjective and objective factors, purposefulness influence regulatoryfunctions of communication structures, and spiritual potential there maybe appropriate (or inappropriate) social and socio-cultural situation withestablished and socially significant regulatory models.The purpose of this article is to analyze the problems ofdestruction of spirituality in students and to identify the factors thatinhibit the reformation of the social institutions in the fields ofeducation, culture and so on.Level of the development of the problem. Problems of studentsare represented in the works of M. F. Holovatyi, V. A. Holovenko,E. M. Libanova, L. Sokuryanskaya, S. A. Schudlo,O. O. Yaremenko .It should be noted that the revival of the national consciousness inthe Ukrainian society contradictory effects on the moral andpsychological atmosphere among the students on the one hand, youngpeople quickly and clearly directing their own interests to the spiritualvalues of the Ukrainian national culture, on the other hand, somestudents respond to these processes as a violation of their sovereignty inchoosing of the spiritual values, which is especially evident in themarginal spiritual consumption and creation of pseudo normative, andforming of inadequate moral and ethical core requests, needs, interests,guidelines and passive participation in social, creative, socio-cultural,spiritual and creative processes of nowadays.Usually the objective and subjective factors that determine theformation of spiritual culture are interrelated, as a person, changingmoral and ethical, social and cultural environment, and modifieshimself, deepens his or her horizons, develops the abilities, needs andinterests, implementing the gained knowledge and skills in the dynamicsocial time and space. Meanwhile, today‟s culture as a social institutionrepresents the level of requests, needs and interests of individuals, socialgroups and communities in the context of their harassment and initiationof human values in a particular historical situation. However, culturealso reflects behaviors, awareness and activity in specific areas ofpublic life – work, home, art culture, leisure, etc. [9, p. 292]. Therefore,the interaction between the society and culture must be organic, holisticand have the interconnected nature.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 111However culture reflects the spiritual life, which is implementedin the field of education, spiritual production, creation andrepresentation of the scientific ideas, theories and concepts throughsocial institutions that provides purposeful activity of the integratedsocial subsystem. So the spiritual culture is caused by the set ofphilosophical, political, legal, moral and ethical values of thehumanity crested during the spiritual and creative activity. Variouskinds of the spiritual culture are associated with the manifold humanactivities, their abilities, needs and interests. After all, the spiritual lifeof the individual – it is not only the reflection of the dominant socialrelations, but also the way of the creative activity that is fullymanifested in the formation of the spiritual and creative potential.Usually needs, interests and goals of personal life in suchcircumstances are filled with the new content and therefore the mostresponsible human nature, taking into account her or his personality,inclinations and abilities.On the other hand, the values of spiritual culture synthesized pastand present, public and private, represented the established and new,and is being implemented in the life of the historical development of thesubject. However, cultural values represent the unity of material andspiritual levels of their involvement in the livelihoods of personality,being an indicator of a stakeholder. Spiritual culture is also a set ofmaterial and spiritual heritage, reflecting historically achieved level ofdevelopment of the society, embodied in the spiritual production.Notably, spiritual production is the certain way, organized,structured and institutionalized special form of the spiritual activity ofindividuals, which is focused on the creation of social and culturalrelations in the form of ideas, concepts, images, theories and value-normative samples on the basis of the acquired or inherited status ofappropriate implementation of social and creative roles as expected andpredicted behavior in a particular social space and socialtime [8, p. 281]. On the other hand, spiritual production is a complexsystem of personal-social activities, which represented the social,scientific, spiritual and cultural creativity aimed at the creation andassimilation of human and Christian values in the moral and ethicaleducation of the individual. So, psychologist M. V. Savchyn observesthat "spirituality – is the highest point of human individuality. It
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 112represents the main goal of life and human development. It is in thespiritual sense to the whole human family and the magnified" [6, p. 81].The scientist also believes that spirituality is essential to achievinghuman happiness. Meanwhile, in a philosophical interpretationspirituality – a category which is manifested through transcendence andsubstantiality and represents synthesizing substance. However, thedefining characteristic of spirituality in the rational interpretation isthinking, consciousness, the irrational – will feeling, imagination, andintuition. It is important to note that today it is updated "the educationof the soul, which must make its share to change the rationallypragmatic priorities and self-destruction" [7, p. 150].It should be noted that the previous accumulated values(scientific theory, spiritual values, moral and artistic standards) areusually discarded and replaced by new ones that meet the needs of time.On the other hand, the evaluation of the objective and the spiritualworld is through the prism of artistic and aesthetic development ofsocial phenomena of the social communities. In the development of thespiritual culture is a principle of continuity – enriching of newgenerations by the social and spiritual achievements of the previousgenerations, with their historical and social experience. Each newgeneration of selectively perceive heritage, learns values that best fit theneeds of the time, new moral and aesthetic requirements. On the otherhand, each generation brings its own values, which reflect the past andthe present.Each generation also deferrers from others with the differentattitude to cultural values. However, this contradiction arises fromambiguous socio-economic and spiritual relationship of differentgenerations; it can reach the conflict forms and should be diagnosed inthe parameters and configurations of contemporary socio-culturalsituation.It should be noted that each generation differently assesses bothpast and present. In such assessments there can be traced inadequatejudgments about various historical events that have the character of abias based on age and social status. Thus, among the youngergeneration as a result of difficulties with employment, lack of adequatefunds it is emerging the socio-psychological tension that has manifestedin the uncertainty of the future, indifference and inertia – on the one
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 113hand, and aggressiveness judgments and behavior – on the other. As aresult the attitude of young people to the spiritual heritage of previousgenerations becomes controversial.Among the younger generation it is created the own field valuesthat are dynamic, pragmatic and focused. However, due to lack ofproper social experience and ambiguous current socio-political andsocio-economic situation among the younger generation the arecommonplace sentiments of the "exile" character – to travel abroad and"inferiority" to be a socio-demographic groups present. Oldergenerations perceive spiritual heritage as a result of hard work andmaking cherished dreams and identify these values with the own youth.The younger generation, however, sees socially significant valuescautiously and critically.On the basis of values, spreading among young people, it‟sformed the way of spiritual life – philosophy, values and normativebehaviors of the ethical ways of knowing, communication andentertainment. The way of the spiritual life involves a close relationshipbetween the conditions of life and types of communication, socialinteraction and psychological stereotyping perception andunderstanding of wind values.Meanwhile, a person not only learns the spiritual values, but alsocreates a perception in the new values. Dissatisfaction with existingstate-level intellectual production may cause stimulation toimprovement. The process of harmonization or mutual negation ofvalues with the existing mechanism creates incentives for the creationof new, matching needs and interests of young people.Sociological studies show that the way of the spiritual awareness,thinking style, values for plants has the social and the psychologicalsignificance and becomes a powerful influence potential for othercommunities. Therefore, as a result of identifying the elements of thespiritual potential of society influence the development of thepersonality, on deepening its needs and interests. Identification of theconflicts and effective overcoming of the negative phenomena in thefield of intellectual production and consumption can be monitoredthrough the social process of production, storage, printing, distributionand perception of cultural values. This will establish the diagnosis offorming requests, needs and interests of young people and promptly
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 114introduce corrections in the processes of the social and the culturalcreativity of youth. Therefore, analysis of the effectiveness of themechanisms of identification and internalization in the realm of spiritualknowledge and communication is an important problem of the spiritualand creative potential.It should be noted that spirituality is the manifestation of youth insocial activity, initiative, creativity and effectiveness and it isrepresented in major areas of public life, as implemented in new formsand types of social practice. Note that social activity is based on thevalues of the motives and activities of the individual and is realized inthe implementation of the social objectives. At the same time socialactivity is correlated with individual needs, interests and goals of socialcommunities and groups. In general, the social activity of the youthgeneration depends on the historical and the social situation, socio-professional status of the individual, creative possibilities and needs ofthe dominant values.Spiritual creativity of young people – extremely complex andambiguous phenomenon today. After producing new spiritual values,making full use of the historical experience of the previous generations,to realize natural and socially acquired creativity young people are notfully capable of because controversial socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions inhibit this process. Quite complex relationshipobserved between the creative and social activity, which in its turn isbased on the relationship between necessity and freedom in the life ofthe youth. Accordingly, the results are the connecting link not onlybetween the needs of the society and young people, but also betweenthe existing object-cultural environment, new ideas and newlyestablished paradigms of the social and the educational nature. It isextremely difficult and controversial process. After all, stereotypes,values produce marginality in the transition of the social development.Rising spiritual needs of young people is the need of the dynamicdevelopment of the socio-cultural sector and harmonization of spirituallife in order to intensify the subject of creativity. However, there is aneed dissemination of spiritual and creative activities, their exchangeand mutual enrichment. It is worth noting that social activity, creativeassimilation of spiritual values and spiritual needs are closelyinterrelated and interdependent.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 115When analyzing lifestyles through empirical criteria that it reflects,it is important to consider the overall and single, common for youngpeople, which can vary by age, occupation, as well as individual socio-psychological characteristics. In general, the relationship of spiritualculture and lifestyle should be considered not only as the unity of life andliving conditions, but also as a process of active absorption of youthspiritual values, enhance the level of their national identity and ownershipof the political, moral, ethical, social and psychological culture to someextent represented in the plane of social activity young people.At the same time social activity as a measure of spiritualpersonality has characteristics of initiative, creative impact, scale andeffectiveness in key areas of the public life. Social activity is expressedas units of value and motivation activities, which enable the socialgoals. It is extremely important that the social activity, its spiritualmotives traceable ties with the needs, interests and goals of differentsocial groups.It is worth considering the interaction between the creative andthe social activity, taking into account the relation between necessityand freedom in the life of the youth. On the one hand, the man turns theworld through understanding of the natural and the social needs. On theother hand, the transformation of the natural and social environment isnot always focused and adequately to major trends and patterns ofsocial development. The result of this activity is the connecting link notonly between the needs of society and young people, but also betweenthe existing socio-cultural environment and new ideas that are translatedinto specific ideas and plans.From that, what forms it will be sold in lifestyle of the materialand spiritual needs, as new will meet the demands of practice, it willdepend on the degree of activity of the subject of creativity, and henceits spirituality. Today it is important to understand that in theeducational process rationally grounded contexts of culture andknowledge systems coexist in unity and contradictions, as well asirrational, spontaneous, intuitive fancy shapes [7, p. 8]. Meanwhileirrational is essential work, because intuition, inner contemplation,inspiration, fantasy of the personality is revealed as a "pure" entityexempt from rational forms of knowledge that are the sure sign of thetruth and the essence of life [10, p. 159]. Therefore, observing and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 116interpreting the results of one‟s activities, the young man finds himselfin the situation of the inadequate expectation that he or she can notovercome, based on the obtained in the existing education system andthe cultural baggage of knowledge and skills. Therefore, education hasalways focused on rational ways of understanding of the reality,mastery of the knowledge system should also focus on the layers beingirrational, and ignoring that leads to the inadequate theoretical schemes,which form the false idea ofthe essence of life of youth andphenomenology of their spiritual and creative potential. However, inmodern scientific literature it is represented two major trends for theprospects of the spiritual and the creative potential [3, p. 30].The first approach has the character of "evolutionism"(continuous, gradual development), that the presence of certainprogressive tendencies and production assurance versatile thedevelopment of personality and full of inexhaustible potential students.This approach has the character euphoria estimation of problems andpresent attempts to predict the future of the synergetic point of view,that self-sufficiency and enigma, existence and transcendence,innovation and development the natural spiritual and creative potentialof students [2, p. 230]. The second, in contrast, finds the dominant theidea of futility, crisis growth trends among young people, theaccumulation of negative "conflict" potential, escalation of psychosocialstress, anomie, benevolence, deepening rice conformism, cynicism,inadequate ambition. This approach has the signs of the pessimisticnature, as today, according to the experts in the field of the educationand training, is increasing polarization of ethical guidelines in differentregions of the country, increasing interdependence between differentsocial groups in the society and building potential for conflict, there isexpansion in the representation of surrogate samples of popular cultureso is escalating aggression, indifference and uncertainty in the ability oftheir own spiritual and creative potential [5, p. 13]. The results of thesurvey conducted by the Institute for Social Research of Rivne StateUniversity of Humanities May 2011 among the students are becomingmore common sentiment: indifference – 41.9%, the best hope forchange – 28.5%, disappointment - 23.6% certainty – only 5.9%.Meanwhile, the processes of "burnout", "deprofessionalization"and the accumulation of "museum image" in the consciousness of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 117different generations also determine the inadequacy of publicperceptions of innovation and produce "escape" from the realities of thelife in the cozy world of personal, but misconceptions about the present.Especially it is a manifestation among students and faculty body. Afterthe fall of motivation training, employment difficulties, inadequatewages by level of education; professional qualifications are transformedin the plane of populism on the primacy of patriotism, national prideand generate destructive self-identification.The situation as a challenge is transforming into the situation ofaggression under the reorientation of one‟s personal assessment of"positive" to "negative". To this situation is added the growing non-communicativeness, mental isolation and alienation of a social cohortfrom another. It is therefore important to carry out preventive measuresto create the positive social and psychological climate at school,preventing mental overload and removing excessive mental stress. Theresults of the polls conducted by the author of the scientific article,show the increase in youth the aggressive mood of uncertaintypropagation, care and social inferiority.On the other hand, considering the potential of the educationalinstitution, it is worth noting that the university is intensifying the socialand the educational interaction of the educational process, increasing itsinnovative capabilities, expanding social field of spiritual and creativeactivity of students. We believe that the further and the future researchcan be carried out in two ways: The first is to integrate the localgeneralizations, based on the empirical material gained in thepedagogical, psychological and cultural studies. This may be the analysisof the process of deepening spirituality, spreading moral and ethicalvalues in youth, optimizing the educational potential of the youth publicorganizations, analyzing the problems of leisure and filling them withsocially significant types of creativity. The second can be realized bydifferentiating of certain areas of forming phenomenon spiritual potentialof students, that surely must be based not only on the empirical researchin the field of pedagogy, but also with the involvement of other scientificfields. The long-term problems of analysis include formulating of theappropriate pedagogical, psychological, organizational, leisure cultureand study conditions of deepening of the spiritual motivation activities forstudents in science, culture, education and training [1, p. 65]. In the future
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 118it will not only expand the research field and to develop a conceptualframework of spiritual potential students, but also will focus the researchinterest concerning the sufficiency of the certain provisions of the conceptof modern science. Of course, certain areas do not exclude but rathercomplement and mutually reinforce various conceptual rules of thescientific theory. It is important to realize that today it is extremelyimportant not only to make the accumulation of the empirical material,but to rethink it theoretically and to go on the conceptual synthesis. In thepresent special responsibility falls on the education system which, basedon the requirements of modernity, should maintain general civilizationimperatives that structure reality, transforming the world of chaos into theorganized "space", to fill the culture with the ideological orientations.Finally, it should be noted that without analyzing of different aspectsallowed accumulated theoretical baggage and without the experimentalsearch for the new conceptual models of the theoretical constructs therecan be no question of building of the fundamentals of the scientifictheory. Given the current state of youth ambiguous socio-culturalinfluence on her educational orientation process in the state should beaiming for the spiritual enrichment and effective creative work of thepersonality, revealing his or her abilities on the basis of self-realizationand self-disclosure, creating conditions for others. Not only the level ofthe education system, namely the quality, character and orientation isrelevant in terms of solving the problems of modern culture, spiritualityidentity in the society that has an undeniable importance for overcomingthe contradictions among the youth.List of sources and literature1. Вербець В. В. Ідентифікаційні моделі інтеграції студентськоїмолоді в європейський освітній простір / В. В. Вербець //Проблеми розвитку соціологічної теорії: соціальна інтеграціята соціальні нерівності в контексті сучасних суспільнихтрансформацій. – К. : Видавничо-поліграфічний центр"Київський університет", 2009. – С. 65–69.2. Вербець В. В. Морально-етичні цінності в системі вихованнястудентської молоді / В. В. Вербець / Християнські цінності:Історія: Погляд у третє тисячоліття: Наук. записки. Нац. ун-тет"Острозька академія". – Т. VI. – Острог, 2002. – С. 230–233.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1193. Вербець В. В. Педагогічна діагностика формування духовно-творчого потенціалу студентської молоді: Монографія /В. В. Вербець. – Рівне: Вид-во РДГУ, 2005. – 383 с.;4. Головатий М. Ф. Соціологія молоді / М. Ф. Головатий – К. :МАУП, 2006. – 304 с.5. Подгурецки Ю., Щудло С. Образование как информационно-коммуникативная система. – М. : ООО «НИПКЦ Восход –А», 2010. – 168 с.6. Парыгин Б. Д. Современная социальная психология в России:состояние и проблемы / Социальная психология сегодня:наука и практика. – Санкт-Петербург, 2005. – 134 c.7. Савчин М. В. Духовний потенціал людини. Монографія /М. В. Савчин. – Івано-Франківськ, 2001. – 203 с.8. Скотний В. Філософія освіти: екзистенція ірраціонального враціональному / В. Скотний. – Дрогобич: Вимір, 2004. –348 с.9. Соціологія. Короткий енциклопедичний словник. – К. : Укр.центр духовної культури, 1998. – С. 681 [736 c.].10. Философский энциклопедический словарь. – М., 1983. –840 c.11. Юнг К. Г. Психоанализ и спасение души // Юнг К.Г. Бог ибессознательное. – М. : Олимп: АСТ-ЛТД, 1998. – 317 с.UDC 37(091) „18/19”N. B. DzuibyshynaREFORMATION OF EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXTOF CZECH NATIONAL REVIVAL (THE END OF 18TH–THE FIRST HALF OF 19THCENTURY)The article examines the main trends in educational and reformprocess in the Czech lands in the late XVIII-XIX centuries, and analyzesactivity of the first experimental school.Keywords: school reform, the Czech national revival, nationalschools.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 120Statement of the problem. Reform of the educational system ofthe independent Ukrainian state that at the present stage outlinedUkraine‟s integration into the European educational space, requiresscientific study of the best achievements of world pedagogy.Development of human values in education can enrich Ukraineanalogies with the reform movement in foreign pedagogy, includingCzech.The pedagogically reforming process in the Czech landsbelonging to different chronological periods of their origin. Sometraditions have many centuries, the other – half a century or even a fewdecades.The purpose of this article is to review the main trendspedagogically-reform process in the Czech lands in the XVIII–XIX centuries.A series of school reforms that were carried out in the second halfof XVIII century during the reign of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, hascovered all stages of education. Due to the school reform wasintroduced compulsory education for children. Teachers launched arange of productive ideas, namely: individual approach to students,disciplining, moral and ethical education, the combination of productivelabor with instruction in schools, the use of inductive learning method,the principle of visibility, internal differentiation pedagogical work, theconcept of employment (industrial) education as a basis for theformation of the human person [1, p. 8].Historical Czech and Austrian lands at the end of Joseph II erabelonged to the territory with a high level of education in CentralEurope, and if here in after evolved reform would have all theprerequisites for building civil society through gradual evolution. Butthis took time, during which ideas of Joseph ripe and wouldappropriately "overcooked" primarily in petty environment. Only thuseducational efforts of officials of Emperor Joseph II could gain afoothold on the broad social basis and gradually overcome theresistance of the supporters of the old order. But time has not helpedthis [9, p. 140].Quite contradictory impact on society in general and education inparticular areas in the Habsburg monarchy had Great FrenchRevolution, which gave impetus to the revolutionary movement, but
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 121interrupted sequence of reforms and to some extent stopped herpromising spurt.However, despite the coagulation process of reforms, nationalspokesman of general ideas presented Czech intellectuals whoinfluenced national consciousness linking itself with the interests ofnational cultural movement that sprang. Certainly, it was for the futureof Czech culture and national identity of far going consequences wasthe major impetus for the reformist influences on education, especiallyin defense of Germanization.Since the beginning of the nineteenth century there was a seriesof processes that influence the shape of school in the Czech lands,including the evolution of didactics (content and methods) from theutilitarian teaching philanthropism it is the content of education, builton the text of Scripture, to the new curriculum. So, gradually developsCzech national public school instruction.In the process of the Czech national revival that began in the lateXVIII century and lasted until the 60-ies of the XIX century, attemptsintellectuals who played a crucial role in it and which historians havetraditionally called "adherents" to raise the level of the Czech languageand create a full Czech national culture involuntarily acquired politicalovertones.Obviously, among Czech "adherents" prominently belongedpatriotic teaching. Thanks to them, people learned to read, sing, recite,put theatrical performances and quickly filled up the ranks of the newintelligentsia [7, p. 13]. In modernized, democratized Czech nationalschool teachers, "adherents" saw great patriotic testament future freeCzechoslovak state. As noted in 1864 by famous Czech historian andeducator F. Palacky, high moral potential adherents became moraltestament revival of the Czech nation and its independentstate [2, p. 94].However, in the first half of the nineteenth century the situationfor the revival of the Czech national school was unfavorable. Austrianabsolutism associated with the name of Prince Karl Meternih becameclosely monitor all attempts to revive Czech national identity andeffectively suppressed them.Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century Austrianauthorities feared movement. Thoroughly pursued primarily political
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 122activity, however, as the national movement until 1848 in the culturaland public spheres treated largely tolerated, and only the governmentcarefully monitored to make this work did not become political dissentor not promoted [3, p. 49].With this in mind, Czech teachers patriots "adherents" took anactive national educational activities.Thus, the famous Czech master Jan Jakub Fish (1735–1815 years) worked 27 years at a school in Rozhemitale underPrshemshin. Training and education, he believed the only way totransform society [8, p. 70]. In the history of schooling and pedagogyJ. Fish represented the type of teacher era of national revival, appearedbetween teacher "yozefinskym" and teacher-patriot. J. Fish tried to raisethe level of school work and emphasized the mandatory training. Heapplied effective training methods based on an understanding ofeducational material, rejected mechanical teaching methods and severityof punishment of students. He demanded discipline and set a regularschedule. Under the influence of pedagogical ideas J. Comenius andRousseau did emphasis on the moral, emotional, and aestheticeducation [4, p. 174].J. Fish was the principal teacher trying to fulfill its educationalmission not only to the world but also in front of his consciousness. Henever ceased to believe in the educational ideals of education, even at atime when persecuted for it [6, p. 111].Fate of Jacob John Fish is a typical example of patriotic villageteacher, who was under pressure of absolutist bureaucratic state, whenfeudalism was decomposed, and the new middle class was not yet fullyestablished [7, p. 114].In the early nineteenth century was another important process inthe history of Czech Education – changing ideological face teaching, itstransition from late educational ideals of the common good to the earlyliberal. In the 20 years of the nineteenth century came a new ideologicalorientation forces – the welfare of Czech society, nation and homeland.Crystallized type of teacher-patriot who believed education andeducation only means of transforming society. At the heart of thisteacher stood effort means mastering the Czech literary language,literature and other subjects partially awaken and develop the nationalconsciousness, love of their homeland. Such activities of teachers have
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 123enormous social value, was one manifestation of the process of nationalrevival, which turned into 30–40 years of the nineteenth century a newphase.To such teachers belonged Jan Nepomuk Filtsik (J. Filcík)(1785–1837), educator and author of cycle teachers Czech textbooks;priest Antonín Jaroslav Puhmayer (A. Puchmayer) (1820–1869), whofounded in January 1, 1818 in Radovanytsi near Pilsen in the CzechRepublic readership union, professor of theology at the seminary inHradec Kralove Liboslav Joseph Ziegler (J. Ziegler) (1782–1846), whopublished textbooks of Czech and small educational books for people.Such activities conducted Shebestian Hnyevkovskyy (Š. Hněvkovský)(1770–1847), Vojtech Neyedlyy (V. Nejedlý) (1772–1844), IanNeyedlyy (J. Nejedlý) (1776–1834), Joseph Miroslav Rautenkrants(J. Rautenkranc) (1776–1817), Norbert Vanyek (N. Vaněk) (1781–1835), Joseph dandy Shumavskyy (J. Šumavský) (1796–1857), JosephBachkora (J. Bačkora) (1803–1876), Shtyepan Bachkora (Š. Bačkora)(1813–1 887), Jan Formanyek (J. Formánek) (1809–1878) andothers [8, p. 82].In March 30, 1830 was issued instructions concerning theorganization of shelters for children whose mothers work. The firstshelter was established March 1, 1832, following in the Carlin atHradcany, and in 1835 in the town of Plzen. In 1839 Ian VlastimilSvoboda (1800–1844) published work "Appendix, practical, visual,comprehensive training small children to practice polishing and refiningthe mind of the heart starts reading, counting and drawing." Based onthe principles of Comenius and German philanthropist, he developed atechnique of pre-school and primary education.At the end of 40 years of the nineteenth century in severalEuropean countries ripe conditions for the creation of the modernbourgeois society. The social crisis, which in these years with varyingintensity made itself felt in all the countries of Central Europe, wasremarkable impetus to the national liberation movement in the CzechRepublic. Led by government circles Metternich wanted to keep the oldstatus quo and resisted any reformation. But the revolutionarymovement in Austria was impossible to stop. His amplified events inItaly and especially in France.In revolutionary 1848 in the Czech lands forced tumors ministry
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 124of education to their immediate tasks include exactly the reform ofsecondary schools, for which, besides the Viennese Professor Exner(1802–1853), was invited by the German Empire, Berlin RectorHerman Bosch (1814–1888) which since 1849 has held the post ofprofessor of classical philology at the University of Vienna. Within afew months of using experts was compiled "Project of gymnasiums andreal schools in Austria", which although was released September 16,1849, but was finally confirmed by the king only in 1854. This projectwas considered the greatest contribution to the development of Austriansecondary schools.As a result of the reform was established school – realka. UnlikeTheresian and post Theresian practice it was designed as a school ofgeneral education and was a school opposite.Among the first experimental schools established in the 40-ies ofthe XIX century, A special place is occupied by the so-called school"Budyech" (Buděč), which was opened and operated under the directionof Karel Amerlinha (K. Amerling) in 1842–1848 years [7, p. 182].From a historical point of view educational efforts ofK. Amerlinh were important because they showed the prospects foreconomic and educational development. In essence, the experimentssummarized by K. Amerlinh education program Ignatz Barna (1742–1791), which was published in the preface of the second volumenewsletter Czech Scientific Society in 1775, which clearly emphasized:"Czech Republic, which in the past was determined by many pundits ascompared with other lands of the monarchy has become a scientificfield model for others, so now we need to gather unselfishly fill manygaps in our history, to develop science in their lands, take on physicaland mathematical sciences, and the results of their observations anddiscoveries inform scientists of the world . This was for us to becompensated for what is still establishing academies and public benefitthat would this was around the nation are not considered absolutelynecessary" [7, p. 183].Actually this program K. Amerlinh tried to undertake research inthese areas, aimed at practical production and educational activities. Tothis end, he taught teachers so they know technology and methods ofnatural science research in chemistry, botany, geology, etc. At the endof 1839 was based society "Budyech Teaching", which contained a
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 125small house in Prague, where teachers gathered at lectures. Among thefirst of these educational meetings were Jan Svoboda, founders oforphanage brothers Bachkory, teacher of deaf Peter Veselskiy, the firstteacher of physical culture Malypetr [7, p. 183–184].Experimental School "Budyech" was built in 1842, has four floorsand an observatory. On its facade on the main picture was depictedKomensky, which teaches children the midst of nature. The school wasestablished teacher preparatory institution. Here come the teachers whoparticipated in the creation of teacher training institute and organizationof the Czech national school, from kindergarten until high school degree.Meeting in Prague teaching "Budyechi" according to theprotocols of 1848–1852 biennium, which are stored in the pedagogicalmuseum named Comenius in Valdshteyn palace was the organizedstructure. Their members were both secular and religious educators ofdifferent status: honorary members, founding members, currentmembers, free members, corresponding members. The main objectivesof the meeting were as follows:1) create a teachers‟ library;2) joint mutual education that everyone tried to share knowledgeabout a particular subject in which he is particularly familiar with othermembers;3) collection of exhibits animate and inanimate in the vicinity ofschools and organizing for school;4) discussion of educational issues;5) study the topography of his school places, villages, towns;6) to create conditions for continuing education of urban andrural youth after-school age;7) interviews – reading, music, moral and civil;8) creating shelters.To realize these objectives, adopted a resolution on theestablishment of five sections, whose members specialize in thefollowing areas:- Section I – Natural;- Section II – educational and historical;- Section III – Art;- IV section – industrial and technological;- V section – Antiquities.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 126Noting that in all these sections worked K. Amerlinh [6, p. 190].He drafted a national school, which consisted of two parts: the firstoutline the appointment of national schools, established generalprinciples of learning and the means to achieve the goal in the second -defined types of national schools for children aged 2 to 14 years.Kindergartens small children were divided into maternal school (2–3 years) and kindergarten for children 4–5 years. In the garden of the maintask was visual cognition of things in nature, and that in the parent schoolwas preceded by observation and the name of things in the house andaround it. From kindergarten children moved to the "preparatory class"(přípravny), calculated for two academic years. The first was "obviousclass" (názorna), second – "hereditary class" (odlíkovna) for children aged6–7 years. Along with reading, writing and counting children clearlyacquainted with science, physical phenomena, the "Crown Class" in thestudy of geography and history of the region, students acquainted withplants, animals and various products. Training manuals were "World inPictures" J. A Comenius, "Journey from home to home" Bachkory.The third stage of primary school or "school subject" (věcnice)for children aged 8–14 years, had six types.The first type of school "Poyemovna" (pojemovna, pojem –concept) for an 8-year-olds the task of classification put things in theirmain features to the system of categorical thinking: classes, digits, units,families, genera, species. It studied the geography and history of theregion, science and minerals, plants and animals across the country.The next type of school "Putovna" (putovna, putovat - travel) forchildren 8–9 years aimed at knowledge of the world through thecomparison of information about their country to other countries (ingreenhouses, for example, compared with the local alien flowers). Inaddition to the usual reading, writing and counting, studied chemistry,physics, geometry, science, astronomy.Next was "Naukovna" (naukovna) school for 9–10 year oldchildren, which students acquainted with the world of science, theinventions and discoveries. Much attention is paid to the geography,history, homeland chemistry.School for children 11–12 years "Promyselna" (průmyslna,průmyslný – clever) did focus on visual learning sciences (geography,paleontology).
