Chapter 8 presentation


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Chapter 8 presentation

  1. 1. Chapter 8 : Digestive System<br />By: Sheralyn Sulit<br />
  2. 2. Cachexia<br />Cachexia is a state of malnutrition and<br />wasting . It is characterized by weight<br />loss, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness,<br />and a significant loss of appetite. The loss of<br />body mass cannot be reversed with added<br />nutrition which means there is an underlying<br />disease. Cachexia increases the risk of death<br />dramatically. Cachexia is seen with many<br />illness such as cancer, metabolic acidosis,<br />certain infectious diseases (e.g., tuberculosis,<br />AIDS), and some autoimmune disorders or<br />addiction to drugs like amphetamines or<br />cocaine. <br />
  3. 3. Cachexia is commonly seen in the<br />advanced stages of cancer. Cancer<br />causes the muscle loss and is not<br />caused by not eating. Cancer patients<br />can receive additional nutrition through<br />feeding tubes or IV feedings and still<br />can experience cachexia. It is best to<br />treat the cancer in order to treat<br />cachexia. Once the cancer treatment is<br />no longer effect, it is difficult to treat<br />cachexia directly.<br />
  4. 4. Anastomosis<br />Anastomosis is a surgical or pathological<br />connection of two tubular structures such<br />as blood vessels or sections of intestine.<br />One example is with the intestines where a<br />section of intestine is surgically removed,<br />the two end left behind or sewn and<br />stapled together or anastomosed. Even<br />though an anastomosis