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 127Type of school "Uchetna" or "Spravovna" (oučetna, oučet –calculation, správovna, správovat – control) for children 12 –13 yearshad the task of mastering skills in business in various professions,crafts, teaching in a school laboratory.And finally, the school "Vyedovna" (vědovna, vĕdĕt – know) forchildren 13–14 years goal was to provide in-depth knowledge. Here,studied classical literature, professional works of art, production,etc. [6, p. 190–195].Note that K. Amerlinh found gifted and conscientious educatorsand practitioners among its supporters, through which managed tocombine to practice basic items of visual learning and early geography.His pedagogical ideas he embodied in a series of handbooks forteachers.Thus, the reformist tradition of education of Comenius in themid-nineteenth century K. Amerlinh established educational institution"Budyech" in Prague as "the people‟s university education for a nationalteachers, industrialists, educated teachers, mothers andhousewives" [6, p. 214] and formulated a program of school reform"project of national schools", based on the comprehensive nature oflearning and education.During this period, the impact of JA Comenius felt in trying toreform the Czech primary school, and in the differentiation ofsecondary education in the fields – humanities (Gymnasium) andnatural-technical (real school) [5, p. 48].Thus, during the educational reform in the context of the Czechnational revival were the dominant ideological trend to change the faceof teaching, its transition from late educational ideals of the commongood to the early liberal; differentiation of secondary education in thefields: Humanities (school) and the Natural Science and Engineering(real school), creating experimental schools ("Budyech" K. Amerlinha).List of sources and literature1. Дзюбишина Н .Б. Педагогічний реформізм у Чехословаччинів міжвоєнний період (1918–1938 рр.) : автореф. дис. наздобуття наук. ступеня канд. пед. наук: спец. 13.00.01«Загальна педагогіка та історія педагогіки» /Н. Б. Дзюбишина. – Рівне, 2011. – 20 с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1282. Idea československeho statu / [red. J. Kapras, B. Němec,F. Soukup]. – Praha, 1936. – 184 s.3. Lněničkova J. České země v době předbřeznové 1792 – 1848 /J. Lněničkova – Praha, 1999. – 274 s.4. Podlahová L. 1 +100 osobností pedagogiky a školství v českýchzemích / L. Podlahová. – Olomouc, 2001. – 253 s.5. Somr M. Dějiny školstvi a pedagogiky / M. Somr a kol. – Praha,1987. – 186 s.6. Strnad E. Didaktika školy národní v 19. století / E. Strnad. –Praha, 1975. – 253 s.7. Strnad E. Vlastenecky učitel. Dokumenty a materiály k vývojiučitele v době obrozeni / E. Strnad. – Praha, 1955. – 279 s.8. Štverak V. Stručný průvodce dějinami pedagogiky / V. Štverak,M. Čadská. – Praha, 1999. – 98 s.9. Urban O. České a slovenské dějiny / O. Urban. – Praha, 1955. –279 s.UDC 373.21O. M. DomanyukFORMS OF WORK OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONALESTABLISHMENT AND FAMILY ON ISSUE OF SOCIALDEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN THETHEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONThis article analyzes forms of preschool education and family.Forms of work used for social developmentof a child are defined in it.Key words: interaction, preschool educational establishment,family, forms of work, social developmentSetting and topicality of the problem. To ensure favorable livingconditions and upbringing of the child, laying the foundations of a full,harmonious personality, it is necessary to strengthen and developcooperation of a kindergarten and a family. The basic program of childdevelopment of preschool age "I am in the world" states that themodernization of pre-school education cannot touch a modern family;leave a family only to watch the changes occurring in its first link, not to
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 129affect its interests. It is very important to involve parents in the process ofupdating of the content, forms and methods of education for children. Atthis time it is topically to renew the strategy and tactics of the teachersinteraction with parents, changing its vectors and accents, modernizingthe subject of conversation, expanding the range of vital issues ofencounters greater sincerity, openness, constructiveness, freedom fromexcessive formality. Unity of efforts will help to create a wide developingspace favorable for the full life of the child in a family and in a preschoolestablishment, opening out its essential powers, becoming an activeperson of individual and collective activity [1, p. 325].Condition of preschool education nowadays requires a holisticapproach to the child. This explains the need for pedagogic interactionof family and pre-school establishment based on the unity ofeducational efforts. Educators and parents act in the interests of thechild, make decisions regarding its education and training, creatingappropriate conditions for it. The success of the formation of the wholeperson depends on how these relationships are consistent.Thanks to the close cooperation of a kindergarten with the familymembers around the children, an atmosphere of trust, understanding andsupport. is created. This means that parents and other family membersshould stop being passive, to act as experts or observers and begin to actwith educators and children on a partnership basis with the right ofinitiatives and self-control. They are equal partners and allies. Parents‟ideas must be appreciated their advice must be followed. But thanks togood communication of educators and parents, their goodwill,impartiality in solutions of different problems, an effective interactionof pre-school family can be achieved.Analysis of recent research and publications. The idea ofinterdependence of social communication and family education isreflected in a number of legal documents, including the basic programsof child‟s development of preschool age "I am in the World", the Lawof Ukraine "On Pre-school Education" and others. Thus, the Law ofUkraine "On Preschool Education" states that parents are the firstteachers. They are obliged to form the foundations of physical, moraland intellectual development of the child at an early age [2, p. 4].According to this the position of pre-school work with a family ischanged. Each pre-school not only educates children but also advises
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 130parents on their education. A pre-school teacher is not only a tutor ofchildren, but also is a parents‟ partner in the process of education.The Researchers of school age (O. Zvereva, O. Kononko,T. Krotova, T. Ponimanska, etc.) stress that a family and a pre-school,performing specific educational functions, cannot replace each otherand have to interact for the full development of a child preschooler.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the forms of kindergartenand a family and to identify those forms that are used by teachers forsocial development of preschool children.The main material. The preschool childhood is a unique periodin the life when health is formed, development of personality is realised.At the same time, it‟s a period during which a child is completelydependent on the surrounding adults, parents, and teachers. Therefore,improper care, behavioral, social and emotional problems that arise inthis age lead to serious consequences in the future. According to theLaw of Ukraine "On Preschool Education", one of the major challengesfacing educators is interaction with the family to ensure the fulldevelopment of the child [2, p. 3]. Therefore, an active policy forcreating a common space of child‟s development, both in a family andin a preschoolsis necessary because today the is on the integration offamily and public education, active involvement of families to theeducational process is emphasized. To become this interaction possible,it is necessary to use various forms of work with families and considertheir features. Study and analysis of the scientists and practicians canidentify the following forms of interaction with families of preschooleducational institutions: shared (parent meetings, meetings with parents, evenings ofquestions and answers; discussion of issues, training, joint holidays andentertainment, exhibitions, schools for parents, pedagogic council;meeting, parent conference); individual – individual interviews and consultations, visitschildren at home, parents bringing to life of a pre-school; visual-information – an exhibition of children‟s work,advertising books, articles in periodicals and the Internet on theproblems of family education (by T. Ponimanskf); clearly-written – the parent corners, thematic stands , tablets,folders, classified ads, flyers, exhibitions, questionnaires, box – offers,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 131individual notebooks, informal letters, family newspapers, educationallibrary, invitations, greetings, etc. (O. Kononko, T. Alekseenko); verbal – parent meetings: general and in groups; pedagogicalconversations, both individual and in groups; advice; practical – "open door" days, shared holidays andentertainment, demonstrations of lessons, polling, labor shares, jointcontest, groups for children and adults, a library for family reading,creating of developmental environment; visual – tours on the preschool institution or the group,information centers, folders, written information for parents, wallnewspapers with photos, exhibitions (by A. Zvereva, V. Krotov).At present the practicians accumulated many new forms for workof pre-school with a family: design or method of projects (familyprojects), the creation of parental room, a corner "For the curiouschildren and caring parents", a handwritten journal for parents "FamilyPage"; involving parents by teachers into the different kind of activitywith children (working in the garden or playground, morning exercises,training with art work, building games), organizing and celebrationswith families holidays and birthdays, round table with experts in theform of questions and answers, viewing by parents children‟s activity ingroups, construction of a corner of art for children at home, homeworkand many others. They are based on traditional forms and help parentsto overcome their own authoritarianism, see the world from theperspective of the child, teach to treat a child s an equal, to understandthat it was unacceptable to compare it with other children, and shouldenjoy its personal growth, build a trusting relationship with its. Creativeways of working with parents, involving children, teachers and otherstaff of pre-school become more popular. Often parents want not only toobserve the child during its interaction with adults out of home, but alsothemselves to act in the new role (theatrical performance, sportingevent, meeting, debating) [4, p. 426].Fot the pedagogical team of a kindergarten is important to teachparents the proper interaction with children. The pedagogisation offamilies takes place through various approaches: advisoryrecommendation (parent meetings, oral and written consultations, talks,workshops, training, etc.), lectures and educational (parental lectures,universal education, conferences, teaching reading) activities involving
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 132parents in the educational process ("Days of Open Doors", involvinginto the preparation and celebrations of holidays, festivals,entertainment, individual training, to equip educational process,ordering facilities, areas together with children and teachers.It is advisably to involveinto activity not individual, but allmembers of a family, other relatives who are involved into child‟s up-bringing, and also establish friendships with other families which arenot indifferent to the development and education of their children.Actualization of parental attention to the problems of preschollchildren‟s upbringing is assisted by different tasks given to them, suchas: to speak about the certain issue at parent meetings; "homework" forobservation, participation of parents in work of groups, games,activities, excursions with children, assistance in conducting of role-playing and business games [4, p. 425].Combining of different forms of work is rational. Experienceshows that in working with parents you should void he judgments abouteducation, help them in ability to observe their own child, open hild‟snew qualities and traits .On the base of the analysis of the kindergarten cooperation formswith the family, we decided to investigate the forms of the work used bythe teachers cooperating with the families. So we analysed omedocuments of kindergartens in Kremenets, Ternopil region, in whichome planned and organized events for working with families arerepresented. These are schedule and protocols of parents meetings.Analysing documents we followed the criterians: 1)variety of plannedforms of work about socializing of children under school age;2) reflection of parents‟ activity in the report;3) availability of results of the spent arrangements;4) whether the work of improving is a professional development.Analysis of the documents in this criterion allowed to determinecompetency-no suitable team preschool first institution to interact withfamilies of pupils, directed to the social development of children: usesdifferent forms of work, takes into account the needs and wishes, fillsmeasures informative and interesting material and aims to continuouscapacity building of teachers in action with their parents.Having studied and analyzed these documents we found out: inpreschools monotonues forms of work with the family are planned.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 133This are mainly parent meetings, joint celebrations and open days,personal conversations and consultations. Days of Good Deeds:involvement parents into repairing of fabrication materials, trainingholidays, the planned meeting "round table" employment-trainingliterature and parents family projects. According to the subject we cansay it is also monotonues and concerns to social development and thesubject of other forms of work. At parents meetings the problems ofproviding children‟s entering to school,hygiene, school routine,education of respect for the work of adults in the family, thedetermination of school leaver( subjects: "Preparation for the first ofSeptember", "How to play corner," "Example of parents in a child‟slife", "Pres of health and tempering measures in different seasons,"consultation "Games exercises to develop a sound culture language","Requirements for the child in family and preschool center" forparents of "child hygiene – the guarantee of health","How to teachchildren to express their opinion", "Preventing colds", "What can I doto adapt to the child‟s school complications","Emotional matingbetween parent and child" and so on. Regarding socializationpreschooler in the analyzed document include the following topics:general parenting with boron "Cooperation PEI and families informing social communication competence of children","Interactionof family and society", "Education in the socialization of ofpreschoolers", "How to help your child find their proper place peergroup".2) the minutes of parent meetings were mentioned five and offersparents, but they did not address the problems of social development ofpreschool children.We found documents respected job: professionalcompetence of the staff on interaction with family (round table –relationships of parents and teaching staff, consultations" diverse formsof collaboration with families, "New forms of interaction with parentsinfants". After discussions with the teachers, we learned that,unfortunately, often planned cooperation arrangements preschool andfamily are realized. This is a number of reasons: unwillingnessintermediaries by their constant: not all parents respond to the attitudeof teachers to cooperate, show no interest in the well efforts of theirchildren, lack of confidence,understanding and cooperation betweenkindergartens and parents, and lack of teacher competence.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 134Based on these points we have developed recommendations forteachers: Teaching staff should enhance psychological and pedagogicalcompetence of parents to understand patterns of child development andlearning and issues, as well as the characteristics of their socialdevelopment and the conditions that contribute to this process; Should be possible to involve the parents to cooperate in thecreation of appropriate conditions for life and development of children,for their successful socialization; Fully explore the situation, status and family patterns ofinteraction with her for a differentiated approach; Involve parents to actively participate in events held inpreschools, build them a sense of belonging to the teaching staff asassociates and accomplices process of social development of the child.The important direction of the teaching staff of pre-school mustenrich the knowledge of educators and parents on all aspects of theprocess of socialization of preschool children, deepening educationalculture parent. Cation process organization for future according to thecredit module training technology.List of sources and literature1. Базова програма розвитку дитини дошкільного віку „Я уСвіті” / М-во освіти і науки України, Акад. пед. наукУкраїни; наук. ред. та упоряд. О. Л. Кононко. – К. : Світич,2008. – 430с.2. Закон України «Про дошкільну освіту» (№ 2628–ІІІ від11 липня 2001 року) // Освіта України. – № 33. – 12вересня. – 2001.3. Зверева О. Л. Общение педагога с родителями в ДОУ //О. Л. Зверева, Т. В. Кротова. – М.: Сфера, 2005. – 80с.4. Поніманська Т. І. Дошкільна педагогіка: Навчальнийпосібник для студентів вищих навчальних закладів /Т. І. Поніманська. – К. : «Академвидав», 2006. – 456 с.5. Поніманська Т. І. Світ людей у вихованні соціальноїкомпетентності дошкільника / Т. І. Поніманська // Оновленнязмісту, форм і методів навчання і виховання в закладахосвіти: Зб. наук. праць. Наукові записки Рівненського
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 135державного гуманітарного університету. Випуск 9. – Рівне:РДГУ, 2000. – С.90–93.6. Поніманська Т. І. Теоретико-методичні засадигуманістичного виховання дітей дошкільного віку /Т. І. Поніманська. – Рівне: РДГУ, 2006. – 364с.7. Лазарева Л. С. Про оптимізацію взаємодії дошкільногонавчального закладу з батьками (Методичні рекомендації)[Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу до статті: –http://osvitacv.com/index.php/doshkillya/857–2011–06–17–15–11–06.UDC 378.14A. M. KokarevaON THE PROBLEM OF THE PECULIARITIESOF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS ORGANIZATIONACCORDING TO THE CREDIT MODULE TRAININGTECHNOLOGYThe article deals with the peculiarities of education processorganization for future according to the credit module trainingtechnology.Key words: credit module technology, education process.Setting and topicality of the problem. The tendencies of thedevelopment of higher education in Ukraine are determined by thestrategy of its integration into the Bologne process. The introduction ofthe Bologne principles, which is a factor of Ukraine‟s Eurointegration,as well as a means of a more free access of its citizens to high qualityeducation, calls for a profound reform of the structure and content ofeducation, educational technologies, their logistical support. Thus, thereform of education of both its structure and content is an urgent socialnecessity.According to the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education", one ofthe main principles of the state policy as to higher education is theintegration of the system of higher education into the world system on
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 136condition that the achievements and traditions of the Ukrainian highereducation are preserved.State of the scientific research of the problem. Ukraine‟sintegration into the European Higher Education Area promotes radicalchanges in higher education. There are a lot of problems in the way ofthe reforms but the peculiarity of the near future is that Ukraine hasalready become a member of the Bologne Declaration, whichdetermines the eighth tendency of its innovative educational policy –integration into European Higher Education Area and renewal ofprofessional training according to the world standards.We agree with P. I. Sikorsky‟s idea that in order to introduce thecredit module technology the following measures should be taken firstand foremost: to bring the curricula of higher educational establishments intoconformity with the curricula of the countries-participants of theBologne process and coordinate their variative parts (up to 70%); to ratify unified terms of class-room studies in highereducational establishments; using didactic integration to reduce the number of disciplinesup to 5 for each academic year and discriminate the notions "discipline"and "subject": a discipline consists of separate autonomous subjects; to ratify for each course of training an invariant part of curriculaand syllabi as well as a concept of the formation of a variant part of thecurriculum; to unify the notion "didactic credit" according to the Europeanstandards (1credit=36hours); to concretize the state standard of higher education bydetermining the structure of the elements of knowledge required forcomplete acquisition of a subject, discipline, course and degree oftraining; to make transitional structural-logical schemes of teachingdisciplines in credits according to the module principle.It is worth while mentioning that the transit to the credit moduletechnology of education requires not only radical changes in thepedagogical approaches to making curricula, syllabi, to writingessentially different text-books and manuals but to carrying out
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 137psychological and pedagogical investigation of the new educationtechnology, its scientific and theoretic substantiation and adjustment tovarious disciplines, courses and degrees of education; special trainingand retraining of the teaching staff; bringing their workload and salaryto the European standards as well.It is necessary to get rid on the psychological and mental level ofsuch disgraceful realities like entering higher educationalestablishments or passing examinations without having sufficientknowledge and practical skills necessary for the future professionalactivities. We think that the main difference between the credit modulesystem and the traditional one consists in the systemic approach to theanalysis of a definite profession, its flexibility and capability throughthe mechanism of feedback and adaptability of curricula to meet therequirements in training specialists.The main material. According to M. S. Kulik, E. V. Luzik,N. V. Ladogudets, our system of higher education is oriented on ECTSwhile introducing its own credit system. At first this system served as ameans to improve the standards of education in order to study abroadmaking it easier to compare students‟ performance on the basis of acoordinated assessment system (credits and grades) and technology ofthe interpretation of the national systems of higher education, i.e. ECTSwas designated to increase students‟ mobility and enhance theattractiveness of the European system of education. Essentially, ECTSdoes not envisage any regulation of the content, structure or equivalenceof curricula. Credits in this system are numerical equivalents of grades(1-60) which are assigned to different sections of a certain course. Theyreflect the ratio of the amount of work required by each bloc of a courseto the overall amount of work required for the completion of the wholeyear of academic studies. Credits reflect the overall students‟ load: classwork, tests, practice, attestation, etc. ECTS reflects load relatively, notabsolutely – they determine which part is taken by one bloc of a certaincourse in a year‟s load. ECTS credits are designated in order to providerecognition of the academic load performed during studies abroad aspart of academic load envisaged by the curriculum.However, at present the aim and task of this system havewidened. The system is being transformed into a credit-accumulationsystem and is defined as Credit Transfer and Accumulation System. For
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 138instance, V. S. Zhuravsky interprets ECTS as a credit system of inter-credit (inter-recognition) and accumulation. He also points out that thisis a system which is based on determining the amount of students‟ workrequired for the participation in the program. It is oriented onspecialized terms of analyzing academic performance and necessarycompetence.We agree with the view of A. V. Plokhiy and A. V. Kazanovskyon the notion "module system" as a technology of education in highereducational establishments which encompasses the content, forms andmethods of educational process, types of controlling the quality ofknowledge, skills and academic activities of students according towhich a module is a functionally complete part of a unit or theme of adiscipline, a number of theoretical and practical tasks of a certaincontent and structure with an elaborated system of teaching andindividual technological maintenance. It is important to note that one ofthe necessary components of the maintenance are the forms of controlsuch as routine rating and final control. According to the present creditmodule technology, a certain integrated course or a discipline is dividedinto separate modules and a professor or a chair are eligible to introducea module system independently, regardless of the fact whether the otherdisciplines taken by the students are taught according to this system ornot. Such an approach is rather flexible taking into consideration someirregularities of the transit to the credit module system by differentdisciplines.The General Regulations on the organization of the educationalprocess according to the credit module system read that "the creditmodule system is such a model of educational process which is basedon combining module technologies and credit points". In this contextanother notion "model" is worth mentioning. It implies: 1) a scheme,image or description of some natural or social phenomenon or process;2) an analogue of a certain fragment of natural or social reality. In otherwords, a "model" is a system of objects or signs which reproduces someessential properties of the system-original. The presence of partialsimilarity (homomorphism) makes it possible to use this model as asubstitute or a representative of the system under consideration. It isnecessary to note here that that the use of the notion "model" is justifiedon some stages of work with a certain complicated system (analysis,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 139elaboration, etc.). The "model" is, to some extent, a means of describingand checking the main features of the system which is modeled, e.g. thetruth and completeness of certain theoretical statements. Thus, theintroduction of some system of education, the credit module system inparticular, cannot be reduced to the introduction of some model of sucha system.As for the notion "credit", O. M. Spirin offers a new notion "pass-fail credit", which implies a unit of measurement of academic loadrequired for the acquisition of thematic modules or a bloc of modules.The term "credit" is described by other normative documents. However,the usage of these terms is ambiguous. For example, in the phrase"accumulation of a number of credits referring to the estimated rate ofstudent‟s fulfillment of academic load", we should deal with "pass-failcredits". There are no commentaries on the phrase "the total number ofcompulsory and optional thematic modules during an academic yearshould not amount to more than 44 credits" (no less than 60 pass-failcredits).That is why it is not quite clear how credits and pass-fail creditsare discriminated.The transit to the new system makes it necessary to assess everyintegrated course (discipline) in credit points, elaborate effectivemethods of conducting classes in and out of the class-room, introduce amodule rating system of performance evaluation, elaborate and publishinformation bulletins for students to familiarize themselves with thenew system.Such a system of credit points will require improvement oflogistics, a more concrete formulation of academic requirements in acertain discipline. Besides, it will considerably increase the logisticsrequirements necessary for the independent work of students (which iscaused by the increase in the number of hours), establishing permanentperformance control.In the Standards ratified by the Ministry of Education and Scienceof Ukraine the overall load includes work in and out of the class-room,and, in some courses, examination sessions as well. The ECTS reflectsthe overall student‟s load including work in the class-room (lectures,laboratory and practical classes, seminars) and individual work(preparation of module tasks, etc.), all kinds of practices, finalattestation and independent work.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 140In 2004, National Aviation University ratified the Regulations onthe organization of educational process according to the credit modulesystem. Every student and professor can familiarize themselves with theinformation on the university website.Conclusions. Analyzing the present state of the problem of thepeculiarities of the organization of educational process according to thecredit module training technology we can state that there are quite anumber of works devoted to the credit module system, credit moduletechnology in particular. We should mention that there are otherinterpretations of the credit module system. In most cases, the creditmodule system is interpreted as a teaching technology and such terms as"credit technology" and "credit system" are used in its description.List of sources and literature1. Журавський В. С. Болонський процес: головні принципивходження в Європейський простір вищої освіти: Наук.-метод. вид. / В. С. Журавський, М. З. Згуровський; М-воосвiти i науки України; Нац. техн. ун-т України "Київ.полiтехн. iн-т". – К. : Полiтехнiка, 2003. – 195 с.2. Кулик М. С. Кредитно-модульна система навчальноїдіяльності: Навч.-метод. посіб. для слухачів системипідвищення кваліфікації професор.-викладацького складу /М. С. Кулик, Е. В. Лузік, Н. В. Ладогубець; Нац. авіацій. ун-т.– К. : НАУ, 2004. – 96 с.3. Модульно-рейтингова система: Заг. положення та метод.рекомендації: Для викладачів вищих навч. Закладів /Л. В. Пшенична (уклад.); Сум. держ. пед. ун-т ім.А. С. Макаренка. – Суми: Сум. ДПУ ім. А. С. Макаренка,2004. – 43 с.4. Модульна система професійного навчання: концепція,методика, особливості впровадження: Навч.-метод. посіб. дляпрацівників системи проф.-техн. освіти та службизайнятості / Упоряд.: А. В. Плохій, А. В. Казановський;Держ. центр зайнятості України. – К. : Вид-во центру«Київська нотна фабрика», 2000. – 284 с.5. Основні засади розвитку вищої освіти України в контекстіБолонського процесу: досвід впровадження кредитно-
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 141модульної системи організації навчального процесу уТернопільському національному педагогічному університетіімені Володимира Гнатюка. Ч. 3 / За ред. В. В. Грубінка. –Тернопіль: Вид-во ТНПУ ім. В. Гнатюка, 2005. – 272 с.6. Сікорський П. І. Кредитно-модульна технологія навчання:Навч. посіб. / П. І. Сікорський; Заг. ред. З.І. Тимошенко;Європей. ун-т. – К. : Вид-во Європей. ун-ту, 2004. – 128 с.7. Спірін О. М. Понятійний апарат кредитно-модульної системинавчання / О. М. Спірін // Вісн. Житомир. держ. пед. ун-ту. –2004. – N 15. – С. 83–86.8. Шапран О. І. Кредитно-модульна система як сучаснаінноваційна технологія підготовки фахівців у контекстіБолонської декларації // Гуманітарний вісник Переяслав-Хмельницького державного педагогічного інституту іменіГ. С. Сковороди: Науково-теоретичний збірник. – Спец.вип. – Переяслав-Хмельницький. – 2005. – С.356–362.9. http://www.nau.edu.ua/uk/EduProcess/Organization/UDC 378.14.011.31:008S.A. Lytvynenko, K.M. PavelkivFORMATION OF REFLEXIVE CULTUREIN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF FUTURE TEACHERSThe article presents an analysis of theoretical approaches toconsider reflexive culture of the teacher, who determine the content andmethodological foundations of future specialists in modern conditions.Keywords: reflection, pedagogical reflection, reflexive culture offuture teachers, vocational and educational training.In keeping with the philosophical and psychological approaches(K. Abulhanova-Slavskaya B. Ananyev, L. Antsyferova, O. Asmolov,I. Beh, O. Orlov, V. Petrovskyy, S. Rubinshteyn, B. Clobodchykov,H. Schedrovytskyy etc.), becoming a person as the subject of life andprofessional self-development is considered. In this regard, mechanismsand initial positions of the individual self serve value-semantic andactivity areas, goals and plans reflection. Understanding Reflection as a
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 142factor in the development of professionalism, which is the ability of thesubject to continuous personal and professional self-based mechanismsfor introspection and self-certifies its multifunctional nature andprovides in system factor. The purpose of the article actedgeneralization theoretical fit to hear reflexive culture of teacher, thatdetermine the content and organizational and methodologicalfoundations of teaching future professionals in the modern world.Study of philosophical, psychological and educational literature(A. Bizyayeva, K. Vazina, T. Davydenko, H. Dehtyar, V. Yelisyeyev,H. Isayev, Natalya Kuzmina, Yu. Kulyutkin, M. Mamardashvili,A. Markova H. Suhobska, D. Shchedrovitski etc.) proves crucial role ofreflection for development of the individual and the social communityas reflection: leads to a holistic understanding about the contents,methods and means of action, gives an ability critically reflect uponthemselves and their activities in the past, present and future, makes aman (social system) the subject of the activity. The need for reflection isthe result of objective development of activities, or as a result ofmaturation of the internal contradictions in the mind of the individual,which actualizes the need to review and reorient establishedmotivational value system.The range of meanings of contemporary use of the concept ofreflection is quite wide: reasoning and reflection, self-esteem, selfreflection and self-examination of its own activities in the relations withthe world in which personality lives. The term reflection (from the Latinreflexio) preserves the original semantics and means "come back",reflection, self-discovery, a category of consciousness, a form oftheoretical activities and principles of thinking. The problem ofreflection in philosophy developed in line with the study ofconsciousness and theoretical thinking, processes of communication andcooperation regarding the necessity of understanding and coordinationbetween participants. In this sense, the reflection appears as a propertyof the mind to seek inner world, as an observation of the activity or stateof mind (soul), as an analysis of knowledge that leads to newknowledge . In the basis of reflexive processes underlying theoperations of comparison of the results with predictable, that is thecondition of inclusion accountant mechanisms of mental regulation,provides change management, adjustment and improvement activities,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 143development of personal qualities of the subject. All these processes arecarried out by the "logical thinking tools" and by means of mentalorganization (goal-setting, monitoring and evaluation, comparison,etc.). Describing the nature of reflection, V. Rozin notes that reflectiveactivity aims to bridge the "gap management" to solve problems forwhich traditional methods and tools do not work .One of the main features of reflection is the orientation on theactivity system, elements of which are: the subject of activity endowedwith activity, which he directs on the objects, the object of activity; theactivity itself. The founders of the Moscow Methodological Circle(V. Lefevr, M. Mamardashvili, H. Schedrovytskyy etc.) conducted ananalysis of reflection and developed a methodology of thinking withinactivity theory, taking into account such aspects of the reflection asprocess and the special structure of the activity and principles of itsdeployment patterns. In situations specific activities starting point ofreflection for the manifestation is the inability to carry out activities inaccordance with applicable rules, difficulties and failures in business,the discrepancy results defined purpose, and so that gives rise to the gapbetween the components of activity, inhibition of inclusion andawareness mechanisms [8, 10].Based on the different levels of knowledge reflection onsubstantive knowledge rises (the subject of reflection becomes mentalacts or conditions that accompany activity or result from it); reflectionon ways of forming representations (the subject of reflection becomesview of things and expression them in the form of symbols, diagrams,words, etc..), the process of reflection can be considered as the highestlevel of reflection . The principal was understanding reflectionthrough categories of "turnabout" or "reflexive way out". Reflexiveoutput is necessary to overcome the difficulties in activity throughgoing beyond the situation that arose through thinking. Reflexive wayout is in change of look on a situation in which there were difficultieswith the internal to the external, in output beyond the situation in aposition that allows to understand the situation and find the way tosolve it.When it comes to reflection in pedagogy, the first manifestationof a general revealed in specific activities. Pedagogical reflection ingeneral (B. Vulfov, H. Yermakova, L. Sokolova etc.) understand how
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 144the correlation itself features, abilities of ones "I", of his activities withthose required by teaching profession. Some authors (Natalya Kuzmina,A. Markova, L. Mitina etc.) consider pedagogical reflection as a specialkind of ability. So L.Mitina defines reflection as a set of analytical andevaluative skills to understand oneself, the regulation of ones ownbehavior and activities, penetration into student‟s individuality, abilityto become in his position and see, to understand and evaluate yourselfthrough his eyes, structurally vyrischuvaty their internal personalitymisunderstandings and conflicts . Most conceptual models ofpedagogical reflection (H. Bizyaeva, I. Hutkina, H. Yermakova,M. Karnelovych, A. Furman etc.) present the teacher research positionas a focal point of. It is based on the ability to integrate their experience,theoretical knowledge and professional value orientation .Reflection as a mechanism for professional self-improvement andself-development is the ability of the teacher to take an analyticalattitude towards yourself and professional activities. According toYu. Kulyutkina and H. Suhobskoyi, reflexive processes in educationalactivities are: in the interaction of the teacher with the students as heseeks to adequately understand and purposefully regulate their thoughts,feelings and actions, in the design process of students when he developslearning goals and design schemes to achieve them, taking into accountthe features and capabilities of students, in the process of introspectionand self-evaluation of their own activities as a teacher and himself as itssubject. The last aspect of pedagogical reflection is both a holisticunderstanding of their profession and their place in it, and in particularpersonal relation to a particular pedagogical decision .Comparison of domestic and foreign approaches to teacherreflection revealed two trends: the supporters of preparation foruniversity study stage (T. Bondarenko, P. Hrimmeh, O. Varlamova,V. Yelisyeyev, V. Slastonin, I. Stetsenko etc.); researchers who believethat to develop pedagogical reflection is necessary in the course ofprofessional activities (Wellington H. Yermakova, Krause,M. Karnelovych, V. Mehayeva, S. Stepanov etc.). According to modernconcepts pedagogical reflection performs the following functions:projecting (design and simulation activities of participants ofeducational process), organizational (organization of the most effectiveways of cooperation in joint activities), communicative (as a condition
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 145for productive communication subjects of educational process),semantical (the formation of awareness activities and interaction),motivational (determination of orientation of joint activities result),correction (motivation for change in interaction and activity) .Theoretical models of reflexive culture as a subject of teacherteaching activities (T. Bondarenko, H. Dehtyar, V. Yeliseyev,H. Yermakova, M. Luk Demyanova etc.) are based on theoretical andmethodological positions: the unity of consciousness and activityprocesses, reflective culture is a part of the general culture and its studyis based on Culture data, revealing the overall structure, mechanism offunctioning of culture, in the anthropological aspect of culture itappearsas a way of human existence, the historical extent lifestyle andincludes a specific set of historical and symbolic systems in a wayperception, thinking, knowledge, experience and action, as well asknowledge, values, techniques and evaluation criteria, in terms of itsstructure contents reflexive culture of a teacher is correlated with theoverall structure of vocational and educational culture. From thestandpoint of cultural approach reflective culture appears as a set ofindividual and socially constructed ways of understanding andrethinking the subject‟s own life. However, as part of vocational andeducational culture, reflective culture is a qualitative, systematic anddynamic personality formation, characterized by a certain level ofprofessional identity, a set of socially and professionally conditionedways of understanding and rethinking the content of educationalactivities.Reflexive culture of a teacher, according to V. Yeliseyeva, isdefined as psychological growths, belonging to peculiar nature ofcreative pedagogical work, as a system factor of professionalismcharacterized by set of skills, techniques and strategies to ensureunderstanding and rethinking of the content of educational activities, asa mechanism to overcome stereotypes and personal growth activitiesthrough their thinking and innovation nomination, solving problematicsituations in the course of performing professional tasks For T.Bondarenko, reflective culture of a teacher - is anintegrative, dynamic personality formation, that is manifested in theassimilation of complex knowledge, skills, ways of self-understanding,self-esteem, forming the "I-position", skills gap solving situations [1,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 146p.45]. The researcher attributes to indicators of formed reflexiveculture: theoretical knowledge about reflection, reflective skills, abilityto reflexive activity, the presence of motivation for reflexive activity,awareness of the process of formation of reflexive culture [1, p.100].Reflexive culture of future teachers H.Dehtyar examines aspersonal and integrative formation that includes a set of knowledge,skills and abilities that are implemented through specific actions aimedat the identification, evaluation, summarizing the most significantfeatures of teaching process to achieve its quality changes, as well asprofessional and personal improvement. In the structure of reflexiveculture researcher identifies cognitive and procedural, personal andevaluative components .Our analysis of theoretical constructs and relationships inconsidering vocational teacher and reflexive culture allowed to form ourown approach to the definition of reflexive culture as essential personalcharacteristics in the field of vocational and educational activity thatcombines personal and professional development of teachers. Reflexiveculture of future teachers is regarded by us as an integral, dynamic, multi-personality formation, the structure of which holds the personal, cognitiveand action-creative components that are implemented through assessmentand also summarize the most significant features of the pedagogicalprocess and provide awareness and rethinking of the content ofeducational activities, problem solving situations in the course ofperforming professional tasks, professional and personal improvement.A special place in the study of problems reflexive culture of ateacher embraces the problem of its development. The reason for thestudy is the correlation of reflection with professional and pedagogicalfunctions (V.Kohan, A.Bizyayeva, H.Yermakova, V.Mehayeva etc. ..),when a professional activity is considered as metaactivity. In thisregard, importance gets, on the one hand, the problem of interaction(subject - subject relations arising in the process of joint activities), andon the other, reflexive attitude of the teacher to himself as the subject ofprofessional educational activities [3, 4]. The student as the subject ofthe activity formulates goals of knowledge, chooses how to achievethem, analyzes and corrects the results, as well as their own qualities asa subject of the activity, showing his attitude to work, to himself and toother participants in activities, being formed as a personality .
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 147Reflection of the future specialist, as his internal mental activityaimed at self-knowledge and understanding of his own actions and states,interpersonal relationships and communication with others, because self-knowledge is the initial stage of self-imrovement. Based on the theoreticalresearches and analysis of ones own experience are the following aspects ofreflection of future specialists in educational activities: awareness ofoneself as a subject of teaching profession; awareness of peqularities offeatures teaching profession, the desire for self-knowledge, the ability toself-observation during training activities to self-control and self-regulationfurther, focus on knowledge of their educational opportunities and abilitiesand comparing them to the requirements of future professional activity;comparative analysis of the results achieved.Important methodological significance for our study is given tothe relationship of creativity and learning of students with the reflection,that aims to develop self-awareness, understanding and guidance on thesubject of action (intellectual reflection), the self-organization,movement through self-knowledge, self-examination himself, his state -internal mental acts, their forms and conditions, mental activity, integral"I" (personal reflection) and through reflection and analysis of humanpersonality and of partners in joint activities and communication.So reflection and reflective culture are conditions for theformation of subjective qualities and subjectivity as a system quality ofthe personality. Reflexive man‟s relation to its own activities serves as adeepper understanding, critical analysis and design improvements. Inthe broadest sense professional reflection acquires significance as afactor in system development and improvement of professional,personal and quality attribute of professional thinking teacher. Instructural terms reflective culture of the teacher appears as a componentof vocational and educational culture that reflects the nature ofeducational work, its performance and quality.Reflexive culture is associated with awareness and regulation ofindividual ways to operate, and the level of reflexive culture appears asa crucial factor in achieving effective results of the subject. Reflexiveculture allows us to plan own work and manage it, creatively interpretand solve problem situations, acquire new meanings and values. Thedevelopment of reflective culture of a personality is in the deepness oftheir experience rethinking and is characterized by a personal
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 148contribution to the organization of professional and personal growth,needs of the individual in a free choice of content, ways to expand anddeepen it.In the pedagogical aspects the development and formation ofreflexive culture of students is an important part of a holisticeducational process and serves as one of the conditions for self-discovering and professional self-improvement. Objectively, thedevelopment and formation of reflexive culture is quite lengthy,beginning in the years since school and continuing in professional andeducational activities of teachers and not limited to vocational andeducational training. However, despite the expansion of research areasin the field of teacher education, the problem of reflexive culture offuture teachers in teaching science has not found a proper reflection.The formation and development of reflexive culture of the futureteachers provides training for creative self, that is in departure frompatterns and attitudes, awareness of the content of their profession andfinding interested, critical attitude to its various aspects, developing aprogram of personal and professional self-development, consistentenrichment of professional experience and skill. In connection withwhat sees prospects for further research in the study of organizationaland technical foundations of reflexive culture of future teachers in thepreparation and professional activitiesList of sources and literature1. Бондаренко Т. А. Педагогические условия развитиярефлексивной культуры у студентов : дис. … канд. пед.Наук : 13.00.08 – теория и методика профессиональногообразования / Т. А. Бондаренко; Южно-Урал. гос. ун-т. –Челябинск, 1999. – 191 с.2. Дегтяр Г. О. Формування рефлексивної культури студентівпедагогічних університетів : автореф. дис. на здобуття наук.ступеня канд. пед. наук : 13.00.04 – теорія і методика проф.освіти / Г. О. Дегтяр / Харків. нац. пед. ун-т ім.Г. С. Сковороди. – Х., 2006. – 19 с.3. Елисеев В. К. Становление и развитие рефлексивнойкультуры субъекта педагогической деятельности :монография / В. К. Елисеев. – Липецк, 2003. – 223 с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1494. Ермакова Г. Г. Педагогические условия развитияпрофессиональной рефлексии педагога : автореф. дис. насоиск. науч. степени канд. пед. наук : 13.00.01 – общаяпедагогика / Г. Г. Ермакова ; Оренбург. гос. пед. ун-т. –Оренбург, 1999. – 18 с.5. Карнелович М. М. Рефлексия учителей на этапепослевузовского образования : пособие / М. М. Карнелович.– Гродно : ГрГу, 2009. – 67 с.6. Митина Л. М. Психология профессионального развитияучителя / Л. М. Митина. – М. : Флинта : Москов. психолого-социал. ин-т, 1998. –200 с.7. Мышление учителя: личностные механизмы и понятийныйаппарат / под ред. Ю. М. Кулюткина, Г. С. Сухобской. – М. :Педагогика, 1990. – 104 с.8. Розин В. М. Психология и культурное развитие человека/ В. М. Розин. – М., 1993. – 204 с.9. Философский энциклопедический словарь / под ред.С. С. Аверинцева и др. – 2-е изд. перераб и доп. – Москва:Сов. энциклопедия, 1989. – 815 с.10. Щедровицкий Г. П. Рефлексия в деятельности /Г. П. Щедровицкий // Мышление. Понимание. Рефлексия. –М., 2005. – С. 64–125.UDC 37.012I. H. MysykTHE PECULIARITIES OF THE INSTITUTEOF CONTINUNING EDUCATION IN UKRAINEIn the article the features of organization of preparation,perfection of knowledge, abilities and skills of teacher are examined inthe system of continuous education and integrating of all his stages inpostgraduate pedagogical education.Keywords: post-graduate pedagogical education, competence,continuous education.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 150The modern concept of education in Ukraine associates withlearning throughout life, therefore, man gradually takes possession ofthe teaching profession, first of all consciously chooses it according toown preferences and abilities, and then raising the professional levelgaining skills. For choosing and gaining this difficult, but necessary forall people and for all time profession it‟s needed to the most reliablething – to have a calling.Post-qualifying education – is a part of the national system ofcontinuous education. This stage should provide specialized perfection,recess, expanding and updating of professional knowledges, abilities,skills. In post-qualifying education combined landline forms andindependent work on daily, extramural, evening, distance, combinedforms of education, and externship. Post-qualifying pedagogicaleducation is closely related to continuous education, it supposesimproving pedagogue during the whole his life, realization his own,personal development programs and self development.Objectives – identify conceptual and structural components ofpostgraduate education in continuing education in Ukraine. Conceptualprovisions relative to the content, form and organization of postgraduatepedagogical education are based on the principles of the Constitution ofUkraine, laws of Ukraine "About education", "On joint secondaryeducation", "About higher education", the conceptual foundations of thedevelopment of pedagogical education in Ukraine and there isintegration into the European educational space, state program"Teacher". The concept of development of postgraduate education inUkraine defines the purposes and tasks of development of professionalstaff potential, improvement of functioning of national system ofpreparation, retraining and professional qualification of experts.Scientists research the various aspects of postgraduate education ofteachers: S. Krysyuk considers process of establishment anddevelopment of postgraduate education teachers, N. Protasova definesthe principles of the system of postgraduate education.O. Marinovskaya explores post-qualifying education in terms offormation of readiness for the project activity. A. Kuzminskiy examinesthe theoretical and methodological grounds of post-qualifying teachertraining. In the works of pedagogues some problems of postgraduatepedagogical education are considered, which are defined as a part of the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 151continuous pedagogical education (V. Bondar, O. Moroz, R. Hmelyukand others). The system of post-qualifying teacher education is based onthe conception of continuous education, which is taken like a strategy inall world-wide civilized countries. Its main principles are theconsistency, continuity, individualized learning, fundamentalization,humanization, and humanization of education.Having formed in Ukraine, the system of post-qualifying teachereducation is characterized by organizational structure, streamlined set ofschools and teaching institutions whose primary function is theimprovement of the scientific-theoretical and methodological training,skills, expanding total.The current system of post-qualifying teacher education inUkraine as institutional complexes include: the state university,"University of Management Education", 27 regional Teacher TrainingInstitute, 19 advanced training faculties in universities and institutes,self-supporting centers of excellence of teaching and leadershiptraining. Post-qualifying teacher education is the development ofgeneral and methodological culture teacher, enrichment of basic teachertraining.Specialization – is a kind of training teachers to perform certaintasks or duties that have specific features within the profession,expanding professional development – the development of pedagogicalknowledges and skills for the gradual development of the worker as aperson and as a professional, its acquisition of the ability to performcertain duties and tasks within the specialty. Professional developmentis a training, course preparation, methodical work, self-education.Timing, frequency of training, the amount of training time in thesystem of post-primary education are establishing by institutions ofpost-qualifying education in accordance with relevant regulations andnational standards of education in consultation with the customer, inaccordance with the selected forms and types of learning, as well as theprocedure and periodicity of certification of specialists in the field.Post-qualifying teacher education provides alignment with therequirements of time and international standards of professionalqualifications of teachers, their individual personality and functionalneeds, improvement of scientific and general cultural (general) level ofspecialists, promotion and development of creativity, innovation andcultural potential of teachers.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 152In the the literature on the problem of continuous pedagogicaleducation is considered the process of formation of the teacher in thecourse of its "base of multi-level training and overall development ofpersonality during his post-qualifying teacher education. Basicuniversity training – is the formation of professional and generalculture of the teacher, and postgraduate – is the enrichment of itsprofessional and general culture. In such an interpretation post-qualifying teacher education has qualitative definition, it is not limitedby professional development but closely related to the personalprogress.It is organically entered in structure of continuous education,provides realization of principles of a continuity and succession. Suchsystem of development of the personality creates conditions forversatile, professional and general development" . Besides, scientistsconsider pedagogical education in unity of three components: pre-vocational, base and postgraduate. Each of them differs by the contentsand its corresponding methods and forms of organization .Pre-vocational pedagogical education creates conditions, forprofessional self-determination, forms readiness for a choice of apedagogical profession. The content of pedagogical vocational guidanceprovides formation of a pedagogical orientation of the personality(interests, bents, motives, valuable ideas of a pedagogical profession,pedagogical thinking). Elementary pedagogical skills are formed. Themotivational and valuable relation to pedagogical activity is the maincriterion of selection on pedagogical professions.Basic pedagogical education provides fundamental, vocationaland practical training for pedagogical activity, receiving the appropriateeducational and qualifying level. The content of this education isdefined by state standards, is formed according to requirements ofqualifying characteristics of concrete pedagogical specialties.Post-qualifying pedagogical education provides continuousprofessional improvement, development of creative potential,professional and personal growth and self-affirmation of the teacher,formation of the teacher which already has experience of work. "It ispossible to change specialty within the previous profession with thecorresponding qualification, to change qualification not only vocationaltraining, for example, specializations as mastering by special knowledge
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 153within specialty, but also level of readiness for pedagogical activitywithin specialty.A third option – professional development as a process ofimproving teachers professional knowledge and skills and theacquisition of the ability to perform certain duties and tasks within theprofession" [6, p. 13], as the upgrade professional competence ofteachers professional. The system of qualification improvment has anumber of advantages in comparison with the basic professionaleducation: it is less inertial and able to respond to more social,economic, technical and technological conditions is usually a directtwo-way communication with the practice that allows quick learningoutcomes, contingent who learns, can critically evaluate proposedinnovations, it can directly participate in their testing, development, andimplementation , that is a conscious approach to improve theprofessional competence. What does the "professional competence"mean? One can not dwell on this characterization is very important inthe field of education concepts. Competence this is knowledge,experience, personality characteristics of fitness to work in a particulararea. This, as pointed out by a well-known researcher in the field ofphilosophy of education C. Klepko, "a new political challenge, whichmust meet a modern education. The notion of competence accentedactual ability of an individual to perform all tasks to which requires hisjob, position. Technological and organizational changes, themodernization of working conditions made us to focus on the potentialof the individual to mobilize his abilities and develop its capacityaccording to the situation of labor" [3, p. 183]. Competence approachvalued by employers as particularly relevant, since it focuses on theindividual and his ability to develop, which is a major source ofpersonal motivation I and flexibility.Competence approach moves from the management philosophy inwhich the individual serves the "system" (qualification, based on thedescribed tasks and requirements) to philosophy in which the "system"serves the individual, taking into account the way in which it develops,mobilizes and increases its potential for solving specific problems. Weare different and, to achieve the certain stage, the time that we need forthis is also different. To overcome individual shortcomings, it isimportant to build consecutive systems of training, estimation and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 154qualification which would deserve mutual trust and would offersufficient guarantees for individuals and their employers (Skillsversus) [3, p. 184].The quality of pedagogical activity of a teacher is measuredaccording to level of his professional competence. This integral qualityof the personality which has its own structure, that allows the expert tocarry out his activity in the most effective way, and also promotes hisself-development and self-improvement. "Professional competence hasthe generalized reference model in the form of a professiogramma.Proceeding from pedagogical abilities and teacher‟s specifics of work,in the structure of his professional competence are allocated suchcomponents: designing, information, organizing, communicative,analytical. For these components, there are four levels of professionalcompetence of teachers: a) low – receptive and productive, b) medium –reproductive, c) enough – constructive and variability, d) high –creative" .Competence is not limited to the amount of knowledge andeducation. You can know, but not being able to apply your knowledge.Therefore, the competence is related to a specific conditions of itsimplementation in a particular activity. Council of Europe has identifiedfive core competencies, among which there is one competence, which isconcern to the continuity of education:1. Political and social: The ability to take responsibility and toparticipate in a group decisions, to resolve conflictsnonviolently.2. Life activity in a multicultural society. Control of racism,xenophobia, climate of intolerance.3. Oral and written communication. Knowing more than onelanguage.4. Information literacy. Possession of information technology,understanding their nature, strengths and weaknesses of the useof information technology.5. The ability to learn throughout the active life.List of basic educational competencies is based on the main objectivesof education, structural representation of the social experience of theindividual, as well as the main activities of the student, which wouldenable it to acquire the social experience, the skills and practices of life
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 155in modern society. From these positions the basic educationalcompetencies are:1. Value-sense competence.2. General cultural competence.3. Educational and cognitive competence.4. Informational competence.5. Communicative competence.6. Social and Labour competence.7. Competence of personal self-improvement.Besides the basic competencies that relate to the total content ofeducation, there are general subjected competencies (which theresearchers have attributed to a certain range of subjects and educationalsectors) and object competencies (which have a specific description andthe possibility of formation in the teaching of subjects).Competence in teaching activities is seen as a personality traitthat characterizes its ability to assess correctly the teaching situation, totake the necessary and optimal solutions to solve it.The primary assessment of competence is the availability ofknowledge and experience, their ability to update and use in theimplementation of educational functions. Thus, competence is – afeature of the teacher, which is to much wider set of pedagogicalknowledge and skills.In addition, this activity with respect to itself, the continuousimprovement of the dynamics on the background of the changes thatoccur constantly in the society, and the requirements that are putforward in relation to the time of educated, and a competent teacher.Self-improvement is a perpetual change of personal uses of hertime.In order to achieve the chosen goals, one is free to elect their ownalgorithm, and therefore the concept of education in a democraticgoverment should be set in the constructor, from which the student willconstruct their concept of life and achieve success in it. The mostimportant elements of the design are the public institutions ofpostgraduate education.Summarizing the research of scientists, let the principles oforganization of the system of professional training of teachers, theexample of training psychologists: 1. The principle of personal
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 156orientation system, which includes valuable, cognitive, creative andactivity-personal components. 2. The principle consistency, continuity,succession and creative nature of the system. 3. The principle ofdiagnostic-analytical approach in the implementation of the system.4. The principle of individualization of the learning process. 5. Theprinciple of active forms of work. 6. The principle of orientation onself-knowledge and personal self-development. 7. The principle ofacademic support activities. 8. The principle of implementation ofhumanist position in practice.Personal orientation of post-graduate training in the unity of theprinciples outlined, gradually forms the teacher‟s willingness to change,and without it it‟s impossible to make people improve their skills. Thelevel of homegrown preparedness of teachers to change, shows studiesconducted in 2003 and 2005 in preparation of the "Equal Access toQuality Education", implemented by the Ministry of Education andScience with the support of the World Bank. With a help of a range ofquestionnaires, were collected data on the quantity and quality ofteaching staff of postgraduate teacher education in Ukraine.Analysis of the structure of teaching staff on the voting age hasrevealed that the largest number (31%), teachers (teachers andtrainers) – people aged 41 to 51 years; 22% of workers in the regionalTeacher Training Institute are in the age of 51 to 55 years; group ofteachers in the age over 55 years – 17%, 20% of teachers – this agegroup 30–40 years, and 10% – 20-30 years. The study showed that themajority of teaching staff have the experience of more than 20 years(37% – 20-30 years of experience, 18% – more than 30 years), 27%have worked for 10–20 years, and 13% – 3–10 years, and 5 % of staff –worked for less than 3 years, besides this last group is not alwayspresent in every Regional Teacher Training Institute. Thus, for themajority of teachers and supervisors of postgraduate teacher educationin our country, the actual problem is the rapid aging of their psycho-pedagogical and subject-methodological knowledge and the need for theobtaining of advanced competencies. However, as witnessed analysis,only 60% of teachers and supervisors of regional institutions are pleasedwith the study, which they receive for training and professionaldevelopment, 33% partially satisfied, 7% – not happy at all. (picture3.3) 
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 157Considering the opinion of the teachers and practitioners,according to the needs of the time, in the regions of Ukraine,postgraduate teacher education institutions are actively restructuringtheir activities. Increasing of the volume and variety of the forms ofpost-graduate teacher training. Becoming more common the form ofcorrespondence and distance learning postgraduate teachers, developcontingency training programs of teachers and practitioners, heads ofeducational institutions.The system of teaching staff of educational institutions in Ukraineis characterized by organizational structure, in some way ordered set ofinstitutions. What are the characteristic features of operating systemscurrently in postgraduate teacher education? First, this system ispopular. Almost all teachers have the opportunity every 5 years to learnfrom the training courses. According to the results of sociologicalstudies that were conducted in 2007 by the Institute of SocialTechnologies, "The educational system in the estimates of the citizensof Ukraine", the greatest demand among teachers have such forms ofadvanced training like distance training and courses that are close to thelistener. "This is due to the fact that the introduction of such forms oftraining helps to improve professional skills (the teacher does notseparate from the main place of work) and the quality of theorganization of the educational process" .Under current conditions of education reform in Ukraine is givento significant modernization of postgraduate education, especiallyteaching, which by definition of UNESCO is a "crown of education",and allows to each specialist constantly renew and deepen the generaland professional knowledge and skills.Strategy of the system of postgraduate education is changing: theeducation of the system faced with the need to work not only on thefunction of the education system, but rather on its development, whichprovides for a change of relay assignments for research, to identifyeducational needs, study of specific educational processes in the systemof postgraduate education, participation in the development of regionalprograms for the development of education and etc .During the research conducted by public organization"Association of Adult Continuing Education," in the framework of theWorld Bank project "Equal Access to Quality Education in Ukraine",
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 158were found that among 8,400 respondents (including 68% - teachers,32% – methodical workers and managers of schools and educationalinstitutions): 79% point to the need to modernize the current system ofpostgraduate teacher education, namely the continuing education ofteachers .A particular attention has to be implemented into a system (andnot just one time in a five years) training managers at all levels,especially of regional and city administrations and departments ofeducation, because they determine the software implementation ofinnovative educational projects. The problems of the modern system ofpostgraduate teacher education experts attribute to the lack of evidence-based concept of the education sector, its forecasting models, the gapbetween actual practice and theoretical studies of its problems,undeveloped content and technology at the present and future needs. Inaddition, the characteristic feature of this system is the high degree offormality that has developed due to lack of horizontal links between thepostgraduate teacher education and the types of educational activities,the development of which it has been organized. System ofpostgraduate teacher education focuses on the forefront of progressivepedagogy and best practices. At the same time, students receivedknowledge remains at the level of information rather than practicalaction.Lack of its impact on the functioning and development ofeducational institutions, in which graduates are employed.A.Kuzmensky "paraphrasing" an opinion of L. Vygotkogo, arguesthat "the system of postgraduate teacher education does not provide the"zone of proximal development "institution". The formality ofpostgraduate teacher education determines compulsory character study,conduct it in the form of campaigns [6, p. 146].An informative model of study dominates in the postgraduateeducation of teachers. Mastery of existing knowledge has becomeultimate goal, as the result – there was a problem of separation ofknowledge from the personal experience of the employee. The modernsystem of postgraduate teachers education, as alleged in his doctoraldissertation of A. Kuzmensky, "characterized by a lack of choice ofalternatives, of specialized centers, which would provide a variety ofadvisory needs (methodological, pedagogical, psychological,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 159administrative, etc.) and improve the workers level up to the needed, toinnovate in a particular school." Despite the fact that the system isworking with teachers and guidance staff promptly prepared and trainsteachers and managers to work on the new programs, textbooks, thedynamism of social development, fundamental changes in theeducational institutions need to modernize and improve the quality ofwork [p, p. 146, 147].Modernization is a recognized course of public policy ofeducation in general and a post-graduate education. Modernizationshould change the following elements of the postgraduate teachereducation :development of the regulatory framework (the Law onpostgraduate education, the Regulation on establishment ofpostgraduate education, the Regulation on licensing and accreditation ofinstitutions of postgraduate education); ordering of social guaranteesand protection of workers postgraduate institutions (wages, pensions,long vacation and so on);methodological guidance of the educational process in theinstitutions of postgraduate education; to determine the status ofinstitutions of higher education as a postgraduate institution;improvement of material and technical base of postgraduate educationinstitutions.Conclusions. Learning during the whole life is a construction of arather difficult nonlinear living space, which depends on the internalmechanisms (value priorities, ideals, motivation, activity, self-esteem,spiritual needs) and external (social, political and socio-economic)factors that are limited by the subjective and objective nature.A government policy have a decisive influence on the formationof the system of postgraduate teacher education institutions in the fieldof education. Postgraduate teacher education is not so much a functionalelement in the system of education as developing, aimed at solvingproblems of projective system of education. In addition to trainingteachers for the new specialty, training, postgraduate educationperforms operational, information, consulting, diagnostic functions,generates an informed approach to improving professional competence,the ability to activate the individual development and self-fulfillment inteaching activities.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 160List of sources and literature1. Андрощук І. Безперервна освіта педагога [Електроннийресурс] / Ірина Андрощук // Нова педагогічна думка :науково-методичний журнал. − 2010. − № 1. − Режимдоступу :http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/Soc_Gum/Npd/2010_1/Androsch.pdf.2. Загальні відомості про післядипломну освіту [Електроннийресурс] / Міністерство освіти і науки, молоді та спортуУкраїни // Офіційний веб-сайт МОН України : Вища освіта :Інформаційні матеріали : Післядипломна освіта. − Режимдоступу :http://www.mon.gov.ua/education/higher/topic/pdosv/zgv.3. Клепко С. Ф. Репрезентація знань в освітньому просторі(філософський аспект) : дис. ... докт. филос. наук : 09.00.10 /Клепко Cергій Федорович. – Харків, 2009. – 453 с.4. Крисюк С. В. Становлення та розвиток післядипломноїосвіти педагогічних кадрів в Україні (1917 – 1995 рр.) :автореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня доктора. пед. наук :13.00.04 «Теорія і методика професійної освіти» / С. В.Крисюк. – К., 1996. – 48 с.5. Кузьмінський А. І. Післядипломна педагогічна освіта якструктурний компонент системи неперервної освіти /Анатолій Іванович Кузьмінський // Педагогіка і психологіяпрофесійної освіти : науково-методичний журнал. – 2003. –№ 1 (сiчень-лютий). – С. 15-21.6. Кузьмінський А. І. Теоретико-методологічні засадипіслядипломної педагогічної освіти в Україні : дис. ...доктора. пед. наук : 13.00.04 / А. І. Кузьмінський. – К., 2003.– 481 с.7. Мариновська О. Я. Формування готовності вчителів допроектно-впроваджувальної діяльності: теорія і практика :[монографія] / Оксана Яківна Мариновська. – Івано-Франківськ : Симфонія форте ; Полтава : Довкілля-К, 2009. –500 с.8. Міронова М. Ю. Післядипломна освіта майбутніх психологівяк науково-педагогічна проблема / Міронова М. Ю. //
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 161Педагогіка формування творчої особистості у вищій ізагальноосвітній школі : збірник наукових праць. – 2009. −Вип. 4. – С. 300-305.9. Післядипломна педагогічна освіта в Україні як структурнийкомпонент системи неперервної освіти [Електроннийресурс]. − ЧНПУ, 2008. − 27 с. − Режим доступу:http://www.twirpx.com/file/314351/.10. Подолянюк О. Л. Розвиток професійної позиції шкільногопсихолога у післядипломній освіті : дис. ... канд. психол.наук : 19.00.07 / О. Л. Подолянюк. – К., 2004. – 237 с.11. Пономаренко Т. О. До питання про єдність довузівської,вузівської та післявузівської підготовки спеціалістів /Пономаренко Т. О., Вакуленко В. М. // Система неперервноїосвіти: здобутки, пошуки, проблеми : матеріали Міжнар.наук.- практ. конф., 28-31 жовтня 1996 р. : У 6. кн. : Кн. 5 /упоряд. В. С. Филипчук ; АПН України, Чернівецький держ.ун-т ім. Ю. Федьковича. – Чернівці, 1996 – С. 143–146.12. Протасова Н. Г. Андрагогічна ідея і післядипломна освіта:постановка проблеми / Н. Г. Протасова // Шлях освіти. –2000. – № 7. – С. 13–15.13. Протасова Н. Г. Післядипломна освіта педагогів: зміст,структура, тенденції розвитку / Н. Г. Протасова ; Державнаакадемія керівних кадрів освіти. – К. : [б.в.], 1998. – 171 с.14. Рябцева І. А. Філософія вищої педагогічної освіти: напрямипідготовки та розвитку педагогічної компетентності вчителяв Україні [Електронний ресурс] / І. А. Рябцева // е-журнал«Педагогічна наука: історія, теорія, практика, тенденціїрозвитку». − 2010. − Вип. № 3.15. Hutmacher Walo. Key competencies for Europe : report of theSymposium (Berne, Switzerland, 27-30 March 1996) / WaloHutmacher ; Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) : Asecondary education for Europe. – Strasburg, 1997. – 72. p.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 162UDC 281.9:255 (477.8) «1921/1939»Myshkariova S. V.ORGANIZATIONAL BASIS OF THE ORTHODOXSOCIETIES IN WESTERN UKRAINE IN THE INTERWARPERIOD (1921-1939)The manifestations of national and public activity of orthodoxbrotherhoods of Western Ukraine during the interwar period (1921–1939) are clarified. The activity of Lutsk‟s Chesnohresne Brotherhood,Kremenetz St. Nicholas Epiphany Brotherhood, Volodymyr SpiritualBoard, "Active Church of Christ" Brotherhood are characterized.Succession of medieval and orthodox brotherhoods traditions ofWestern Ukraine in 1921–1939 is pointed out.Key words: orthodox brotherhoods, educational activity, publicactivity, traditions.Raising the problem. The issue of Christian moral values revival inthe context of modern Ukrainian society humanization is being raisedsimultaneously with the integration of Ukrainian higher education into theEuropean educational plane. Orthodoxy in Ukraine performs a leading rolein the spiritual formation and the comprehensive development of society.As the experience of its institutions isn‟t studied enough and acquirescommon cultural values importance in modern society, we are considering,in particular, the activities of orthodox brotherhoods in Western Ukraineduring the interwar period of 1921–1939, taking into account theireducational, cultural, social and educational orientation.State of researched problem: Analysis of traditions, specifics ofmanagement and features of orthodox brotherhoods activity are treatedin the works of such modern scholars as S. Havrylyuk, Y. Isayevych,S. Kvasha, P. Kralyuk, I. Tymochko. However, a systematic analysis ofthe orthodox brotherhoods activity in Western Ukraine in the interwarperiod of 1921–1939 was not conducted. Thus, the task of the givenarticle is to track institutional framework of public, educational andcultural activities of orthodox brotherhoods in Western Ukraine in theinterwar period (1921–1939).Main material of research displaying: Moral, spiritual andreligious education was an important focus of the orthodox brotherhoods
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 163activity. Brotherhoods structure was arranged in such a way that strictdiscipline which also was called "reckless obedience" dominated. Thistradition was borrowed from the rules of XVI century brotherhoods.Brotherhood (in XVII) was headed by older brothers – head ofbrotherhood, brother-treasurer (shafar), brother-housekeeper andothers. Their every instruction was performed blindly and every failurewas punished. This tradition of obedience and respect was preserved inXX century brotherhoods. Here is an example of the structure andmanagement system of Kremenetz St. Nicholas Epiphany Brotherhood[9, p. 241]. Office of the Epiphany Brotherhood belonged to GeneralBrotherhood membership meetings and Brotherhood Council. Controlover finance was carried out by Audit Committee. All importantdecisions were made at a General Meeting of brotherhood members "forthe presidency" of Kremenetz Auxiliary Bishop. "Annual meeting" wasconvened once a year in January, sometimes in the case of urgent mattersemergency meetings were convened "at any time of the year". The mainfunctions of the General Assembly included discussion and approval ofbrotherhood reports, hearing audit reports on the financial condition ofbrotherhood, selecting three years members of the Board and the AuditCommittee, approval of amendments to the Charter, the distribution ofbasic finance, conferring the title of brotherhood honorary member topeople who brought special benefits to brotherhood, etc. Permanentadministration of the brotherhood belonged, as already was noted, to theCouncil of the Brotherhood, which was composed of 12 members amongwhich there were four mandatory and eight which were elected by theGeneral Meeting from among the active members. Brotherhood Councilissued orders and "maintained relations within brotherhood affairs". Allcurrent issues were also solved by Brotherhood Council but with theconsent of the bishop. Annual financial report and its implementationwere monitored by Audit Committee. Checking of accounting books,issuing receipts were the main task in the work of the Audit Committee.All members of the brotherhood were divided into active and supporters.The first had the right to vote at the General Meeting, and the secondhelped to fulfil brotherhood activity as much as they could. "People, whobrought brotherhood special benefit by their influence in society, or bytheir work, or large offerings, may be awarded with the ranks of thehonoured members of Brotherhood" [4, p. 16].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 164We should emphasize that special brotherhood attention was paidto the education of youth and, of course, of "young" or "youthful"brotherhoods that were part of the Brotherhood and operated under itsauspices and under its direct supervision, but embodied a separatecomponent branch. At the Brotherhood General Meeting leader of theyouth branch and his assistants who directed brotherhood activity wereelected. For example, there is evidence of forming such youth branchesin Vilen, Slutsk, Rohatyniv, Lutsk, Kremenetz brotherhoods [8, p. 89].Respect and obedience to elders were the main virtues of youngbrothers. Brotherhood particularly closely monitored brothers‟ visitingchurches, their behaviour, not only within the church or brotherhood,their spiritual and moral education, private lives were monitored aswell.Simultaneously members of Kremenetz St. Nicholas EpiphanyBrotherhood aimed to develop religious and moral character of thepeople, the establishment of orthodoxy and elimination of theconsequences of Catholicism and Uniatism planting on the lands ofWestern Ukraine, bringing up a sense of true patriotism into the people.Their enlightenment work was to conduct religious and moral readingsand talks out of church. In 1919 Kremenetz Bishop Dionysiy(Valedynskyi) initiated foundation of Volyn Spiritual Consistory andOrthodox Theological Seminary at the monastery, which got the officialname "State Orthodox Theological Seminary" from 1927. "OrthodoxVolyn" journal was printed during 1921–1922 at Volyn TheologicalConsistory in Kremenetz and also "Spiritual Sower" in 1928–1931 and"The Church and the Nation" in 1935 - 1938. A diocesan candle factory,a boarding school for acolytes, a shelter for women of KremenetzEpiphany Fellowship functioned at the monastery in 1937. Thirteenmonks inhabited the monastery.In the 20–30‟s of XX century Ukrainian Orthodox movementovercame complex and unique development path from the state of theingredient of nationwide movement to a new stage of the UkrainianChurch rebirth. In the early 20‟s Volodymyr Spiritual Board headed byfathers A. Bordyuhovsky, D. Hershtansky, Y. Pashkevych performedrole of this movement centre.Volodymyr Spiritual Board, which was Western Volynideological successor of Ukrainian Saint Spas Brotherhood which was
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 165opened in Zhytomyr in January of 1918 took over church andadministration functions in four counties of western Volyn (Volodymyr,Kovel, Luboml and Gorohiv). This was due to the circumstances ofchurch life in those lands after the war, during the period of revolutiondevastation and political power changes, but in terms of church canonthere wasn‟t "anarchy".Board began to conduct church administrative functions(appointment, transfer and dismissal of the parish clergy members,church and court cases, marriage permission, divorce cases, etc.) withauthorization from their Volodymyr-Volyn bishop Faddey (Uspenskyi) ,first vicar of Volyn diocese.Due to the new political circumstances Volodymyr Spiritual Boardcollaborated with Kremenetz Bishop Dionysiy and in 1921 took an activepart in preparing and conducting Pochaiv Congress, where fatherN. Abramovych was elected as a chairman, and where he also performedchurch service in Ukrainian. Extremely important was the fact that it wasthe first church service in Ukrainian on the part of Volyn, which wasruled by Poland. Pochaiv Congress legally consolidated the right to usenative Ukrainian language in the liturgy, the principles of democracy atthe parish and diocesan levels, the return of local traditions into thechurch life. The agreement between the leaders of the Orthodox Churchin Poland and the Polish authorities allowed first ones to neglect therequirements of Ukrainian people, also it decelerated Moscow influencedecreasing on churches in the region. As a result, the national churchmovement in Volyn which was led by A. Richynsky stood in oppositionto ecclesiastical authority and Polish regime policies.The activity of Lutsk Chesnohresne Brotherhood during thePolish occupation of Western Ukraine in 1921–1939 deserves particularattention. The Brotherhood intended "to clean soil from the harmfuleffects of Catholicism and Jewry and to strengthen the spirit ofOrthodoxy and Russian nationality in the land" as well associating atthe same time its origins with Chesnohresne Brotherhood in Lutsk ofXVII century, which existed under Polish King SigismundIII ratification, in 1619 and the regulations of 1623, approved by theConstantinople Patriarch Kyrylo Lukaris [4, p. 18]. A claim of thishistoric relationship was absolutely necessary from the point of view ofthe ancient Lutsk Brotherhood estates which were situated in numerous
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 166plots of land in the centre of Lutsk. At these sites, which were long-standing leases, houses and crypts were built and their annual rent wasrespectable amount of Brotherhood profits. With the change ofgovernment most of the tenants stopped paying rent, thus for ownershipconfirmation the necessity of their legitimating by Polish authoritiesraised. Polish authorities supported opinion that Lutsk ChesnohresneBrotherhood by statute of 1871 was not a historical Brotherhood, whichgot the charter from Sigismund III in 1619, but new Brotherhood withsuch honorary members as Governor-General and Procurator of theSynod, established for political purposes [3, p. 107]. Then Brotherhoodleaders saw that without Ukrainians they wouldn‟t be able to save theancient brotherhood property, and then Brotherhood chairman EvgeniyYasinsky in May of 1926 invited representatives of Ukrainiancitizenship in Lutsk to the meeting. Obviously, at the meetingUkrainians required decreasing Moscow influence on Brotherhood andimplementation of live Ukrainian language in church services and at thesame time representatives of Ukrainian citizenship had to be includedinto the composition of the Brotherhood Council. These conditions wereaccepted. Evgeniy Yasinsky remained Chairman of the Brotherhood,the composition of Council was replenished with representatives fromLutsk Ukrainian Gymnasium, Lutsk Prosvita and Lutsk UkrainianCooperation and after that members of the Brotherhood who remainedthere from Russian period, actually moved away from the Brotherhood.Superior of Chesnohresne Brotherhood church then was father AnaniySagaydakivsky, that a year later moved to Berezhtsi parish, KremenetzCounty, while Protopresbyter of UNR troops and participant of Wintercampaign in Ukraine father Pavlo Pashevsky was appointed as a priorof Lutsk Chesnohresna church and as a teacher of Lutsk UkrainianGymnasium in May of 1927, he remained at this position in Lutsk untilthe fall of post-Versailles Poland.Lutsk Chesnohresne Brotherhood with their church became Lutskregion centre to support church services in Ukrainian, especially withthe arrival of Bishop Polycarp to Lutsk. Ukrainian choir of LutskChesnohresna church, running by such prominent conductors as PeterKurylenko, Myhailo Telezhynsky, Olexandr Kolesnichenko (inchronological order) was a model for the Ukrainian church choirs inLutsk region and beyond its borders [1, p. 462].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 167With decreasing Moscow influence on Lutsk ChesnohresneBrotherhood the legalization and recognition of its ownership rights asan old Ukrainian Brotherhood by Polish state power took some time tobe done. It happened only in 1935 [11, p. 365].In the history of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the earlytwentieth century the issue of separation of Kyiv Metropolis fromMoscow Patriarchy repeatedly raised (Moscow Patriarchy was restoredin 1917) led by Tykhon (Belavin). Thus, much of the patriotic clergyusing the change of state political regime was eager to recoverautocephalous church with its well-established national characteristicsand traditions in Ukraine. In this regard there were tense debates, as thevast majority of conservative religious elements were supporters of theautonomous "status" of the Church.A few years later, namely in October of 1921 "autocephalists"convened nationwide Ukrainian Church meeting which establishedchurch canons and where a substantial number of unsolved issues werereviewed in the newly established church institutions, which name wasUkrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC). Afterstrengthening organizational positions, UAOC started to seize theOrthodox territories in Ukraine quite rapidly. With time, under theinfluence of most internal factors so called "cracks" formed in ratherstrong management structure of Ukrainian Orthodox Church Councilthat led to the loss of management control by Ukrainian AutocephalousOrthodox Church. As a result, the church split into the Brotherhoods,among which "Active Church of Christ" ("ACC") separated; it was"provincial" by nature and consisted of dioceses, which controlleddistrict parishes, including the Volyn region [10, p. 183].The ideology of the Brotherhood "ACC" was no different fromUAOC ideology as members of the brotherhood were its natives, theymade canons jointly. That is why the Brotherhood performed almost its"autocephalous" mission without departing from the existing canonsand engaging new communities to its composition. But "ACC" arose asa result of internal church competition, struggle for ecclesiasticalauthority, and therefore stronger side (UAOC) tried all means to destroyits enemy, discrediting it among the believers. Volyn Branch of "ACC"at the beginning of its activity had the considerable popularity,credibility as Brotherhood at UAOC. Branch "guardians" were people
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 168loyal to the Brotherhood ideology; they promoted the branchdevelopment and tried to create all the benefits for free confession ofthe religious society. That is, almost all conditions for normal work inthe district were created but “ACC” wasn‟t able to compete, thus wasforced to incorporate UAOC.Therefore, the analysis of the sources and literature gives usopportunity to make suggestion that during almost all of its historicalpath, and this is from XVII to mid XX century, Orthodox brotherhoodsactivity on Western Ukraine territory was of spiritual and educationalnature. Brotherhoods were the centres of the whole Orthodoxcommunity; they contributed to conduction of active religious,educational, cultural, scientific and ethnographic work as a support ofUkrainian nationality and national Christian traditions. OrthodoxBrotherhoods as brotherly union with high moral values directlyinfluenced the Ukrainian national consciousness, and its cultural andeducational activities contributed to nation education development.List of sources and literature1. Бойко О. Д. Історія України: Навч. посібн. 3-тє вид., доп. /Олександр Дмитрович Бойко / К. : Академвидав, 2007. – 688 с.2. Борейко О. Просвітницько-педагогічна діяльність громадськихтовариств Волині (др. пол. XIX – поч. XX ст.): дис. ...канд. пед. наук 13.00.01 – загальна педагогіка та історіяпедагогіки / Олександр Михайлович Борейко. – Житомир,2004. – 239 с.3. Буравський О. Поляки Волині у другій половині XIX – напочатку XX ст. Соціально-економічне становище та культурнийрозвиток: дис. ... канд. іст. наук: 07.00.01 – історія України /Олександр Антонович Буравський . – К., 2003. – 208 с.4. Влодек П. Православ‟я на Волині / Петро Влодек, протоієрей. –Луцьк: Надстир‟я, 1996. – 35 с.5. Гладкий С. О. Православне духовенство і політика: урокиісторії початку ХХ століття / С. О. Гладкий // Придніпровськийнауковий вісник. – 1997. – № 30(41). – Історія і соціологія. –С. 38–48.6. Державний архів Житомирської області. – Ф. 158. – Оп. 1. –Спр. 377. – Арк. 4–9.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1697. Левківський М. Історія педагогіки / М. Левківський. – К. :Центр учбової літератури, 2008. – 190 с.8. Огієнко І. І. Українська церква: Нариси з історії Українськоїправославної церкви: в 2 т. / І. І. Огієнко. – К. : Україна, 1993. –Т. 2. – 1993. – 284 с.9. Плохій С. "Наливайкова віра: Козацтво та релігія вранньомодерній Україні" / С. Плохій. – К. : Критика, 2005. –496 c.10. Рожко В. Є. Духовні православні освітні заклади Волині X –XX ст.: Історико-краєзнавчий нарис / В. Є. Рожко. – Луцьк:Медіа, 2002. – 280 с.11. Рожко В. Є. Нарис історії Української Православної церкви наВолині (870–2000): Історико-краєзнавчий нарис / В. Є. Рожко. –Луцьк: Медіа, 2001. – 672 с.12. Сейко Н. А. Педагогічні та етносоціологічні засади розвиткупольського шкільництва на Волині-Житомирщині у 1905-1938роках: дис. … канд. пед. наук: 13.00.01 – загальна педагогіка таісторія педагогіки / Сейко Наталія Андріївна. – К., 1999. – 195с.13. Шип Н. А. Церковно-православний рух в Україні (початок ХХст.) / Н. А. Шип. – НАН України; Інститут історії України. –(Історичні зошити). – К., 1995. – 66 с.UDC 159.9 : 316. 454.52L. I. NechyporukDIALOGUE IN THE PERSONALITY COMMUNICATIVEACTIVITIES AS A SOCIAL REQUIREMENTOF THE 21 CENTURYThe article deals with the importance of dialogue approach inorganizing the communicative interactions as a social value of thesociety in the XXI-st century; some means, forms and methods of itsrealization in socio-cultural space are defined.Key words: dialogue approach, socio-cultural approach,communicative culture.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 170Statement of the problem. The clash of humanity with theproblems that threaten the existence, prompted to realize that it isconnected with all the world and this world is the most important taskwhich has ever been in the human society. The awareness of humanity‟sbeing, unity of historical fate, the interdependence of politicalprocesses, science, technology, and culture defines the modern worldunderstanding. The perspectives of the further development the humancivilization are faced as a result of spiritual and moral evolution, inparticular, the culture of communication as a harmonious combinationof personal, public, cultural and natural interests. Such harmonization ofindividual, ethno-cultural and all-humanity levels of communicationsensures a dialogue, which is a universal mean of optimal organizationand development the life on the Earth – from the biological level tosocial and personal.The modern school is a centre of social space, where graduating toschool integration in the modern social system, development of it‟sstandards, knowledge, social norms and philosophical values areprepared. It depends on the process of interaction with the surroundingreality, on its relating to the surrounding environment (natural andsocial), it is governed by the understanding of the implication to globalproblems in a historically new cultural context and it is closelyconnected with the life on the planet. That‟s why the forming ofdialogue style of interaction between pupils, other people, nature, whichare oriented on communication and intelligent links on such moral levelwhen their interests would be harmoniously connected with the interestsof other people and nature in the context of spiritual and moral integrity,is one of the important tasks of modern school.Analysis of scientific research. As the analysis of the scientificpublications shows, the problem of dialogue communication –interpersonal, intercultural, inter-civilization – a great attention is taken.Such philosophical aspect of the culture of communication areresearched by I. Bueva, M. Kagan, A. Razaev and others.Communication as a socio-cultural process is defined in the scientificworks by B. Ananeva, A. Bodalova, V. Simichenko, V. Tymchenko,T. Yatsenko and others. Special researches devoted to the problem ofthe culture of communication in the information society(N. Bohomolova, V. Zinchenko and others) have great interest for us.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 171The theoretical comprehension personality‟s culture communicating asa component of moral culture is found in the scientific works byA. Ananev, A. Bodalev, V. Davydovych, L. Kogan, V. Mezhuyev,V. Sukhomlynsky and others.In the scientific works by K. Apel, K. Cherry, A. Dimer,V. Kulman the main points are made on the necessity to create a newethic of human relationships, to find such universal values which can beentrenched in the man‟s "life world", connected with everyday beingand at the same time to contribute the humanity understanding. AsY. Habermas says, the moral content of relationships based on thedialogue is able to ensure the unity between a man, a society and thenature which are lost nowadays. The aim of our work is to defineforms and methods of formation the dialogue style of communication inthe context of "personality -society - nature" in the socio-cultural spaceof modern school.Summary of the main material. In the social aspect thecommunicative culture is a certain level of communicative and socialproperties of a personality and is turned out in ability to solve variousliving problems by the means of communication, to establishinterpersonal relationships at different levels, to carry out an adequateself-realization and adaptation in modern society . As I. Orban-Lembrik says, communicative properties in the structure of apersonality are it‟s integral characteristics, they are linked with thesociety, they percept and represent social relationships, ensure contactsbetween people. They characterize a personality through the prism of itscapabilities as a specific and real participant of common people‟sactivity, determine its social effectiveness .All aspects of its content determines its structure‟s variety ofcomponents, which contains of the following components: conscious: the system of views, beliefs, knowledge andvalues, ethical and aesthetic standards; motivation: the motives of communicative behavior,communication; actually communication: communicative abilities and skills(verbal and non-verbal), culture and maintenance of broadcasting; emotional: empathy, tact, endurance, tolerance;
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 172 onstructive: adequate perception and self-esteem,communicative-reflexive abilities, the ability to predict thedevelopment of relationships and interactions .Therefore, in the modern model of personality‟s culturecommunicating is observed the expansion and update of consciousunderstructure, the priority is given to a personal choice of valuepriorities. It should be noted that the culture of communication widensits functional space from micro-level – communication with yourself,meso-level – social group to macro-level – dialogue of cultures,civilizations, and mega-level – the universe, planet, nature, andhumanity in the whole. We took into the consideration such scientificpositions as:- the necessity in formation of dialogue structures is based onthe sense of community the fate of humanity and the preservation thelife on the Earth (V.Vernadsky, Tіer de Sharden);- personality‟s occurrence in the world of moral life senses andcreative activities can occur only through understanding,comprehension, experience, empathy and involvement to commonactivity that forms the true harmonious relationship a man to the world,other people and to yourself (M. Bakhtin, I. Bekh, V. Bìbler,M. Heidegger and others).In this context, the importance of socio-cultural space of schoolas a factor of forming the spiritual and moral potential of personalitygrows. According to N. Borytko, socio-cultural educational space isspecifically organized educational environment, structured system ofpedagogical factors and circumstances of a child. There are its typicalsigns: length, interconnection, interconnection and interdependence ofits elements, his differences from the environment that is taken by astudent personal. In such surrounding a schoolboy gets spiritual andpersonal level and method of communicating with the world [1, 10].The process of formation in schoolchildren the skills ofcommunicative activities is based on the ground of dialogue approachprofession in school is grounded in such stages: dialogue "I am – I am another" is the formation of your ownimage, which is unique, has his personal moral penetrating feelings,aware himself as a unique component of wildlife, he has abilities to hisinner dialogue;
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 173 dialogue "I and other people" is the formation of the moralimage of other peoples, with his own emotions, awareness of the valuesof the other people; dialogue "I and Nature" is the formation of attitude towardsnature as an equal partner on communication, transfer of moral normsof coexistence on natural phenomena, objects; dialogue "I and Culture – formation of tolerance as the basisof communicative culture in the modern multicultural world"; dialogue "I and Universe" is the realization of philosophical,moral level of communication with Universe which is based on theagreements with the laws of the universe.The mechanisms of forming the culture of understandinginclude: knowledge and understanding between people, identification,empathy (as introspection or the ability to feel, see, recognize,reproduce and react on the feelings and experiences of other people, topenetrate into the affective states, to involve to the emotional life ofothers); understanding of your personality (self-reflection); theformation of emotional attitude to a man; prediction of the partner‟sbehavior while communicating (casual attribution).The role of a teacher is targeting in pupils‟ orientation at apositive awareness of the your personal values, another person, nature,understanding and acceptance of their emotions and the emotions ofothers, forming and correction on the moral basis psychological andthinking operations, of communicative character (verbal andnonverbal), a variety of social settings which are necessary for effectivecommunication, active use of their empathy abilities.The process of forming skills of communication in the contextof dialogue "I – I am another" is forecasting as an inner dialogue, whichis ensured by the means of inner language or as a reflection ofоfigurative imaginations, demands schoolchildren to think aboutthemselves as unique personalities, personal moral enduring etc. In suchcontext one of the most important means of forming dialogue culture issocio-psychological training, which is directed on understandingdifferent kind of personality‟s behavior in modern life, which isconstantly changes, on the development the skills of inner and externaldialogue, forming emotional fortitude. The main training techniques addexercises of theatrical pedagogic, drama, different kinds of dialogues,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 174which ensure mastering new social communicative skill. The techniqueof psychodrama means the changing of roles during any kinds ofactions, method "mirror" etc. help pupils to understand their inner worldand inside themselves from the other side, in their inner world. Moral-psychology effect – creative spontaneous, catharses (emotionalclearness), two-sided emotional stream between the participants, in siteensures new understanding of personality and interpersonalsituation . During this process the inner dialogue is defined (the skillsto define his inner world, to mark his personal state etc., which ensureshis personal communicative process, self-understanding and self-accepting. Such individual dialogue changes into external dialogue inthe result of which a personality accepts himself, other people, nature asthe highest living value.During the process of forming skills of external dialogue thespecial attention must be taken into consideration on the culture ofcommunication: the skills to build your expressions, to understand andadequately react at other peoples tongue, to state contacts keepinglanguage and ethical rules of communication and the culture ofetiquette. It makes possibilities to use different means to organize activeactivity. For example, the preparing to play the role of "high life" of theXIX and XX centuries (one of the forms) helps pupils to learn thecustoms and traditions the peoples of these epochs, their languageetiquette, helps to model conditions which look reality, to defineinvariants of behavior and communication, to show themselves indifferent social roles.Training classes "I – others" are directed at forming in pupils theability to construct harmonious interpersonal relationships which arebased on respect and recognition of the values of others, encourages toact actively (participants involve to specially organized actions, playingand discussing situations), observation (for the partners‟ behavior andcommunication), to the moral choice in the proposed tolerant situations.For example, such activities as "To live in peace with yourself andothers", "I, we and others", "Let Others to be Another" promoteawareness and understanding the variety of ethno-cultural groups,introduce with the notion of nationalism, ethnic centrism, chauvinism,racism. Teachers should take into account that negative cultural andethnic stereotypes mostly are used by youngsters to unite in groups on
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 175the basis on extremist targets and emission of age aggression. That‟swhy a great attention must be paid for understanding the Convention todistinguish people according their social, religious, political and othersigns, a tolerant attitude to the beliefs of others. The training is carriedout in the following stages: "who are we?", "Who are they?", "We andthey". The result is defined as the awareness of schoolchildren thenecessity to make a "step towards" to others, acceptance of others, thedefinition of those qualities that are common for "us" and "them", theperception of the variety of languages, feelings, beliefs, the other on theprinciple of "reunion" – the unity of humanity as Berdiaev says.The main attention must be take into the consideration to formof communicative skills in the context of organizing the dialogue ofculture (adequate accepting, understanding, positive relationship andestimation representatives of groups, peoples, their styles of life, moralworld, common accepting of values and standards). The dialogue ofculture during the educational process is used to reflect multiethnicUkrainian and world society. It means the culture of inter-understandingas integral personal characteristic which synthesize such personality‟squalities which needs for her life.During training the dialogue "I – Culture" the skills of socio-cultural competence as the basis of a moral personality‟s behavior inmodern multicultural world. For example, the training "Meeting withother culture" helps to understand the existence stereotypes of othercultures and peoples, the development of social attention in the processof relations with their participants. In this case it is very important touse projects "Particularities of Ukrainian and "translated" advertising","Understanding humor in peoples of different countries", in the processof which the conceptions about main differences and features of culturaletiquette are formed and the skills to compare them in the situations ofintercultural communication. The development of practical skills ofsuch action can be used in the cycle of "role games" "Meeting at thehigher level" that is projected as a dialogue of culture: national, race,political, economical, ecological, meeting of civilizations etc.Pupils study to understand political, national, consciousparticularities the participants of any political, race or ancient societygroup, to accept the moral position and thoughts of any other person, tounderstand that we all – people, animals, plants are alive and we all live
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 176on the planet Earth, we have to understand our common responsibilityfor Earth. It means that dialogue of culture is directed oncommunication in the form of dialogue-understanding.The dialogue with the nature as a unique and inimitablepersonality, as V. Yasvin says should be designed on theseprinciples . Formation of skills of the dialogue of communicationwith nature as an equal companion in the process of ecological-psychological training, which is directed at correcting the moral pupils‟attitude of the pupils to natural objects, development of perspectiveopportunities during their contacts with them, the expansion ofindividual environmental space. Such activities like "Nature and thedeed" like "I understand the harmony", "We are earthlings" will helppupils to understand the relationship of nature and the human necessityin harmonious coexistence with nature objects, provoke to aware oftheir subjective attitude to it.The Organization of the dialogue "I am the universe" is thespiritual level of the dialogue of communication is aimed at formationof pupils‟ abilities to translate the universe of external existence in theinner world "the combination of the image of the world with the morallaws of identity" . As a means of implementing this taskA. Dmitrìevska offers a dialogue with others, nature, the universe,Eternity, Truth, beauty, that touches all existing in the world. The signsof dialogue is creative but not destructive status; the basis of this modelis "addicting" (identification of the thoughts and feelings of aninterlocutor) [2, p. 24.] It is important for pupils to understand theimportance of problems of humanity, that in such a communicativeinteraction helps to accept the social reality. philosophical discussions,"round tables" Socrat‟s dialogues can be chosen as forms and methodsof its realization. The subjects for discussions are: "We are the childrenof the Galaxy", "The energy of the universe as a manifestation of thelife of the universe", "The good and evil in the universe and the earthlylife", "Is the truth more expensive? ", "The dialogue of religion andscience", "Harmony of the universe and the soul" etc. The result is indepth understanding of the social significance of moral manifestation ofculture communication as a level of projection, skills of dialoguecommunications on the universe, planet, nature.One of the indicator of the personality‟s focus on dialogical
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 177style of communication is tolerance (tolerance to different opinions,positive attitude toward people and events; in the broad sense it meansresistance to the world variety, ethnic, social, cultural and philosophicaldifferences) .The education of tolerance nowadays has the planetary valuesas a condition of functioning of civil society, the survival of everyone inthe conditions of global crises and the threat of destruction the life onthe planet, the absolute necessity, requirement noosphere formation ofcivilization.Such scientists as O. Asmolov, S. Bratchenko, V. Lektorskiy,D. Zinoviev, Rìerdon Betty and others define the following criteria andindicators of tolerance personality: social perception of partners andsubjects, interest to the peculiarities of each other, the willingness toaccept another people as he is; recognition of the equality of partners,refusal from dominance and violence, awareness the variety of humanculture, norms, believes, customs, traditions, philosophical positions,listening skills and the ability to listen to others, the ability to empathy(empathy, and empathy), to constructive conflict resolution, willingnessto practical cooperation on the basis of consent, taking into theconsideration as personal interests as the interests of the partners, whohave the right to defend those interests.The conclusions. Our world is a single for all of us. Thecommunication on the dialogue basis has special social significance at thebeginning of the XX century, it is one of the condition for achievingpersonality‟ harmony and surrounding world, full co-existence andfurther society‟s development that moves on a noosphere way of itsdevelopment, characterizes his as a citizen of the planet. The problem ofdialogue communication society in the XXI century requires the furtherin-depth elaboration of its theoretical and organizational-methodical basisof its realization in the modern socio-cultural space of modern school.List of sources and literature1. Борытко Н. М. Педагог в пространствах современноговоспитания / Науч. ред. Н. К. Сергеев / Н. М. Борытко. –Волгоград: Перемена, 2001.2. Дмитревская И. В. Ноосферный диалог: системно-герменевтический анализ / И. В. Дмитревская // Вестник
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 178Ивановского государственного университета. – Вып. 2. –2001. – С. 19–33.3. Кримський С. Принцип духовності XXI століття /С. Кримський // Директор школи. – 2003. – № 8 (лютий). – С. 4.4. Морено Я. Психодрама / Пер. с англ. / Я. Морено. – М. :Апрель-Пресс, ЭКСМО-Пресс, 2001. – 528 с.5. Орбан-Лембрик Л. Е. Соціальна психологія : Посібник /Л. Е. Орбан-Лембрик. – К. : Oбрис, 2003. – 321 с.6. Словарь по этике / Под ред. А. А. Гусейнова и И. Кона. – 6-еизд. – М. : Политиздат, 1989. – 447с.7. Тернопільська В. Теоретичні аспекти феномена «соціально-комунікативна культура» / В. Тернопільська // ВісникЛьвівського ун-ту: Cерія педагогічна / Вип. 22. – 2007. – С. 44–50.8. Ясвин В. А. Особенности личностного отношения к природе вподростковом и юношеском возрасте / В. А. Ясвин // Вопросыпсихологии – 1995. –№ 4. – С. 19–-28.UDC 371.155.001S. S. Pal’chevskyTHE PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONTENTIN THE LIGHT OF IT’S MODERN PHILOSOPHYThe problems of educational content, connect with therequirements of modern philosophy are examined in the article. Theways of their solving are offered. The conditions of this solution areconcretized.Key words: educational content, philosophy educational,problem, tendencies of the development.Introduction. Recently, the articles that carry not so muchpsychological and pedagogical, as futurological character appear in theeducational periodicals from time to time (B. Hershunskyy, C. Korsak,N. Melman, A. Pometun and others). Often they are associated with theglobal problem of "human emptiness", which consists in people`s lagfrom those results that provoked her own activities. The speed of social
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 179and technological changes in the environment, rapid accumulation ofinformation resources has led to that today the younger generation hasto live in the world that is changing four times faster than our schools,as the famous American educator Dr. Willard Dahet noticed [2, p. 122 ].Given this, it becomes clear desire of people to get their imaginationinto the future to predict their own fate and the fate of their descendantsin advance to prepare to meet it. Social, economic, environmental,informational value forecasts increasing incessantly. Today they mustfind adequate reflection in the content of all parts of education for theirexpediant realization.As you know, for a long historical time the content of educationchanged according to the factors that caused such change. The mostimportant are: 1) the variability of systems of social and personal needs,2) the dynamics of social and scientific achievements, 3) the strategy ofgovernment for the development of education, 4) the achievementofpedagogy that caused the change of methodological positions ofscientists. Often these factors act simultaneously in different waysreflected in the dynamics of change. The most famous theories ofeducation, which influenced to change its contents in different timeswere: the theory of formal education (J. Locke, J. Pestalozzi, J. Herbartand others.), the theory of material education (D. Dewey,G. Kershenshteyner and others), the system of design studing(D. Dewey), the problem-complex pedagogical theory by Polishscientist B. Sukhodolska, the theory of structuralism (K. Sosnytsky) andothers. All of them in some way reflected the dynamic of developmentof the theoretical foundations of education`s content.Today the problem of educational content often associated with theregulatory basis of it`s realization. It found its expression in the knownstandards of education, which mean the system of key indicators that arepart of state education standards. Today the educational standard hasbecome widely studied phenomena in the national educational literature,the subject of philosophical, methodological, sociological analysis. Thecreation of it`s bases has the aim: to identify the essential properties of thestandard and their modeling (A. Yevdotyuk), to systematize it`s factors,types and kinds according to the basis of ground of appropriatetendencies, connections, etc., to develop communicative functionbetween different educational practices (N. Borisov), to develop a
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 180methodology for forecasting (K. Inhelkamp), to describe and to explainthe reality of standardization in education.Statutory basis of educational content in general featuresdetermines the Law of Ukraine "About Education". But it`s generalprovisions do not always help to specify social order of modern society,to find the ways of pressing problems.The competence approach extends in Ukrainian educational spacenow, which associated with increased practical orientation of schooleducation, first of all in determining it`s results. General analysis of theessence of this approach in the educational systems of foreign countrieshave made on the previous phase of the study Ovcharuk O.,A. Pometun, O. Lokshyna.The key competence of school education – the ability of studentsto study – explored in detail A. Savchenko, highlighting such aspectsas: 1) the condition of reflection in the state`s standard of primary andhigh school student`s ability to study, 2) ground the content and thestructure of skill to study as a key competence, 3 ) recommendations forreflection in the curriculum components of this key competence.It is clear that the problem of the content of modern educationmultifaceted. Solved at different levels of specificity and the ways ofit`srealization. Each of these aspects enriches the general picture of thesolution. Given this, we propose another aspect of view associated withthe requirements of modern education.The main material. The philosophy of modern educationemerged with the aim to solve such difficult problems, which appearedon the intersection of philosophy and pedagogical activity, it must playthe role of ideological and methodological foundations of moderneducation reform. The character of crisis of the latter philosophy ofeducation explaine by that to this day failed to educate in the youngergenerations such world outlook that would provide solutions of globalproblems of mankind. Conventionaly they can connect with threedirects of human`s relationships: 1) with the world of people, 2) withthe natural world, 3) with the world of his own "I". Despite somedifferences in understanding the essence of a new type of attitude invarious authors, its starting principle famous Ukrainian representativeof philosophy of modern education B. Lutay formulated as follows:".... the solving of global problems should be the major goal (interest,
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 181value) for modern humanity and this solution is impossible withoutsubmission of all of our activities that aim" [4, p. 21].Traditionally, three directs of philosophy use for solving the mostimportant pedagogical problems 1) harmonically-piece, 2) pluralistic,relativistic, 3) direction, based on the idea of combining the first andsecond, that cholism and individual pluralistic education majors. The firstone aims to achieve a higher form of unity between people in order tosolve global problems. All philosophical systems related to it, thephilosopher Karl Popper called cholism philosophy. The ideas ofachivement some higher unity between the types of thought, worldoutlook, education is the principle of the identity of opposites in anendless, open Nicholas of Cusa are in the basis of the methodologyofrealization.Avoid certain failures in the direction of the philosophy ofmodern education tries it`s second direction – pluralistic, relativistic,based on the recognition of ideas of pedotsentryzm, relativism andpluralism. But it also notes known sidedness. Thus, recognition of thepriority of only one of the two areas of philosophy of modern educationdoes not lead to the solution of major problems including the problemsconnected with the content of education. So, it becomes reasonablereliance on the third line, based on the idea of combining theachievement of cholism and individual pluralistic directions. Accordingthis approach, the minimum basic foundation for the development of themodern education become the system of substantial philosophicalprinciples of unity and dialogue permission. Given this, the formation ofa new philosophy of growing person who rushed to resolving disputeson three areas such as "I" and the world of people, "I" and the world ofnature, "I" and "I", its proper contribution can bring some ideas ofdifferent philosophical systems: existentialism, philosophy of globalissues, marxism, philosophy instability I. Prigogine and others. In thisregard appears the need for appropriate adjustments of the content ofeducation in it`s different levels.Briefly consider the following possible adjustments alreadymentioned directions of contradictions which generated and continue togenerate the global problems of humanity. It is known, for example,differences in the fields of "I" and the world of people which are able togenerate the main pedagogical contradiction – the contradiction
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 182between own "want" and the general public "must." They also directlyconnected with the global problem of war and peace. Therefore,fostering a new type of world outlook future generations should lay theformation of skills to coordinate own personal and general socialinterests, and to understand the interests not only of individuals but alsomajor social groups: states, nations, classes and more. To generate thesame skills beyond the basics of understanding the younger personknown in acmeology personal maturity impossible. Because only amature person with a stable dispositional tolerance can feel not onlydistant, and, as the famous Russian writer Leonid Andreyev said in histime, to stand the pain and hatred and torment disfigured human dignityat a time when somewhere in the world beat one honest face. That`swhy, it is necessary to acquaint in the secondary and higher education atleast the basics of the most common personal maturity, developed in thecorresponding concept of Russian akmeoloh A. O. Reana . Examplesof such acquaintance already appear in the national educational practice.The main features of personal maturity – responsibility, tolerance, self-development, positive attitude towards life it is not only possible, butalso should educate the younger person during studing of generaleducation courses. This view, for example, operates a school teacher ofRivne humanitarian gymnasium G. E. Protsyuk. She believes that thelessons of World`s Literature is a reliable pedagogical`s tools offorming mature human personality. At her lessons the teachersuccessfully finds those fragments of the works of foreign literature,with the help of which it is possible to stimulate the formation of pupilsmentioned basic components of personal maturity [5, p. 17].Contradictions by the direction "I" and the world of nature riseabove all a series of global environmental problems. Despite the greatefforts of modern science, continued aggravation of these problems.Stsyyentychno-technocratic`s way of solving them without theharmonious combination of humanistic unable to bring this matter to aclose. Support the first claim that the current system of education almostexamines future technologies that could eliminate the environmentalthreats and completely "cure" damaged biosphere. One of them,K. Korsak writes: "Without denying the need for moral improvement ofnew generations, will try to prove that in the nineteenth century, thehighest aim of educational-scientific complex of the world is the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 183creation and use harmless to humans and the biosphere technology" [3,p. 20]. The main "weapon" ofbuilding of the picture in his vision of thefuture is the term "nootehnologies" which he explains as "wiseproduction" – without receiving the slightest damage to the biospheredesired results for the viability of all mankind by food and products.The word "nootehnologies" is closely associated with the famous term"noosphere", which was proposed by French scientists E. Leroy andP. Teilhard de Chardin and Vernadsky established to indicate areas ofsafe human coexistence with other forms of Earth‟s biosphere.Analyzing the known world nootehnologies, the author of theterm speaks critically about the content of national education. In hisview, our ruling elite (from business and management) is guilty ofcontinuing decline of scientific awareness among professionals and thegeneral population. To generate the modern outlook and ability toassimilate and use nootehnologies, he argues, should significantlychange the content of all natural science components in the educationsystem of Ukraine. Should distribute among people extensiveinformation about the features and laws of the quantum world; thecharacteristics of photons, phonons and other collective disturbances;wave laws and equations of motion, nonlinear interactions andphenomena. Specifying and summarizing his proposals, C. Korsakwrites: "We need to stop the waste of precious training time in highschool on a regular repetition of banal dates about rectilinear motionand its variants, the group of laws about ideal gas`s behavior. Thecompression of such information free nearly a year to familiarizestudents with the quantum world, the state and prospects ofdevelopment and use of new technologies capable to save humanityfrom the threat of collapse and extinction" [3, p. 24–25].But the differences in the direction of "I" and the natural worldcan not be solved only on the basis of technocratic approaches and inisolation from other conflict areas, particularly the direction of "I" and"I". The last somehow associated with one of the biggest threats that, byB. Sitarskoyi, called "human emptiness", connecting it with the people`sfall behind the pace and effects of changes that they themselves haveprovoked. It‟s about the kind of threat that ".... Arises as a result of amuch larger effort invested in technological and economic developmentthan the development of the people themselves" [7, p. 263].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 184We think to eliminate this threat without akademization ofeducational activities at all levels impossible. Everyone comes into thisworld in order to navigate in it, to find your seat and most comprehensiveway to realize according to that inner "live intentions" which laid in itfrom the day of her birth. The higher achievements acme-period ofhuman life, full realization of the potential possibilities can give eachinner harmony, peace of mind, the sense of satisfaction. Without specialacmeological directed knowledge that rely on deep philosophical ideas ofdifferent philosophical systems, the young person to find himself in acolorful, uncertain world is difficult. The ways which are full of suchknowledge, formed on the accessible level, educational programs ofvarious degree of education are waiting for their researches.Conclusions. Cherishing the younger generation of a new typeofworld outlook, which will be intended to the solution of globalproblems of humanity impossible only in harmoniously-integrateddirection of philosophy of modern education, or pluralistic, relativistic.Effectively there is the third part, which is based on the idea ofcombining achivements of cholism and individual pluralistic directions.It already requires some changes in the content of modern education,especially in the secondary and higher levels of it. First of all itconnected with the need to:1) The development of higher levels of thinking of the student. Itis intended to be non-linear, multi-valued and paradoxical. Combiningopposites and form dyplastiya – inherent human consciousnesspsychological phenomenon of "identifying of two elements that are bothmutually exclusive" [1, p. 10].2) The strengthening the scientific content of the subjects ofnatural sciences, especially in the high school. Deep penetration into theworld of quantum phenomena, in which science and religion arebeginning to find common ground.3) The development of individual creativity through thedevelopment of specific content, strategies and tactics of strategicorganization aof consiciousness and instruction on creativity in variousspheres of human activity.4) Akmeolohization of the educational space at all it`s levelswith the aim to eliminating the threat of "human emptiness" and solvingpressing social and economic problems.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 185List of sources and literature1. Бочков Н. П. Генетические аспекты комплексного изучениячеловека / Н. П.Бочков // Человек в системе наук. – М. :Наука, 1989. – С. 143–154.2. Драйден Гордон. Революция в обучении. Научить миручиться по-новому / Гордон Драйден, Джанет Вос. – М. :Парвинэ, 2003. – 670 с.3. Корсак К. ХХІ століття: освіта і виховання в умовах переходулюдства до ноотехнологій / К. Корсак // Шлях освіти. –2011. – № 1. – С. 20–25.4. Лутай В.С. Філософія сучасної освіти / В. С. Лутай. – К. :Центр «Магістр-S», 1996. – 256 с.5. Пальчевський С.С. Акмеологічні підходи до формуванняособистості учня на уроках зарубіжної літератури /С. С. Пальчевський // Зарубіжна література в школахУкраїни. – 2008. – № 11. – С. 17–19.6. Реан А. А. Акмеология личности / А. А. Реан // Психологияличности. Тексты. – М. : Знание, 1982. – С. 88–95.7. Сітарська Барбара. Теоретичні та методологічні засадидидактичних завдань із педагогіки у процесі підготовкита вдосконалення вчителів: Переклад з польської мовиІгор Родюк Барбара Сітарська. – К. : Основа, 2005. –364 с.UDC 808.5(07)L.P. PetrukTHINKING-SPEECH CULTURE FORMATION FORSPECIALISTS’ FOR HUMANITIES IN THE COURSEOF RHETORIC STUDIESThe article deals with the theoretico-methodological basis of theprocess of formation of linguistic culture of the specialists of humanitiesduring the process of studying rhetoric, the ancient classical branch ofscience, which is the basis of the professionalism of the teacher, lower,politician, diplomat, journalist and manager.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 186Key words: linguistic culture, communicative culture, rhetoric,rhetorical personality, specialists in humanities.Statement of the problem. The process of humanization anddemocratization of social life in Ukraine amplifies the interest to theproblem of formation of the rhetoric personality type, which wouldpossess the mastery of bright independent thinking, communicativeculture in different spheres of life.The time of 70–90-s of the twentieth century is marked by theappearance of new tendency of coming back of old classical scienceRhetoric, the object of studying of which is public speech and rules ofmental-speech person‟s activity management. This tendency is ratherobligate because the raise of democratic principles of social life causesthe appearance of public need in people of personal composition(politicians, publicists, social teachers, managers). A noticeable step inthe renewing of Rhetoric was made by revitalization of such sciences asStylistics, Linguistics, Psycholinguistics, Social psychology and Cultureof speech. It is a very positive factor. But despite of diversity ofsciences each studies one of facets of speech identity formation. Tosolve the complex problem of speech identity formation is not possiblewithout achievements of modern rhetoric, which performs the functionof synthesizer and makes a certain speech cycle, which was rethoughtand renewed on the very level of history.The concept of investigation. The conceptual foundations ofrhetoric personality education were laid by such prominent philosophersas Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian. Accordingly theyformed rhetoric ideal with the main features such as: the cult of goodword, intellect, wisdom, temperance, morality and civic courage of anorator. The notion "rhetorician-orator" means a teacher of practicaloratory, qualification of which let him teach the art of oratory inrhetoric schools.The above mentioned problem got a peculiar interpretation innative psycho-pedagogical science by such scientists as:L. S. Vygotskiy, S. L. Rubinshtein, O. M. Leontiev, K. S. Stanislavskiy.In 20–30-s of XX century Ukrainian and other scientists developed theidea of maximum effective performing oratory activity of teachers withthe aim of solving educational problems. Such teachers-theorists asV. O. Golubtsov, M. A. Rybnikova combined verbal and educational
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 187activities on the level of understanding the art of living word aspedagogical tool in teaching. N. K. Krupska, K. V. Lunacharskiy,A. S. Makarenko, V. O. Sukhomlynsliy widen this interrelation on thelevel of hierarchy: the art of word – creative person education, whichcorrespond to modern views of researches on the education of rhetoricalidentity of pedagogical and humanitarian specialists of Ukraine that ispeculiarly written in researches by A. I. Kapska, O. A. Unina,G. M. Sagach and others.The hypothesis of the study is based on the assumption that themotives, interests and abilities of students to master the culture ofthinking and the culture of speech change dynamically and theyoptimize with qualitative mastering of the course "Rhetoric" in highereducational establishments.The task of investigation is to substantiate the necessity andimportance of ancient classical science Rhetoric studying in highereducational establishments the aim of which is formation of personalitywith a high level of mental, speech and communicative culturedevelopment.The system of higher education is one of main forms ofpersonality socialization, because there this process is more accuratelydetermined by involving students in different kinds of educational andpublic activity. The higher school is aimed at reservation of objectiveexperience of mankind and formation of features of a future citizen. Theproblem of solving of this strategic objective by higher educationestablishments is laid on the important integral science Rhetoric, whichcounts 2,5 thousand years of its written history and which arose in thetimes of slavery in Ancient Greece and Rome and the only aim of whichwas to influence on the mind and wish of citizen by the means of livingword. But with the course of time Rhetoric has developed inmultifaceted and multidisciplinary science, which has born the chain ofother sciences, such as: Logic, Philosophy, Grammar, Poetics, Ethicsand Aesthetics. Nowadays Rhetoric is the foundation of future teachers,lawyers, politicians, diplomats, managers and many others expertsprofessionalism. The subject of its studying is "rules of management ofmental-speech activity of the person, that is the rules that define theefficiency of this activity" [8, p.53–54], says the professor of RhetoricSagach M. G. Rhetoric is a linguistic science which is based first of all
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 188on the knowledge of language, which raises the man above the world ofnature, defines it as an intellectual phenomenon, which is able torecognize and create the world. Only the language enables a person torealize himself as a spiritual person, identify with the personal I, staff,community and nation.Rhetoric is traditionally recognized as a science of oratory. Butmodern linguistics operates the notion of "discursive" Rhetoric that isrhetoric of discourse as everyday communication in public. Modernrhetoric is not only public speeches but has a wide usage in differentsituations of verbal communication which gives a prospective of widerusage in modern Ukrainian society.Language is not only a means of communication, language is agift of mind and heart, which must be used skillfully. Depending onwhat you say and whom, Rhetoric gives an orator a task: how to speak,what for and where. The best words about the tasks of Rhetoric weresaid by professor Koshanskiy M. F. in XIX century: "The aim ofgeneral rhetoric is while finding the sources of thought creation oneshould reveal all the abilities of the mind, while demonstrating normalposition of thoughts, one should give the mind and moral feeling acertain direction – to teach to express the tiny, to awake, strengthen theliving love to all noble and beautiful in students‟ thoughts" [6, p. 3].The main task which Rhetoric as an academic discipline in highereducational establishments which prepare specialists of thehumanitarian profile: teachers, political scientists, lawyers, journalistsand managers is aimed at solving is preparation of the personality ofrhetorical type, the basis of which constitute such components: cultureof thinking, culture of speech, techniques of speech and culture ofcommunication with the audience. All these components taken togetherare identity card of the person if to add here her appearance.The culture of thinking in Rhetoric first of all is based on theknowledge and skillful usage the main basic rule of Rhetoric –conceptional, which forms and develops the ability in a person toanalyze the subject of investigation and build the system of knowledgeabout it. According to this law, the idea and creation of the concept andrealization of this action must precede all the preparatory stages for thespeech. If the person follows this rule, it teaches him to think rationally,it coordinates him to go to the aim by a rational way; it protects him
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 189against rash actions. The development of this concept is very stageneeds a sequence of such actions as:1. Choosing the object of the speech and development of yourvision;2. Problem formation or highlighting of the separate importantquestions;3. Careful investigation of the problem in scientific, social-political, special literature, exploration of somebody‟s experience;4. Critical analyzing of the personal works on the chosen problemand scientific information about it. The final stage of the developmentof the concept is the process of comprehension and rethinking of ownand others‟ experience, own experience is enriched by others, initial andmethodological positions are chosen, theoretical and general positionsof the content are formed. It means that there is a concept of the speech.The next stage in the process of speech preparation is textformation that is giving ideas verbal form. In Rhetoric it is calledillocutionary work. Such form of own speech can be achieved byknowing communicative functions of language and working on cultureof the own speech. The culture of speech rises ascendantly: 1) spellingand punctuation literacy – 2) stylistic expressiveness – 3) artistic skills.The main peculiarities of communicative speech are: its accuracy,consistency, appropriateness, clarity and aesthetics. The first conditionof a logic speech is the logic of thinking and logic of considerations asphases of thoughts development. The ability to discipline own thinking,think consistently, rely on the preliminary stages of thinking, to developthe next ones, to search for sources and reasons of phenomena, to bringforward thesis, to give the grounding and explanation of facts, tomotivate conclusions – all these are necessary conditions of speechlogic, which were mentioned above, and consequently a high culture ofspeech, because culture of speech is impossible without culture ofthinking. The prominent Ukrainian writer Oles Honchar wrote, "Poorstylistics is the sequel of poor thinking".The condition of effective realization of verbal communication isestablishing of contact between the speaker and the audience, namelyintellectual and emotional understanding. The contact can beestablished by its own if the interests of the speaker and the audiencecoincide. In other situations the speaker needs extra efforts which are
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 190connected with the precise leading of the own behavior, correction ofthe prepared material and management of the audience behavior.The course of Rhetoric has been studied by students of RivneState Humanitarian University of such specialties as “Political Science”and "Pedagogy and Methodology of Secondary Education. History"since 2002–2003. The content of the program consists of such structure:1) history of rhetoric; 2) scientific basis of rhetoric; 3) practical rhetoric.The material of the program is distributed by the principle ofintegrality and concentricity which implies increasing, deepening andenlargement of knowledge and skills in general system ofdevelopmental education of humanitarian direction. Small experience inteaching the course of Rhetoric on above mentioned specialties givesthe reason to affirm that only 10% of students showed proper level ofown word mastering. Own observations showed that students needserious rhetoric training, because they not always are able to leaddemocratic discussion, debates; students are often unconfident, feeluncomfortably then they have to prove their thoughts, especially in non-standard situations; they try to avoid public speeches, because theirskills abilities of spontaneous monological speech are not developed.The task of the teacher of above mentioned course is to teachstudents:- To conduct a detailed monologue (lecture);- To conduct effective and constructive conversation on anysubject;- To master the skills of polemic art (debate, dispute, discussion);- To master the ethic of orator;- To develop own oratorical style.Practical classes on rhetoric play a significant role in thedevelopment of above mentioned skills. Such methods and forms ofwork are very useful: role and business games, solving situationalproblems, creative competitions on the certain subject, improvisedspeeches, rhetorical analysis and evaluation of their colleagues‟speeches, method of testing, "round tables", debates and others.In general the system of rhetorical personality training coverssuch stages as:1. Mastering of basic requirements to the oratorical art throughdefining its place in professional activity;
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1912. Formation of necessary practical skills with the aim ofperformance of speeches of different genres, types with the usage ofelements of pedagogical mastery;3. Detection of skills of auto-didacticism and self-reflection.It should be noted that motives, interests and abilities of students tomaster oratorical art, mental-speech culture change dynamically, theyoptimize with the parallel studying of subjects of psychological andpedagogical orientation, stylistics and culture of speech, expressive reading,methods of teaching of different disciplines etc. Acquired oratorical skillsand abilities can be used in the future in such spheres as: educationalcognitive, professional pedagogical, socio-political, culture-educational.Unfortunately, the course of rhetoric is studied by students of notall specialties. The task of the subject is realized to a certain degreeduring mastering of other disciplines of psycho-pedagogical circle,though adding this subject to the curriculum would be very expedient,that in its turn would create favorable background for personaldevelopment easing socialization of young specialists in conditions ofmarket relations formation.Conclusions. As we see re-establishment of classical rhetoric inmodern conditions has philosophic pedagogical orientation and is basedon the development of mental activity of a person, activisation ofindependent dialectical and practical thinking, formation ofcommunicative culture skills.It becomes obvious that Rhetoric that studies the problem ofthinking and speech influence on mentality of a person has a right tobecome an important tool in harmonization of human relations andhuman life in general.List of sources and literature1. Александров Н.Д. Риторика / Н. Д. Александров. – М. :ЮНИТА-ДАНА, 1992. – 583 с.2. Античная риторика. – М. : МГУ, 1978. – 355 с.3. Знаменитые греки и римляне. – СПб. : Эпоха, 1993. – 487 с.4. Иванов И.Ф. Искусство диалога или беседы о риторике /И. Ф. Иванов. – Пермь, 1992. – 234 с.5. Капська А., Сагач Г. З історії розвитку мистецтвакрасномовства / А. Капська та ін. //Педагогіка і психологія. –
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 1921995. – № 2. – 252 с.6. Кошанский М.Ф. Общая риторика / М. Ф. Кошанский – СПб,1836.7. Мацько Л.І., Мацько О.М. Риторика ./Навч. посіб. – К., Вищашк., 2003. – 311 c.8. Сагач Г.М. Золото слів / Г. М. Сагач. – К. Райдуга, 1998. –Ч. 1. – 285 с.9. Сагач Г., Юніна О. Загальна риторика / Г. Сагач та ін. –К. Знання, 1992. – 142 с.UDC 378.14(477)V. M. RudenkoPEDAGOGICAL REFLECTION OF CULTUREUNDER THE EDUCATIONAL GLOBALIZATIONThe article deals with the educational and cultural interrelationin the structural, systemic, casual, procedural and functional aspects.The proposed paradigm promotes the definition vectors to improveeducation in the context of globalization, using the categories of"civilization", which reflects the socio-technological forms of life andthe "culture" that personifies sphere of higher spiritual qualities.Key words: civilization, culture, globalization, education,personality, humanism.The current stage of social development is closely linked withglobalization, which covers the most powerful integration processes thathave huge advantages, but also fraught with unknown danger to developpublic education systems, national cultures and traditions.The globalization is estimated ambiguously. It causesresentment by hateful forms disastrous not only for the individual, butsociety as a whole. The results of side effects of globalizationundermine the concept of "cultural nation" because they level educationand culture, which are the integral parts of the nation-state within thenational core values. The academic community as an institution thatmostly creates the nation, is not only critical about the globalization, butalso often openly opposes it.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 193Therefore, in the context of globalization, the system of nationaleducation has a special role as a factor that can fit into these integrationtrends, to keep up with other countries and, at the same time not to losethe individuality, the ethnic identity and the national characteristics oftheir culture.Education – is a complex cultural phenomenon and thisnecessitates the application of pedagogy to study education as culturecreative act-event, culture broadcasting process, reflecting thefundamental properties of culture. However, in native pedagogy"cultural space of education is not studied enough" [3, p. 27], "theconcept of "culture" has not been realized by pedagogy until now. Theabsence of pedagogical interpretation of culture "[6, p. 19] proved theobject of the comprehensive research of scientific and pedagogicalreflection.Education is a cultural reflection of the epoch, while the currentsystem of higher education is mainly based on the cultural dominants ofthe past – a rational view on the world, intellectualism and utility. Itscivilization limitation is clearly reflected in the content of education,where knowledge about the experience of holistic human activitiesrelegated to a secondary plan in comparison with scientificmonoculture. Therefore, the search of education models, adequate tomodern type of culture, that simultaneously meet the new stage ofcivilization, is an urgent problem of modern pedagogy theory, and ateaching practice either.The problem of higher education accordance to the needs ofcivilization and cultural processes reflects the crisis that is primarily inthe methodological basis of the education. It is caused by the pedagogytransition from educational paradigm to culture-creative, from the"educated man" to "human of culture" , from the "abstractunderstanding" of social order "to the needs and requests of theperson" . Its effects are connected with the "lack of culture ineducation" , the "technocratic congestion of education", with the"knowledge translation in detached, impersonal manner that hasexhausted itself" , with "content saturation with knowledge in theabsence of meaning" . In this regard, the need to develop culturalconceptual frameworks of educational systems can be defined as verytimely and relevant.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 194Historically complex and multi-dimensional relationship ofeducation and culture, their relevance, some similarities, identity incertain degrees are recognized and the justified by the majority of nativeand foreign experts in the field of pedagogy (S. I. Hessen,E. V. Bondarevska, O. Y. Danyluk, I. A. Zyazyun, V. V. Krayevskyy,G. G. Filipchuk), psychology (O. M. Leontiev, S. L. Rubinstein,L. S. Vygotsky, G. S. Kostyuk), philosophy (M. O. Berdyaev,H. T. Gadamer, M. A. Danilevskyy, P. O. Sorokin), culture(P. S. Gurevich, O. S. Carmine), sociology (L. M. Kogan andL. I. Mikhailova) and other branches of scientific knowledge.S. I. Hessen defines "the purpose of life of modern culturalsociety" as "the purpose of education," and notes that "there is an exactmatch between education and culture" [4, p. 35]. E. V. Bondarevskaemphasizes the genetic unity of educational and cultural sources,pointing out that "both educational and cultural processes detect humanpresence, originate from a single source – from human and exist,because they are significant for him" [3, p. 32].The trend of modern education development makes it,according to V. V. Syerykov, "the central phenomenon ofculture" [11, p. 5]. The "personal approach to education is inherentlyassociated with the humanistic tradition in pedagogy that extends itsroots in the deep sources of human culture" [11, p. 21].The relationship of education and culture is one of the keyissues of modern didactics, – said O. J. Danyluk, noting the fact, that thecultural dominant was uncharacteristic for traditional pedagogy. Thetransition of education into a new cultural dimension has changed thetraditional idea of its significance and functions. "The educationalsystem is congruent with culture in some of it‟s fragments or types ofcultural activity" [6, p. 270].According to these circumstances, the conceptualization ofhigher education is proposed, and based on the uncovering culturalpatterns of its development."The words "culture" and "education" are closely related toeach other. Education as a training, breeding and forming is a majorcultural form of human existence" – says V. I. Slobodchikov [12, p. 13].However the education is designed and implemented as a culturalprocess, it should not be seen as a temporary stage of students‟and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 195undergraduates‟ "preparation for life", but as a valuable andsubstantiated in cultural sense, the life of the subject, as its particularshape. After all, "the process of the people‟s learning of culturalachievements and historical experience is simultaneously the process ofthe development of specific skills of the people according to culturaldevelopment. It can have various forms. But what is the most importantto emphasize now – is that this process should alwaysoccur" [9, p. 423].The pedagogic reflection of cultural and educational spacebecomes much more productive, when it is enriched by usingphenomenology that allows belonging of the educational categories tohumanistic or forming paradigm. The phenomenological study rescuesthe scientific knowledge from the classical naturalistic precepts thatsharply divide the object and subject, consciousness and being. So onecan reach the consciousness reflection of his acts and their sense,identify the initial base of knowledge of human existence, culture andeducation. This complements the tools of natural and scientificdescription and the explanation by humanitarian means ofunderstanding, using, for example, the provisions of I.Kant on moralityof positive "noumenon" that has a different, distinct from sensitive andimaginive, moral level of knowledge .The unusualness of education display in the context of culture,the disclosure of the nature of the mutual influence of culture andeducation on each other, the degree of identity of educational andcultural systems, the connection of culture with pedagogical ideas of thepast and present requires some consideration of the historical evolutionof views on culture, people, education, genetic and logical transitionsbetween them, leading to the emergence of different interpretations ofthese phenomena, which were conducted in the study.Historically, the processes related to education, training,professional and personal human development, have always found theirreflection in the cultural phenomenon. Without training and education,without the active transmission of the cultural and civilizationachievements to the new generations, the movement of history wouldhave been impossible . The development of culture and educationdevelopment – are the processes that largely parallel and interconnect.Therefore, as S. I. Hessen, has written "to understand the educational
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 196system of the society – is to understand the structure of its life" [4, p.25]. Moreover, as noted by O. M. Leontiev, "the connection betweenthe historical progress and the progress of education is close to such anextent, that we can have some opinions about the level of educationaccording to the general level of the historical development of thesociety, and vice versa: about the level of education – according to theoverall level of economic and cultural development ofsociety "[9, p. 423].The analysis of historically and genetically predisposedrelationships between education and culture, gives an opportunity todiscover that they are reached through a person, who is the connecting-link of cultural and educational system. The historical ties are observedthrough social and cultural determinism of personality type and theways to achieve it, which are embodied in the specific concepts,principles and technologies of education and training. The cause-effectrelationships are that a higher level of culture requires a higher level ofeducation, which, in turn, becomes the source of further development ofculture. The substantial ties are derived from the recognition of cultureas a general source of education. The material components determinethe content of education, social and spiritual components – education.The values and meanings form the core, the basic personal structure ofconsciousness. The procedural links explain the possibility of educationas a cultural process, as the human entry in the holistic world of culture,as the unity of his spiritual, moral, professional and personaldevelopment, not reducing or limiting this process by the function ofsocialization.Thus, we can emphasize not only the diverse historicalrelationship of culture and education, but also the importance ofunderstanding all the characteristics of this relationship for thetheoretical and practical construction of cultural educational paradigms,systems and models.Identity of education and culture is assessed as a prerequisite fora deeper analysis of educational phenomena in the context of culture,which opens new heuristic possibilities for studying of culturaleducational space. A study describes the peculiarity of culture, that isfound in human activity, in one case generates values, personalmeanings, feeling – culture (in the narrow sense), in the second –
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 197"something else" – the acts of technical reproduction, forms of sociality,under which the civilization manifestations are commonly understood.The correlation of culture and civilization is evaluateddifferently in different, sometimes contradictory philosophical positions(M. Montaigne, R. Descartes, D. Diderot, J.-J. Rousseau, vonHumboldt, L. Morgan, F. Engels, P. O. Sorokin, M. O. Berdyaev). Atleast there are three basic points of view. The identification of cultureand civilization (Z. Freud) is based on the basis of their similarity: thesocial nature; artificial result of human activity; the overall thrust tosatisfy the material and spiritual needs [13, p. 19].The opposite position was advocated by Spengler andBerdyaev. Thus, Oswald Spengler, spreading these conceptschronologically, argued that every culture inevitably becomes acivilization that leads to a cultural decadence and degradation.Civilization, according to Spengler, – is the depletion of the culturalcreative forces. Culture is a national concept, civilization – is theinternational one. Imperialism and socialism – are civilization, ratherthan culture. Culture – is a unique creative impulse. This is truly thespirit realm, which is not always led by practical profit needs .In contrast to O. Spengler, M. Berdyaev believed that cultureand civilization developed synchronously, but had their own specialfeatures. Culture is accentuated on spiritual, personal, qualitative,aesthetic, expressive, aristocratic, stable and durable, sometimes onconservative principle; but civilization is mostly concentrated onfinancial, social, collective, quantitative, public, democratic, pragmaticand utilitarian, dynamic, progressive phenomena [2, p. 195].Civilization is not symbolic, not hierarchical and organic. It is realistic,democratic and mechanical. Teamwork replaces individual creativity incivilization. Civilization denies individuality. Personal qualities revealonly in culture. Philosophy and art exist only in culture; they areimpossible and unnecessary in civilization. Culture is based oninequality, on quality. Culture is aristocratic, civilization isdemocratic .Putting civilization in opposition to the culture, Spengler andBerdyaev admitted that they were interrelated and interdependent.Civilization and culture coexist, they are inalienable and can not existwithout one another. Civilization allows person to solve the problem of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 198social organization of the environment, but culture - the spiritual andvalue orientation in it. Culture is the purpose of the existence of modernman, civilization – is only the prerequisite for culture.Culture is the inner spiritual meaning of civilization, whilecivilization – is just a material shell of culture. Culture in the content ofeducation is reflected in a sense of spiritual values, achievements inphilosophy, art, but civilization – is in the level of technological,economic, social and political development of the society. If humanassimilation of cultural achievements is impossible without spiritualself-improvement and personal effort in thinking process, it is notnecessary for understanding of the civilization benefits; it is enough tofollow the "rules of use" and "manual instructions". Thus, the "civilizedman" – is not that the "man of culture". An "internal culture" is whatmakes a personality cultured, but civilized man – is a man who has onlyan "outer culture", that is subject to the rules and proprieties accepted ina civilized society. Therefore "civilized lack of culture" – is aphenomenon that often occurs in life "[8, p. 192].If civilization embodies social and material forms of life andculture is estimated as a sphere of higher spiritual and artistic humanactions, then in this ratio, the opposition of civilization and culture forma binary opposition, represent a necessary set of assumptions andevidence for the formation of an appropriate approach – "civilized andcultural paradigm" . The approach can adequately create thereflection sense of pedagogical phenomena of reality in terms of cultureand civilization; identify confidently civilized and cultural componentsof pedagogical activity; establish appropriate criteria more clearly (seetable.).Ratio of "civilization-culture"Pedagogical evaluation of positions:Conditionally positive Conditionally negativeIdentityJustifies theunderstanding of theunity of the spiritual andmaterial culture;The universality of value-semantic approach tophenomena and objects ofcivilization and culture.Is not sensitive to thequalitative distinctionbetween themanifestations of cultureand civilization, whichmay lead to substitutionof cultural values byvalues of civilization.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 199ThejuxtapositionAsynchronousdevelopmentPromotes the awarenessof negative prospects ofuneven development ofcivilization and cultureand one-sided approachto education and training.May serve as argumentsof degradation fatality,cultural decline, crisisand relevant findings forthe educational activitiesprojection.SynchronousdevelopmentJustifies the idea of thenecessity of a holisticapproach tocomprehensive humandevelopment on the basisof civilization andculture, based on theirspecific functions.Blends the terms of"hard" and unambiguousdetermination regardingto civilization andculture, whichdevelopment is morecomplex.Paradigm, as a result is a consequence of pedagogical reflectionof culture, is confirmed by the nature of higher education urgentproblems, including the problem of searching of the optimal complianceof education system to the needs of civilization (globalization) andcultural (liberalization) processes. These problems are "permanent",they periodically occur not only in the native but also in the globaleducational system.The culturological approach includes civil and culturalparadigms, in accordance with which the culturological directiondefines a humanitarian vector of education development, maintainingand restoring its integrity. Civil (social and technological) component ofcultural contest is more mobile in comparison with cultural (spiritual)component, which is characterized by greater stability and duration.The problem of education study in the context of culture ispredetermined due to its diverse manifestations that define themultiplicity of approaches and aspects of its methodology. The mostcomplete picture can only be given by a comprehensive analysis thatintegrates both traditional means of inquiry: philosophical, pedagogicaland cultural fact, including the ontological and epistemological aspects,and the range of general and concrete scientific means: systematic andstructural, axiological, anthropological, information, sociological,psychological, semiotic and others. Thus, the culturological approach inteaching can be interpreted as a the need for a separate educationalreflection in the context of culture, viewed as:
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 200- The phenomenon of culture;- Means and results of culture;- Part of the culture, its subsystem, which is isomorphic to culture;- Goal of culture in the form of the sample (ideal) – education of thecultured man;- Value from the point of view of its subjects (individual, society, state);- The process and the kind of cultural activity (Humanities);- Cultural content (artifacts, meanings, values, sense);- Cultural components (spiritual, social, technological);- Cultural meanings (cognitive, evaluative, regulatory);- Cultural environment (integration);- Cultural assets (support, motivation, dialogue, cooperation);- Cultural foundations of the personality manifestation - subjectivity(freedom, individuality, creativity);- Cultural personality processes (self-development, self-actualization,search and creation of meaning).These characteristics make it possible to reconstruct educationin the context of culture in its aspect, object and subject levels ofrepresentation, value-semantic, structural-functional content and othercomponents that are lodged in the conceptual idea.Pedagogical reflection of culture has the meaning that goesbeyond the theoretical studies. It serves as a real practical problem ofnot only individual-level of education, but also in the scale of society.Because the cultural nihilism, disregard to the cultural heritage of thepast, reducing of the cultural level of the population, the destruction ofthe cultural environment, the loss of cultural content, the erosion ofcultural identity, may affect the future of humanity adversely.Deformity development of culture in modern society generates an ugly,"ignorant" solutions to many of its pressing problems, related toscientific and technological progress, environmental dangers, inter-ethnic and inter-state conflicts, the rights of the individual.List of sources and literature1. Алексюк А.М. Педагогіка вищої освіти України /А. М. Алексіюк. – Київ: Либідь, 1998. – 560 с.2. Бердяев Н.А. Смысл истории / Н. А. Бердяев – М. Мысль,1990. – 176 с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 2013. Бондаревская Е. В. Теория и практика личностно-ориентированного образования / Е. В. Бондаренко. – Ростовн/Д., 2000.4. Гессен С.И. Основы педагогики /С. И. Гессен. – М. : Школа-пресс, 1995. – 448 с.5. Гуссерль Э. Феноменология / Э. Гуссерль. – М. : Логос, 1991.6. Данилюк А.Я. Теория интеграции образования.– Ростов н/Д.,2001.7. Кант И. Критика практического разума // Соч. Т. 4. Ч. 1. – М.,1965.8. Кармин А.С. Культурология / А. С. Кармин. – СПб.: Изд-во«Лань», 2001.9. Леонтьев А.Н. Проблемы развития психики. 4-е изд. – М.:Изд-во Моск. ун-та, 1981.10. Руденко В.Н. Культурологические основания модернизациисодержания высшего образования // Педагогика. – 2004. – № 1.11. Сериков В.В. Образование и личность. – М.: Перемена, 1999.12. Слободчиков В.И., Исаев Е.И. Психология человека:Введение в психологию субъективности. – М.: Школа-Пресс,1995.13. Фрейд 3. Психоанализ. Религия. Культура. – М.: Ренессанс,1992.14. Шпенглер О. Закат Европы. – Ростов н/Д.: Феникс, 1998.UDC 371.279.7:001.891.5L. S. SmolinchukTESTS AS A VITAL PART OF METHODOLOGICALSYSTEM IN EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONALSTANDARDSThe questions of ensuring of quality of education and the takingof educational measurements are investigated in the article. Theproblem of necessity of tests method using, particularly the pedagogicaltasks in the form of test for the quality of students and pupilsknowledge, skills and abilities assessment.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 202Key words: the quality of education, educational measurements,test, pedagogical test, pedagogical tasks in a form of a testStatement of the problem. The study raises the issue of apriority given to education in terms of both modern world hierarchy ofmerits and national policies of the most states in the world. Andimprovements of educational standards is surely critical for any countryand Ukraine is no exception. The issue is addressed in NationalEducation Development doctrine, which states that "standards ofeducation are the national priority that preconditions security of theState, observation of international norms and Ukrainian laws that granta person a right to have an education. And to provide the appropriatestandards of education the State secures material, financial, academicand human resources of the country where standards of education areprovided for by means of interaction between education and science,pedagogical theory and practical application.O. Lyashenko argues that one of the main concerns these days isto secure high standards of education through all its stages as well as toassess its progress and efficiency, and to manage these standards. Thisobjective has pedagogical or academic aspects along with the social,political and managerial ones.Academic perspectives of the issue. Pedagogical theory looksinto different aspects of educational standards that involve level ofstudent competence, academic performance and assessment of learningactivities. Standards of education assume that the process, results andthe educational system itself meet the objectives, the needs and socialstandards of education. The system of these standards should addressnot only the ultimate stage of educational activities but also the processof knowledge and skills` acquisition to embrace all the stages ofeducational process that help to reach the initial goal.Progress checks are one of the basic elements for assessment ofeducational standards. Inefficient organization of learning assessments mayresult in lower standards of education. The issue of performanceassessment is one of the most instrumental in pedagogical theory andpractice. We have made it the object of our study so that it proves essentialfor assessment of pedagogical innovations and technologies.The main material. The key points of our study. With Ukrainebecoming a part the Bologne process club it has become an urgent issue
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 203to introduce new policies for students and schoolchildren academicperformance that could help further reforms of our educational system.With a shift to self-study activities that are assigned morelearning time a teacher finds himself in the position where he should notonly give lectures and classes but rather organize students‟ work toprovide the methodological background to lean on in learning processas well as to ensure the regular policies of students performance controlfor both students‟ self-study and general results of teaching activities.What a teacher should provide for is proper conditions for highlymotivated self-study of students and tutor them in this regard.The number of tasks to be addressed by a teacher is pretty long. Itassumes monitoring of how students come to grips with the taughtmaterial, how deep and grounded the acquired knowledge and skills are,what corrective elements should be added to the contents and methodsused in students and schoolchildren learning processes. These concernsfind realization through pedagogical tests. The traditional ways ofassessment like exams, credits and colloquiums still are effectiveenough with modern technologies of teaching though learning processnow makes tests system in all respects even more instrumental.Russian scholar V. Kandenvskiy claims that the modern life hasmade tests an indivisible part of social activities. Their universal scope,range of application, and high level of objectivity make us regard themas a phenomenon of human civilization.As any other phenomenon, tests get different, sometimes controversialresponse that ranges from their acceptance as a unique objective pedagogicaltool for competence assessment to their complete rejection.Despite the interest toward testing system and its wide use in schools,universities and newly introduced SAT-like practices for high-school leavers,our national scholars still have no unanimous attitude in its regard.It should be pointed out that the issue of testing system drewattention of different researchers.Among foreign scholars who did the research on tests wereR. Dubua, G. Chance, D. Dobbin, D. Anastazi, G. Miller. Urkainescholars haven‟t attended to this issue much. Yet the last decade sawmany Ukrainians scholars‟ studies that came from I. Bulakh,O. Lokshyna, O. Lyashenko, M. Oliynyk, Y. Romanenko and others.There have also been studies conducted by Russian researchers like
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 204V. Avanesov,V. Kim, A. Mayroov,V. Kadnevskiy, V. Khlebnikov.Currently scholars remain divided for both the definition of a categoryand time and place of their origin. Most of them argree that it dates backto older times that are hard to track. Putting one to test came from needsof human community. With our civilizations evolving things made lifeof a human and a social group more complex, which brought aboutchanges in role functions of an individual within a group. R. Dubuadates back testing to 2200 y.a. locating its origins in China whileG. Chance and D. Dobbin find its beginnings in Greek states.A. Anastazi and G. Miller claim it to be 19–20thc.c. Russian academichas a different viewpoint claiming it originated in the early epoch ofhomo sapience evolution. He argues that testing generated for an earlytimes‟ human as an attempt to overcome and harmonize discrepancyabout main point of survival that came to stand between teamworkactivities and individual aptitude of group members.V. Avanesov points out that talking about history of tests involvesmuch guesswork on a par with geographers looking for an origin of ariver formed of numerous brooks and streams.Definition-wise the category of a test is highlighted in manyfundamental and special terminology dictionaries. The most of them claimthat the word "a test" was borrowed from English that means "a trial,examination" though there are still some discrepancies about its meaning.Russian scholar V. Kim comes up with 5 definitions of thecategory and points to the differences they represent though all of themfound acceptance among researchers. In his view what accounts for thisis wide use tests and testing technologies have in different field ofmodern sciences.Our main concern about it is its application within modern systemof education. What we think to be the most workable definition is theone suggested by V. Avanesov who defines them as a system of specifictasks, certain contents and levels‟ gradation that make it possible toassess the structure and scope of students‟ scholastic aptitude.The modern science literature knows three basic policies topedagogical tests. The first principle pedagogical discipline orientedfinds it important to check the progress made in knowledge acquisitionin the specific subject. The test assumes a number of assignments aswell as thorough definition of the reach of the discipline contents. The
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 205second one called criteria-oriented principle aims to check the extent ofknowledge, skills and abilities a student acquired. This principle sets upa standard or criteria of student knowledge that comes throughattestation or entrance exams in educational establishments. It takes in alimited number of tasks in the field of study that reflects a standard orlevel of knowledge assumed. The last one is called norm-orientedprinciple where you put to test not only an individualknowledgecompetence but also rate students in this regard. It requires arelatively short yet sufficient enough list of tasks that enable a gooddispersion of results.In terms of pedagogical monitoring and rating of educationalstandards what matters more is assignments based on criteria-orientedprinciple though other two also stand as no less valid ones. Most ofscholars and researchers point out that test assessment help cut down oncurriculum workloads and stimulates students motivation provided itassumes unified criteria of requirements, higher degree of objectiveevaluation, combined with progress checks and relative and absolutereduction in terms of studying periods. This is what makes tests methodmore efficient in comparing with traditional forms of learning control:- it enables quantitative evaluation of student knowledge;- it thoroughly covers the knowledge scope at a time of the test;- and it has unified standards of pedagogical control and correctinterpretation of test scores.One can observe these advantages fully if they provide for goodquality tests themselves. Test efficiency comes out through itsreliability, validity and objectiveness. Reliability assumes that testssecure consistency in terms of due level for knowledge assessment.Reliability is validated through a greater number of task it includes.Validation reflects the idea of agreement of forms and methods for testcontrol. To merit validation one needs expertise of tests‟ material thathas to meet requirements of a curricula and concept of knowledgeextent that comes from a national state standard.One of the critical criteria of a test efficiency is its objectivitysince it reflects a number of aspects that have pedagogical, meritocratic,ethical and psychological character. To reach objectivity in pedagogicalregard one should put to use standardized test programs and technicalmeans of control where fair grading reflects meritocratic aspect of test
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 206control while psychological aspect finds reflection in acceptance ofgrading by students and schoolchildren.Pedagogical testing is only 100 years old and all this time theyhave known much criticism. Scholars point out its objectively weakpoints though no one has come up with any other sort of an alternativeto make us discard the former. Regardless of the on-going polemic testshave become an important part of educational process. Introduction oftests‟ technologies in Ukrainian educational system is both a logicaladvancement in this sphere globally and a dire need of reformsUkrainian education wants.Tests helps considerably to overcome conficts between the extent ofstudents‟ knowledge (that doulbes in many spheres of science throughoutthe period of 5–10 years and shortage of study time assumed for its transferand control of its mastery. V. Kadnevskiy claims that the wide practise oftests‟ application aimed only at monitoring students‟ knowledge narrowstheir benefits as tests can come to be as an key instrument in schooling.V. Kadnevskiy came up with a term "educational test" andsuggested thorough testing that in his view makes it possible to updatethe learing process. Educational tests, for one thing, help to makestudents‟ knowledge more systematic and also with positioning studentknowledge in formalized arranged variant that comes in line with acourse book they serve a purpose of organization of self-control ofstudents‟ knowledge mastery.Conclusions. To sum it up, we should say that test cannot be auniversal instrument of control and it does not rule out other forms ofpedagogical control either. Well-grounded tests allow a clearerdifferentiation of student knowledge within a group and provides anobjective evaluation of each student knowledge as well as it helpsassess educational standards. Optimization of students‟ knowledgecontrol through tests‟ application ensures upgrade of specialists‟training schemes and getting a real perspective of students‟ attestation.Tests in education are meant for real-time and unbiasedassessment of depth, structure, contents and hierarchy of knowledge andskills. That‟s why it can answer one of the education tasks that assumesformation of needs and skills for self-analysis and self-control that arethe grounds for individualization and humanization of education, andimparting students with the idea of self-education.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 207List of sources and literature1. Аванесов В. С. История возникновения тестов [Электронныйресурс] / В. Аванесов. – Режим доступа: http://www.bim-bad.ru2. Аванесов В. С. Основы научной организациипедагогического контроля в высшей / В.С.Аванесов. – М. :МИСиС, 1989. – 176с.3. Булах І. Є., Мруга М. Р. Створюємо якісний тест: навч. посіб. /І.Є. Булах, М. Р. Мруга. – К.: Майстер-клас, 2006. – 160 с.4. Кадневский В. М. Тестовая культура как феноменцивилизации // Образование: исследовано в мире[Электронный ресурс] / В.М. Кадневский. – М. : OIM.RU. –Режим доступа: http://www.oim.ru.5. Ким В.С. Тестирование учебных достижений. Монография. –Уссурийск: Издательство УГПИ, 2007. – 214 с.: ил.6. Національна доктрина розвитку освіти [Електроннийресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.mon.gov.ua7. Челышкова М.Б. Теория и практика конструированияпедагогических тестов: Учебное пособие / М.Б. Челышкова. –М. : Логос, 2002. – 432с.UDC 37(091)(477.81)"1939/1950"T. A. Sorochyns’kaPRINCIPLES OF MORAL CULTURE FORMATIONOF SOVIET FOR TEACHERS IN RIVNE PEDAGOGICALINSTITUTIONS (1939 -1950): HISTORICAL ANDPEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSEIn this article the author analyses the peculiarities of formationof students’ moral culture of the pedagogical colleges of Rivne region(1939–1950 yy).Key words: Rivne region, the moral education, pedagogicalschools pedagogical staff.Problem statement. Problems of moral development, educationand personality improvement worried society in all times. According to
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 208value concept of modern didactics, the process of education is at thesame time the process of directed moral development and education.The content of ethic education is the reflection of the most importantdimension of human existence, their relationship and actions in society,moral sphere, education content. Therefore the central problem ofnowadays is securing ethic and moral development of personality,formation and improvement of the main moral norms, ideals, principles,values of student youth in the system of pedagogical education. Gainingsuch social experience by future teachers, achievement of high moralculture is one of the conditions of improving professionalism of thefuture teacher. Because formed ethic-moral needs stimulate moralactivity of the person, their active life position. The big role in thisprocess is devoted to school, which, apart from education function,performs also educative function, educating an active, useful for thesociety citizen. Educational institutions first of all must be orientedtowards creating conditions for formation of a teacher with high moralprinciples. Because for the future of the country it is important howeducated school graduates are as well as their views, social and moralposition.The level of problem research. The problem of formation ofmoral culture of young people in scientific literature has worriedresearchers all the time. Among them we would like to mention I. Beh,V. Strumanky, A. Zosimivsky, V. Kozur, G.Poltorak, I Kyshtymovy,I. Gamrezkogo, E. Kozlova, O Parfionova, N. Dudnyk.The aim of the article is to explore the role of moral and ethicfactor as a means of professionalism of the future Soviet teacher inpedagogical institutions in Rivne region (1939–1950). Because, themoral culture of personality identifies existing moral values in society,the level of engagement them to moral aspects of activity, the level ofpersonal moral development.Summary. The historical analysis proves that, generalpedagogical preparation in modern pedagogical institutions does notdevelop from scratch; it does not underestimate progressive past butimplies studies and creative development of everything valuable fromthe history of formation and development of pedagogical school ofUkraine. Therefore, the development of modern pedagogical educationis impossible without understanding historical experience. The use of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 209previous experience and its combination with the current achievementsallows the unity of historical-pedagogical process.Special interest in this aspect belongs to the period of 1939–1950of XX century in Rivne region, which is characterized by intensivesocial-historical and cultural changes. The educational policy of theSoviet government, which substituted assimilative policy of the SecondPolish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in many cases coincided with theneeds of the region, in particular Rivne region, and therefore waswelcomed by the population. We mean that on September 30, 1939 thepeople‟s commissariat submitted a documents about the reorganizationof system of education in Western Ukraine . The project wasapproved by the board of the commissariat of the republic. The outcomeof the project implementation was opening of schools of Ukrainianlanguage of instruction. State educational authorities created conditionsso that all children and teenagers could attend school. And even thoughthe ground for such position were propaganda and ideology factors (allchildren from the early childhood absorb communist ideas) however themajority of school-age children received a chance to attend school.Such situation in Western lands can be compared to the period of“pedagogical rise” which comes after crisis and depressions.A rapid rise of the network of schools demanded not only moneyto improve resources base, but first of all – provide qualified teachingstaff. With this purpose new pedagogical institutions and teachingcourses were opened in Rivne region. In 1939 the first pedagogicalschool in Ostroh was opened on the premises of former teachingseminary, and in 1940 – two more pedagogical schools in Dubrovytsyaand Derman started their work [2, p. 182].Education of student youth, which in a couple of years willbecome the basis of Soviet intelligentsia needed special attentionbecause the influence if the teacher on a young person was veryimportant in terms of education. And such influence cannot besubstituted with books, or system of punishment or praise. Therefore itwas important to lay the necessary moral values which would be theground of views of the new generation. The level of preparation andmoral values of future teachers depended directly on professional andscientific potential of the teaching staff. All efforts were directedtowards studying and using pedagogical heritage and experience of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 210Soviet teachers in educational issues, scientific development of thesystem of educative-instructive activity. Pedagogical teams definitelyachieved some success in activating the process of education andinstruction. New methods of teaching were used that stimulatedindependent learning of students [7, p. 205].Among the existing in those times pedagogical concepts, methodsand ideas about teacher training the most relevant to the historicalmoment were pedagogical ideas of A. S. Makarenko, which the authorcalled "pedagogical mastery". We will cite some statement of a famousteacher, which focus on professional qualities of the future professional.Learning is "... first of all, in organizing the character of the teacher,shaping his behavior, then organizing his special knowledge and skills,without which not any teacher can be a good educator and cannot workbecause his voice is not trained, he cannot talk to the child and does notknow in which situation what is appropriate to say" [11, c. 144]. "Voicetraining, mimics, skills to stand up or sit down – all this is veryimportant for the teacher" [10, p. 42]. Because of that speech culture ofthe teacher is becoming more important – it is the marker of intelligenceand general culture of the teacher [12, p. 60].During the World War II due to some objective circumstancespedagogical institutions of the region were closed. They restarted theirwork in 1944 after the city was liberated by the Soviet army and thenew authority was established. Without any doubts, pedagogicalinstitutions of the region did a huge and many-sided work fighting thedifficulties of the war time. Teams of teachers and studentsreconstructed buildings: repaired furniture, fixed dormitories, canteens,etc. [7, p. 275–276]. The first after-war years were extremely difficultfor the schools. There were no enough textbooks and school supplies.Old newspapers and pieces of paper were used for writing. There waslittle kindling, clothes, children had bad nutrition or sometimes were lefthungry.In a such difficult situation the moral factor played a significantrole. Therefore, considering the qualities of the future teacher during therevival period we believe that morality was the most important basicpersonality feature. As it was acknowledged by a famous Ukrainianteacher K. D. Ushynskyi, "In education everything has to be based onthe teacher‟s personality, because the educative power only comes from
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 211human personality... Only a strong personality can influence thedevelopment of another personality, only a character can form anothercharacter. The reasons for such moral magnetism are hidden deep in ahuman nature" [14, p. 265]. Therefore, a Soviet teacher has to be notjust a narrator of interesting, patriotic information but be a person withhigh moral standards. He does not have the moral right to educatechildren if he himself does not have the necessary qualities. Sinceaccording to a great educator Y. A. Komenskyi, "People develop theirown basics of moral life – love and belief, only if they demonstratethem in practice".Surely, the post-war era set high standards for future teacherswho obliged to form moral values of children, their striving towardslearning, development of mechanisms of moral self-regulation,developing a sense of liberty and responsibility. A lot of attention waspaid to developing the grounds of moral culture, the main task of whichwas to turn the socially important requirements of society into internalmotivation of every single person.During the post-war period in Rivne region, apart from restoringnew educational institutions, short-term course were organized toprepare new teachers. On May 20, 1944 there were 488 schools inRivne region: 415 elementary schools, 70 high schools and 3 middleschools. The number of students was 50010 people, with only973 teachers [3, p. 1–2]. Therefore 700 teachers were sent to the regionwho finished pedagogical institutions in Eastern and SouthernUkraine .To assure the region with enough teachers three new pedagogicalcolleges were opened – in Ostroh, Kostopol, Dubno. These institutionsprepared teachers for elementary schools. In summer 1945 areconstructed Ostroh pedagogical college restarted its work andcontinued traditions of pedagogical colleges of pre-war period. Firststudents were teachers who were part time students [6, p. 30]. AfterWorld War II this institution prepared 93 teachers for elementaryschools, in particular: 1945 – 12 people, 1946 – 28 people, 1947 –53 people . The staff of Ostroh college consisted of 17 teachers(14 Ukrainians and 3 Russians), most of whom came from Eastern andCentral parts of Ukraine. The director was first M. Koziy and thenP. Volkov [6, p. 30].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 212Special attention was paid to supplying pedagogical institutionsof education with political, educational, methodical and fictionliterature. Therefore the later was the most influential means, availableto teachers, which students of pedagogical institutions in Rivne regionused to learn the simplest norms of literary language, learnt lexical andgrammatical norms, used words considering their semantics. Since, as itwas claimed by a Ukrainian educator V. O. Suhomlynskyi, "a person‟slanguage – is a mirror of his or her moral culture... The deeper theperson knows native language, the better the person can feel the colorsof each word... " [13, p. 437]. In its turn, the presence of ethical meansin language does not guarantee high moral culture – it is necessary toactivate these means which is best done through the teacher who is anideal example.The main task which was given to pedagogical colleges – toshape a teacher‟s personality who takes part in social life of the country,personality with strong moral values. As it was claimed bySuhomlynkyi, "Moral development is a complicated life of ballasts –their birth, development, strengthening and implementation inactions" [12, p. 308].An important part of preparation of elementary school teacher ineducational institutions of the region combination of theoreticalknowledge and practical skills. Therefore according to educationalplans students had to take up an internship at school. The internshipincluded observing students during learning and trial lessons. Suchorganized process involved communication with children in differentactivities, during which positive moral relationship and ethical qualitieswere formed. Such internship taught future teachers to be responsible,honest, fostered features of decency, humanism, patriotism, self-discipline which are a crucial part of professional preparation. Thereforethe process of moral education of a teacher included formation of moralneeds of personality, directed towards self-improvement, strivingtowards ethic ideal and high-moral behavior as strong personality traits.We are talking not just about preparation of a professional but a "carrierof ideology among the workers" [4 p. 25]. The future leader ofchildren‟s union had to help pupils pass the way of moral, social andpatriotic growth. Because moral values turn into subjective moralityonly due to perception by a child. Morality is first of all feelings, the
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 213real state and experience of deep satisfaction, discomfort or sufferings.Thus moral consciousness, knowing the norms of behavior regularactions obtain moral sense .Despite the difficulties of the post-war era a lot of attention waspaid to the quality of preparation of professionals. No wonder that oneof the teachers of Rivne teacher institute mentions, "After the renewalof our institute the scientific work was conducted only by a fewteachers. Most of them were young professionals, did not have enoughexperience and demanded from the authority experienced people.Strengthening of teaching staff, improving their qualifications was oneof the primary tasks in those years" [8, p. 20]. Because only in a team,in communication the person unfolds for others and for oneself.The Soviet teacher had a task, "... not only to teach but alsoeducate future builders of communism. This is the main task, the pledgeof our success. Teachers, this numerous group of Soviet intelligentsia,with honor had to perform all tasks which were forced on them by theparty and the government" [2, p. 185]. So high hopes were forced onteachers by the Soviet government, since working with a lot of peoplethere were agitators of communist ideas".Many children were behind in learning and some of them just didnot understanding the meaning of schooling when there were othermeans of getting profit – begging, burgling, speculation. Therefore thetask of the teacher was to systematically have talks with children thepurpose of which was to explain the aims and benefits of theirschooling. By using such talks they tried to educate their sense of dutyand responsibility for their education. A great importance in educationalprocess was paid to students behavior both at school and outside, theirperformance of responsibilities. Discipline, organization, duty,responsibility – are the primary features of moral education and cultureof a student. Keeping to moral norms of co-life in a group also requiredself-organization, self-discipline of personality. It is necessary tomention that personal interests had to coincide with the interests of thegroup.We assume that there was a psychological problem of adaptationto new conditions of life. The peculiarities of organization ofeducational process in pedagogical colleges, age peculiarities ofstudents give the reason to think that there were specific features of
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 214adaptation process and the necessity to create pedagogical conditions,which would optimize this process.Conclusions and future research. Despite difficulties of thepost-war period it was possible to restore the system of education inRivne region. The organization of the educational process took one ofthe main positions in social policy of the Soviet state and impliededucative development of young people. Therefore, the subject ofconstant attention of party and educational organs was the problem ofteaching staff. In difficult social-economic conditions of the post-warrenewal it was possible to organize the admission process inpedagogical colleges in Rivne region – in Ostroh, Dubrovytsya, Dubnocolleges and let the students graduate. Despite the fact that the Sovietsystem underwent immense ideological pressure and control of forms ofeducation, the process in pedagogical institutions of the region wasdirected towards not only educating the student but in general shapinghis personality. Views, moral issues were always addressed. Thereforethe the question of raising and educating a decent citizen of the country,future specialist with formed professional and moral qualities wassolved.List of sources and literature1. Бех І. Виховання особистості: сходження до духовності:наук. Видання / І.Д.Бех. – К.: Либідь, 2006. – 272 с.2. Вища педагогічна освіта і наука України: історія, сьогоденнята перспективи розвитку. Рівненська область / Ред. рада вид.:В. Г. Кремень (гол.) [та ін.]; Редкол. тому:Р. М. Постоловський (гол.) [та ін.]. – К.: Знання України,2010. – 383 с.3. Державний архів Рівненської області (далі: ДАРО). – Ф. Р-2. – Оп. 2. – Спр. 3а.4. ДАРО. – Ф. Р-2. – Оп. 4. – Спр. 92.5. Джура О. Д. Освіта як система творення та ретрансляції знань ікультури / О. Д. Джура // Мультиверсум. Філософськийальманах: Зб. наук. праць / Гол. ред. В. В. Лях. – Вип. 81. – К.,2009. – С. 178-191, с. 179-180.6. Доброчинська В. А. Підготовка вчительських кадрів упедагогічних училищах Рівненщини (1939-1950-ті рр) /
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 215В. А. Доброчинська //Історичні студії Волинськогонаціонального університету імені Лесі Українки. – Вип. 2. –2009. – С. 28-34.7. Народна освіта і педагогічна наука в Українській РСР (1917–1967). –К.: Рад. школа, 1967 – 484 с.8. Кужій А. І. Вирощуємо молоді кадри / А. І. Кужій //Ровенський державний педагогічний інститут (1940–1965). –Львів: Каменяр, 1966. – С.9. Козій М. У щасливу путь / М. Козій, М. Білодід //Сталінський шлях (Острог). – 1947. – 29 червня.10. Макаренко А. С. Из лекции Воспитание в семье и школе 8февраля 1939 г / А. С. Макаренко // Хрестоматия попедагогике / cост. С. Н. Полянский : учеб. Пособ. дляучащихся педучилищ. – 2-е узд., испр. и доп. – М. :Просвещение,1972. – С. 40-4211. Макаренко А. С. Колектив и воспитание личности /А. С. Макаренко. – М. : Педагогика. – 1972. – 336 с.12. Педагогічна майстерність: Підручник / І. А. Зязюн,Л. В. Крамущенко, І. Ф. Кривонос та ін. / за ред.І. А. Зязюна. – 2-ге вид., доп. і переробл. – К.: Вища школа,2004.13. Cухомлинський В.О. Вибрані твори: в 5 т./ В.О.Сухомлинський. – Київ: Радянська школа, 1977. – Т.3. –C.437.14. Ушинский К. Д. Избранные педагогические произведения /К. Д. Ушинский. – М. : Просвещение, 1968. – 558 с.UDC 159.9I. M. TadeyevaQUALITIES EDUCATION IN TALENTED JUNIORSCHOOLCHILDRENThe article analyzed the characteristics of gifted children,specifically mentioned the problem and analyzed the negativepersonality traits of gifted children; defined and reasonably human
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 216equalities of education gifted child as one of the decisive factorsharmonious formation of personality; identified the main functionalproperty of human qualities in the education of gifted elementary schoolchildren; designed content humane education, defined featureseducational work with gifted children and developed a method ofeducation of humane qualities of gifted children, based on subject -subjective caregiver interaction with gifted child.Key words: gifted children, as a humane, methods of raining,education methodsTask formation. Building up of Ukraine statehood stipulatednew tendencies in development of education. One of the majortasks of the humane oriented state is assistance to young generationdevelopment, satisfaction of its educational and cultural necessitiesin accordance with UNO Convention about the child‟s rights, theWorld declaration about providing of children‟s survival, defenceand development. Embodiment of these documents requirementsinto life demands from the state system actions directed on priorityeffective decision of the problems of every personalitydevelopment and self-realization. In Ukraine the year 2011, inaccordance with the president decree is declared as the Year ofEducation and Informative Society with the purpose of providing offunctioning and education innovative development improvement,increase of its quality and accessibility, integration to Europeaneducational space with conservation of national achievements andtraditions.New Ukrainian school must provide comprehensive person‟sdevelopment as personality and the greatest value of society on thebasis of its inclinations, abilities, gifts and talents exposure. Creating ofeducational establishments national network for gifted youth is providedin Ukraine by some laws and programs (in particular Law of Ukraine"About Education", purpose-oriented complex program "Teacher",National program "Children of Ukraine", Conception of the program"Gifted Children" etc.).The system of work with the gifted children obtains considerableactuality in our school due to reformation of the national educationalsystem, raising of the creative personality‟s role in society. Theperspective way of its decision became organization of such
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 217pedagogical process which started the methods of the gifted studentssearch and selection and created conditions for their natural creativepotencies development [4, p. 15].Analysis of scientific research and publications. Idea ofresearch of the gifts nature on the basis of analysis of the person‟screative development reflected in creative gifts conceptions of suchauthors, as O. M. Matiushkin, V. O. Moliako, B. D. Shadrikov,F. Barron, Dzh. Gilford, A. Torrens, K. Teilor and others. Psychologistsconsider gifts as difficult psychological phenomenon, inseparable frompersonality, as a presence of capabilities, their original combinationwhich gives possibility of successful activity.In the works of the last years (L. L. Hurova, O. M. Matiushkin,V. O. Moliako) the concept of gifts examined as complete integralsystem, which includes all personality‟s qualities, but not only sphere ofits interests or capabilities.A gifted child – is a child who differed by bright, evident,sometimes prominent achievements or he has the inherent inclinationsfor such achievements in the certain type of activity. The problem of thegifted students‟ qualities were in sight of such scientists as:Yu. Z. Gilbukh, Ya. N. Ponomariev, G. S. Kostiuk, V. O. Moliako,N. S. Leites, L. F. Burlachuk and others. Gifted children have highcreative potential and high level of their capabilities development. It isconsidered that the most important characteristics of the gifted childrenare: extraordinarily early expression of high cognitive activity andcuriosity; speed and exactness of mental activity implementation whichstipulated by stability of attention and main memory; formation oflogical thought skills; wealth of active vocabulary; speed and originalityof verbal associations; students can ability to implement task withcreation; they have logical thinking and imagination; possess by thebasic components of ability to study. Creativity is an importantdescription of gifts because it means a capacity for creation. Accordingto psychological research the basis of gifts is born creative potentialwhich develops all the life of a man.Such scientists as A. V. Brushlinskyi, V. V. Davydov,D. B. Elkonin, T. V. Kudriavtsev, O. I. Kulchitska, I. Ya. Lerner,R. О. Ponomariova, V. Shtern and others devoted their works to giftsdevelopment on different age stages.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 218At the same time the Constitution of Ukraine, "Law aboutEducation" and other normative documents among prioritydirections of educational process reformation determine realizationof the people‟s morality principles, formation of understanding ofinterconnection of freedom, people‟s rights and civil responsibility,ability of communication. New tasks actualize not only theproblems of the gifted youth education but problems of itseducation. Scientists state that a lot of highly gifted people did notrealize their possibilities due to unfavourable education inchildhood.The theme of a gifted child‟s education was elaborated by allteachers and psychologists but in spite of fruitful theoretical andpractical researches, considerable methodical studies there are somegaps in this sphere caused by difficulty of the subject of research.Understanding by a man of own outstanding abilities gives certaincorrectives in interconnection with social surroundings, first of all information of the level of pretension and character of expectationsconcerning environing people.Pedagogical practice testifies that high estimation by the giftedchildren themselves in combination with negative qualities of the giftedchildren‟s personality is: egocentrism and inability to see from the pointof view of other man, especially if he is more weak intellectually;inclination to do everything one‟s own way, absence of culture of dialogand desire to finish opinion of an interlocutor; aspiration to interruptand correct an interlocutor during a talk; aspiration always to be right indiscussion because of lack of conformism and ability to make acompromise; aspiration to give orders to others, and as a result, all thiscan lead to arrest of psychic and emotional development and socialimmaturity [1, p. 17].A gifted student, being at ordinary school, irritates otherstudents by high level of knowledge, curiosity, and accumulation ofa teacher attention. As a result it is an isolation of a gifted studentfrom a class. Crossing to the higher form on the basis of knowledgeof the program causes the break of friendly connections anddifficulties of establishing such connections in a new form. That iswhy, there are many intellectually gifted children at school feelexiles themselves [1, p. 56].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 219Lack of social experience is one of the gifted child‟s sharpestproblems. Social non-adaptation becomes the reverse side of itsgifts. Overestimated level of pretensions in many types of activityand unjustified expectations concerning coevals, removal fromyearlings, clumsiness and unwillingness to communicate preventrealization by the gifted children of their own creative potential.According to the decision of the World Organization of Care ofPublic Health the gifted children included in the “risk group” andneed special education, special curriculums, schools, classes, trainedteachers, psychologists.In connection with necessity of creation in Ukraine on themodern stage of the most favourable terms in relation to the giftedchildren‟s development, the problem of their humane qualitiesformation becomes special significant because it provides theirattraction in the different types of joint activity with yearlings. Suchactivity assists to formation of cognitive, valuation and behaviouraspects of a gifted child positive "I-conception", and allows avoidingpositions of contest, conflict and removal.The purpose of our research was to find out the peculiarities ofthe primary school gifted children‟s humane qualities formation.The object of the research: education of the primary schoolgifted children‟s humane qualities.The subject of the research: methods of education of theprimary school gifted children‟s humane qualities.Task of the research:1. to design content of a gifted child‟s humane education;2. to define the peculiarities of educational work with giftedchildren;3. to develop the methods of the gifted children‟s humanequalities education, which based on subject-subjective interpersonalinteraction of a teacher and a gifted child.It was used such complex of methods for decision of the researchtasks: studying and analysis of psychological, pedagogical andmethodical literature; observation, abstraction, analysis and synthesis,comparison and analogy, design.Presentation of the research basic material. On the basis ofconducted comparative and contrastive analysis of psychological and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 220pedagogical conceptions we defined that humanity – is the system of apersonality‟s direction on social objects, determined by moral normsand values; this system is presented in consciousness as experiencing ofsympathy and it is realized in humane style of communication andhumane activity.Empathy, disinterestedness, exactingness to itself, frankness,responsibility, dignity, charity, kindness, friendliness, heartfeltness,humanity, clemency, peaceable disposition, respect to other man‟sdignity, reflection, experience of sympathy, tact, tolerance,attentiveness, sensitiveness belong to the personality‟s humanequalities.Conducted analysis of scientific sources allowed to draw aconclusion that primary school age is the most favorable period forformation of a gifted child‟s personality humane qualities so far asexactly in this period active socialization performs, evolutionalformation of a gifted child‟s psyche and character is realized. At thesame time the results of analysis of educational and upbringing processat primary school testifies about absence of the system approach toformation of the gifted children‟s personality humane qualities.As education of humanity is a process of humane socialexperience learning, which requires formation of new reasons andnecessities, their transformation and submission, pupils‟ activity mustdirect on studying of the system of humane values.One should design the content of the gifted children‟s humaneeducation after such directions: education of humane spiritual necessities; education of humane attitude to itself: development of self-respect, thrifty attitude to own health, respect to itself, adequate self-appraisal, aspiration for self-perfection, personality‟s humane qualities,understanding of own national origin; education of thrifty attitude to animate and inanimate nature:attitude to nature as to joint home, sensation of responsibility forpreservation of natural resources, thrifty attitude to animals,understanding of their dependence from people and care about them; education of human attitude to other people: attitude to a manas to the greatest value, confession of dignity and respect to the viewsand persuasions of any man;
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 221 formation of active attitude to life; education of conscious discipline, duty, responsibility; education of readiness to help disinterestedly those people whoneed it.We consider intelligence, independence, active and creativehumane activity as the indices of high level of the primary school giftedchildren‟s humane qualities education.It allowed to select basic functional property of the primaryschool gifted children‟ humanity formation – attraction to the emotionalworld of other people and entering into this world through identificationof other students‟ behaviour activity. It is defined that usage of thepersonal-developing direction methods on the basis of subject-subjective interaction is reasonable; interactive and playing methodshave priority. Analysis of interpretation and evaluation of situations,actions of real people plays the special role in the process of perceptionand comprehension of humane values. The important factor of thepersonality‟s humane qualities education is artistic and playing designwhich foresees usage of different playing forms: dramatized(pantomime, imitating puppet dialogues, deployed dramatization, stageor screen versions).Theoretical analysis of the problem allowed to develop themethods of the gifted children‟s humane qualities education, which isbased on subject-subjective interpersonal interaction with a pupil and itincludes:1. Knowledge about humanity.2. Formation of abilities on reproductive level:а) demonstration of humane activity after elements;б) formation of abilities in simplified (standard) terms;в) organization of independent practical humane activity withcontinuous reverse connection and positive support from the side of ateacher.3. Passing to the searching productive phase:а) organization of various problem situations (decision of non-standard tasks of humane direction, imitation design of reality);б) students‟ analysis of their activity, discussion of their activityin a class.There are key factors:
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 2221. Structurisation of the content of education for students‟humane concepts and beliefs formation that gives possibility to makeacquainted a child with the main requirements of humanism, allows toexpose essence, contest of moral actions, educate persuasions, related toemotional attitude to own behaviour and behaviour of others. In thiscase practical realization of the variants of personal approach occurs as:formation of the gifted child‟s ability and desire to realize himself as apersonality, formation of image "good other", cultivation of the otherman‟s value. Usage of the methods of personal-oriented education:persuasion: individual conversations, frank talks, narrations, moralconversations, verbal mini self-presentations, confessions, mini speechconcerning defence of humane qualities, “transmission of ideas”,creative mini monologues, verbal improvisations on free or proposedtopic, suggestions, explanations, personal example of a teacher and etc.is reasonable.2. Making of skills and habits of behaviour for training, takingpart in humane education with application of three basic forms:- with the help of imagination, when a child dramatizes in hisimagination his possible behaviour in proposed situation;- with the help of the role game, when a child or group ofchildren design their possible reality, dramatize and do different roles;- with the help of reality, when children carry out certain actionsin real terms.Hereby, there is practical realization of the variants of thepersonal-oriented approach to a gifted child as education of a child todefend itself as a personality, to cultivate experience to make personaldecisions, fight with Ego-thirsts, prevention of critical situations ineducation through the usage of methods of request, trust, advice, hint,approval, "opened tribunes", communication, problem dialogues,competitions of creative projects, trainings, keeping a diaries of self-development, project drawing.3. Formation of moral experience in pupils‟ activity andcommunication with the help of organization of educational influencesas a component of the system of educational work with the purpose ofthe gifted children‟s humane relations formation on the basis ofknowledge of the norms of humane behaviour and mastering byseparate habits. Such variants of the personal-oriented approach are
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 223realized on this stage: consolidation of personal-developing self-dimension, approval by a teacher of positive personal pupil‟s nature asan analysis alternative, which exposes their negative lines. Contentvalued orientation of the personality subject activity, collective as afactor of unique situation of a personality‟s education, personalityformation in the pupil and the teacher double position, accordance withimage "I" of a pupil to the results of its behaviour. Usage of themethods of public opinion, system of social roles, traditions in thecollective, regime, order, social and pedagogical exercises, creation ofemotional situations, hidden feelings intensification, strengthening ofthe faith in one‟s forces, lessons of spirituality, fairs, projects "Care","Charity" and etc.4. Stimulation of the gifted children to self-perfection whichrequires humane feelings. For this purpose it is necessary to providethe possibility to experience valuable feelings from the humaneeducation point of view, combining these feelings with the analysisof a child‟s personal state. Combination of the pleasant feelings withunpleasant ones through practical realization of such variants ofpersonal-oriented approach to education: satisfaction of the student‟snecessity in personal safety, usage of "effect of generation" and"effect of presence in educative space", cultivation of touchingeducative space, self emotional experience as a necessary conditionof educative process organization promotes efficiency of thisprocess. Usage of such methods of personal-oriented education ascompetition, encouragement, approval, game, "brainstorming","gallery of ideas", "corners", "circles", creations of the "situations ofsuccess", "general gladness", "gladness of knowledge", creation, freechoice, study and account of personality‟s qualities, support ofpositive tendencies, excitation of interest to the activity result,analysis of consequences and planning of the next actions, group ofmutual act is reasonable.5. Demonstration of examples of a teacher‟s humane behaviour.Proposed methods of formation of the gifted child‟s personalityhumane qualities foresees simultaneous influence on the spheres ofrational thinking, emotional perception and making of humanebehaviour skills. On the initial stage (propaedeutical) the gifted childrenmaster the rules of humane behaviour in the process of conversations
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 224conduction, understanding of humane concepts and etc. It was createdemotional colouring, conditions for experience and beginning ofpositive emotional attitude to actions was created on the basis ofthorough knowledge about the norms of humane behaviour, creation ofthe concrete situations, dramatization stories, selection of the role plays.Gifted children‟s humane feelings were consolidated on the basic stageby means of formation of humane mutual relations with yearlings,persuasions about the necessity of humane behaviour. Formed humanefeelings and persuasions predetermined a desire to carry out humaneactions. The next step was become armament of the gifted children byabilities and skills of humane activity by the real actions demonstration,exercises, trainings during communication with yearlings andparticipation in charitable activity.Conclusion. Development of a gifted child‟s humane qualities isone of decisive factors of a child‟s harmonious formation as apersonality. Favourable terms are usually created for self-actualizationof the gifted children‟s own abilities and possibilities on the basis of thelevel of understanding increase.List of sources and literature1. Ананьєв Б. Г. Про співвідношення здібностей таобдарованості / Борис Григорьевич Ананьев. – М. : Вищашкола,1962. – 157 с.2. Апостолова Г. В. Робота з обдарованими дітьми /Г.В. Апостолова // Обдарована дитина. – 2006. – № 1. – С.12–17.3. Богпомочева О.А. Особенности образа мира у одаренныхподростков / О. А. Богпомочева // Психолог. наука иобразование. – 2006. – № 4. – С. 5–22.4. Концептуальні засади демократизації та реформування освітив України (Педагогічні концепції). – К.: Знання, 1997. – 220 с.5. Кульчицька О. І. Діагностика рівня розвитку творчихздібностей: методические рекомендации / О. І. Кульчицька //Обдарована дитина. – 2007. – №1. – С. 42-44.6. Шейко Г.К. Інноваційні методи роботи в початковій школі /Г.К. Шейко. – Х.: Видавництво «Ранок», 2008. – 208 с.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 225UDC [37+027.9(091)]:271.22-737(477.81/.82)I. B. TymochkoCREATING OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND READING ROOMSAS ONE OF EDUCATIONAL AND CIVIC ACTIVITIESOF THE VOLYN BRATERNITIES (SECOND HALFOF THE XIX – BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURE)The article is an attempt to trace and analyze the role ofOrthodox brotherhoods (sec. half of XΙX – beg. of XX centuries) inrealization spiritual enlightment tendencies in Volyn’, particularly theusage of one of the directions of organization enlightening socialactivity by foundation of brotherhood libraries-reading halls.Key words: Orthodox brotherhoods, spiritual enlightment,humanistic ideas of folk, Christian moral values, brotherhood librariesreading-halls.Statement of the problem. Recently there has been a tendencyto strengthen the influence of church structures on the development ofsocio-political and education-cultural processes in the country.Studying, research, reproduction of mission and role of Orthodoxchurch and its structural organizations, socio-religious establishmentsincluding Orthodox brotherhoods in the history of Ukrainian societygives us a chance not only to estimate the process of culture-educationaland moral-ethic traditions formation, but also using past experience todirect the effectiveness of educative and educational work in modernsociety. In accord with this the aim of our scientific research isexploration of the specific of foundation and organization ofbrotherhood libraries-reading rooms as one of the forms of educationalactivities of Orthodox brotherhoods in Volyn‟ in the second half ofXIX – beginning of XX century.Categorical-conceptual analysis of the notion "Orthodoxbrotherhood in the second half of XIX – beginning of XX century" letsus define it as the culture-educational organization, which appeared orrenewed its activity in that period for charity and culture-educationalactivity in educational and cultural sphere of the certainregion [14, p. 23].
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 226Having analyzed the category "educational-social activity ofOrthodox brotherhoods", we define it as a kind of human activity(professional as well), which is realized by the separate persons orgroups according to the aims and content of Orthodox brotherhoodsactivity as public formation, and is directed on the knowledgepropagation among different layers of population, includingcharity [14, p. 25].Content characteristics of educational-public activity of Orthodoxbrotherhoods in Volyn‟ in the second half of XIX – beginning ofXX century can be studied considering several factors, particularly:- Regional specific of Volyn‟ as poly-confessional environment;- Accumulated experience of the orthodox brotherhoods ineducational activity during previous centuries;- Peculiarities of the Russian Empire educational policy [14, p. 98].Promoting the development of brotherhood schools, facilitatingchurch schools, founding educational establishments of the middlestage, brothers understood that it is important to combine school andafter-school forms of work, "Only caring promotion of the seed of thetruth and goodness after school studying can prevent children and theyouth from bad influences of the life and educate true parishioners,useful members for the society, loving and caring fathers andmothers" [12, p. 864].Introducing certain forms and methods of work of educational-public activity brothers were sure that "this subject is very important,that all possible pious means should be used if only there is a tiny hopefor a success" [12, p. 865].Thus, with the aim of “protection of the orthodox from religiousmistakes” and realization of the tasks of spiritual education brotherstook care of organization carrying out folk Sunday readings, interviewsand sermons; buying books and brochures, periodical press of religious,moral-ethic, spiritual-educational character, namely directing on"reading good books – is a new and effective means of pious influenceon the people", and foundation of libraries-reading halls is "the mostuseful and cheap means of religious-moral influence on countryfolk" [12, p. 866].One of the directions of educational-public activity of Orthodoxbrotherhoods in Volyn‟ in the second half of XIX – beginning of XX
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 227century is foundation of brotherhood libraries, as with the lack ofliterature people "have to read second-rate and even bad books". Folkreading-halls-libraries were founded almost in every Orthodoxbrotherhood and contained books of educational, historical, religious-moral and educative character. For instance, suggested by the brotherslist of departments of the library:1) books of spiritual-educative content;2) books of religious-moral content;3) historical edition;4) books on Geography;5) fiction;6) natural studies and agriculture;7) medicine and hygiene;8) juridical literature;9) crafts [3, p. 884].The following factors influenced on the specific of libraryorganization:- the place of brotherhood foundation – urban or rural perish;- social structuring of population;- the level of literacy of parishioners;- financial support of a brotherhood;- initiative of the governors and brotherhood members [14, p. 101].However, there was the only requirement for books selection:"neither tales, novels, nor stories are for a peasant – it‟s not that point tobegin his development" [3, p. 883]. Brothers were sure that for culture-educational development of a person, for moral qualities formation of"true Orthodox" citizen it is necessary to introduce him the books,which "have the value of good science, teach and educate, which depictthe examples of pious life, which establish the will, directed onsympathy, the good and truth" [3, p. 884].For example, the library fund of Kyrylo and Mefodiybrotherhood (founded in 1865) was composed owning to charity anddonations of educational-religious literature from private libraries:books, brochures and periodical press. There could be found "Life anddeed of St. Cyril and Mephodiy" by prof. I. Platonov, works by eminentphilaret Chernihivskiy, "The beginning of Rus" and "Stories from theRussian life" by P. Schebalskiy and many others [4, p. 9]. The most
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 228valuable were contributions of historian M. Pogodin – the copy of theGospel with the Apostle, printed in the printing house of ConstantineOstrozkiy; M. Pohvisnev – Ostroh Gospel [6, p. 11].There was a significant number of "book denotations" of privatecharacter from other people – they were single brochures, small books,sometimes periodical press. All those who detonated became themembers of the Kyrylo and Mephodiy brotherhood [5, p. 87].The book fund of Ostroh Kyrylo and Mephodiy brotherhoodlibrary consisted of 8 departments, which represented in thetable 1 [1, p. 203]:Table 1Quantities of book fund of Ostroh Kyrylo and Mephodiybrotherhood library (the beginning of XX century)№Name of librarydepartmentNumber ofbooksNumber ofcopiesI. Historical and otherscientific publications162 286II. Geography andtravelling14 25III. Maps, schemes,drawings15 26IV. Periodical publications 23 101V. Religious-moral books 303 357VI. Spiritual journals 9 24VII Foreign literature 42 87VIII. Fiction 194 292Total 762 1198The library of Orthodox Brotherhood after Princes Ostrohconsisted of two departments [15, p. 159]. The first – scientific-historical contained publications on the South-West land history anddata about Princes Ostroh activity; the second one – folk reading hallwas founded for "common people", where one could find religiousliterature of educative, cognitive character [16, p. 9].Literature fund of brotherhood libraries was constantlyreplenished by the periodicals. Journal "Kormchiy", "Guidelines and
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 229Teachings of the Holy Faith", "Pochaiv Bulletin" were the main clericalpublications of that time in Volyn‟, which besides educational-educative character had introductory one [8, p. 20].According to the statutory rules of brotherhoods there were postsof the head of the library and the librarian. The post of a librarian waspaid from a brotherhood pay office; the post of the head of library wasnot paid and was taken voluntary by one of the brotherhood members.For example, in 1910 the post of the head of the library of Kyrylo andMephodiy brotherhood was taken by the Pastor of brotherhood churcharchpriest I. Balevych, the librarian was a teacher of schoolM. Nemolovska [1, p. 204].Brotherhood libraries helped in usage and ordering books byeducational establishments. For instance, in 1885 with the help ofOrthodox brotherhood library Ostroh school of earl D. M. Bludov gotabout 500 books of educational, moral-religious, educative andhistorical character [6, p. 10].Brotherhood libraries were situated in specially-equippedbuildings, for example the library of Kremenets‟ Epiphany St. Nicholas,Zhytomyr St. Volodymyr and Basil, Pochaevo-Uspensk, Ostroh Kyryloand Mephodiy Orthodox brotherhoods. Separate brotherhoods togetherwith libraries organized some museums, for example Lutsk CrossExaltation, Volodymyr-Volynsk St. Volodymyr brotherhoods,Brotherhood after Princes Ostrozki [17, p. 74–75]. Also libraries werefounded with the help of brotherhoods in rural perishes – very often inchurch school buildings, or in the church. Obviously they were not sosignificant by the size of book fund, but they performed certain role inrealization of spiritual-educational aim among the population. Forinstance, there were notable libraries founded with the help ofSt.Pokrovske brotherhood in the village of Krychylsk, Rivne county,the Brotherhood of Archangel Michael in St. Michael church in thevillage of Verbcha, Rivne county, Zabolotse-Bilichesk Orthodoxbrotherhood. Libraries were special centers of folk educationunion [17, p. 76].Brotherhood libraries followed the strict rules. The book fundmight be used by anyone, but the user had to be registered: 1) lastname, first name; 2) the address of the library visitor; 3) when was thebook taken for usage; 4) own signature while taking and giving back a
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 230book. A librarian had a right to check the condition of the book after itwas returned by the reader. These strict rules were set not only withthe aim "spreading education among people", but with the aim ofeducation of the sense of responsibility, aesthetic taste, ability ofcareful usage of a book "as an embodiment of wisdom andenlightment" [16, p. 8–9].St. Volodymyr brotherhood had its specific of organization ofeducational-public activity in Volyn‟, founded in 1888 in Volodymyr-Volynsk. The aim of the foundation outlined the main directions ofbrotherhood activity, which were directed on the development ofeducational, cultural, moral-educative, national traditions on theterritory. Particularly, the regulations provided: "1) searching means forrenewing old church monuments and prevention from their destroying;2) introducing the history of Orthodox church and the history of Volyn‟region; 3) taking care of spiritual need of local Orthodoxpopulation" [10, p. 656].With the aim of introducing the history of Orthodox Church inVolyn‟ St. Volodymyr-Volynsk brotherhood established brotherhoodlibrary in the antiquarium, which contained spiritual books, and alsobooks on Volyn‟ region history. The library fund basis was publicationdetonated by Kiev Archiographic commission; in 1983 about 300 booksand brochures were registered in the library. Besides, there was adepartment of manuals in this library, which included differenthistorical documents, articles, notes of country study character,collected by the brothers of the brotherhood ( for example, works byOmelian Dvernytskiy – the Chairman of the BrotherhoodBoard) [10, p. 566].Similar brotherhood libraries were organized by other Orthodoxbrotherhoods, for example, St. Volodymyr-Basil in Zhytomyr [2, p. 14].The members of the brotherhood meeting stated to use periodical pressonly in reading-halls, because the aim of library was not only providewith the material of reading, but to unite educated people and give thema chance to exchange ideas on some political events and also differentlife situations [2, p. 105].Brothers of St. Volodymyr-Basil Orthodox brotherhood promotedfoundation of libraries not only in Zhytomyr, but in Zhytomyr district.So, in 1904 according to the decision of the Brotherhood a certain sum
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 231of many was detonated to the priest Dmytro Baranovych from thevillage of Suyemets‟ for the foundation of church library for general useby villagers [9, p. 204].Brotherhood libraries were founded also in rural perishes. Forinstance, spreading of education was caused by the foundation ofbrotherhood library and free distribution of brochures and books ofspiritual-religious content with the promotion of St. Pokrov Orthodoxbrotherhood in Krychylsk, Rivne county. Books and brochures weregiven by the librarian to the parishioners freely with putting signaturein a special journal. The significant part of publications was sent bythe honorary Member of the Brotherhood Pavlo AndriyovychNikolskiy – the publisher of books of religious-moral character forcommon reading from Tambov, who sent 180 copies of brochures (35titles). Pavlo Andriyovych, the former teacher of Volyn‟ seminary,was acquainted to the chairman of the Brotherhood priest Volodymyr– a student of this seminary [7, p. 380–381]. Seven historicalpublications were sent to the library by one more honorary brother –M. Teodorovych. Certain number of books and brochures of churchand religious character were sent from Pochaiv Lavra to the fund ofSt. Pokrov brotherhood library. The priest Seletskiy gave the Gospeland books with works by Pushkin, Zhukovskiy and Danylevskiy [11,p. 997–998].Conclusions. Making conclusion it is important to note thathumanistic ideas of folk and preservation of Christian nationalorientations in education were taken as the basis of educational-charityprogram of Orthodox brotherhoods in Volyn‟ (the second half of XIX –the beginning of XX century). Using organizational forms of folklibraries foundation as one of directions of educational activityfulfillment appealing with spiritual-moral ideas of the OrthodoxChurch, established on the experience of educative potential ofChristian values, Orthodox brotherhoods promoted culture-educationaltraditions development in Volyn‟.List of sources and literature1. Быков Н. П. Острожское Св. Кирилло-МефодиевскоеБратство. Очерк его возникновения и деятельности.Материалы к истории Братства. 1865 – 1910 гг. /
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 232Н. П. Быков. – СПб.: Типография В. Киршбаума, 1910. –242 с. – Острозький державний історико-культурнийзаповідник. – Книга надходжень: 3928. – Документальнийфонд: VΙ-К – 647.2. В-ский. Библиотека-читальня при Братстве Святого Василия /В-ский // Волынские Епархиальные Ведомости. – 1906. –№ 4. – Часть неофициальная. – С. 104–107.3. Какие книги должны входить в состав народных библиотек /[Б.а.] // Волынские Епархиальные Ведомости. – 1900. –№ 26. – Часть неофициальная. – С. 883-886.4. Известия об Острожском Св. Кирилло-Мефодиевскогобратстве. – Москва: Синодальная типография, 1866. – 40 с.5. Известия об Острожском Св. Кирилло-Мефодиевскогобратстве по 2 июля 1867 года. – Москва: [б.м.и.], 1868. – 88 с.6. Известия Св. Кирилло-Мефодиевского братства за 1880-1884 гг. / [Б.а.] – СПб.: [б.м.и.], 1885. – 75 с.7. Извлечения из братской корреспонденции и заметки / Б.а. //Волынские Епархиальные Ведомости. – 1905. – №11-12. –Часть неофициальная. – С. 379–391.8. Отчет Кременецкого Богоявленского Свято-НиколаевскогоБратства за 1890 г. // Волынские Епархиальные Ведомости. –1890. – № 1-2. – Часть официальная. – С. 20-22.9. Отчет о деятельности Волынского епархиального Свято-Владимиро-Васильевского Братства, при ЖитомирскомКафедральном Соборе за 1904 год / [Б.а.] // ВолынскиеЕпархиальные Ведомости. – 1905. – № 13. – Частьофициальная. – С. 200–209.10. Отчет о деятельности Свято-Владимирского православногобратства в г. Владимире-Волынском за 1888 г. / [Б.а.] //Волынские Епархиальные Ведомости. – 1889. – № 23. – Частьнеофициальная. – С. 564-573.11. Отчет о состоянии православного церковно-приходскогоСвято-Покровскаго Братства в с. Кричильск, Ровенского уезда,Волынской губернии за 1901 год – 1-го октября 1902-й первыйгод своего существования / [Б.а.] // Волынские ЕпархиальныеВедомости. – 1906. – № 32. – Часть неофициальная. – С. 997–1013.
Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 23312. Простой и дешевый с&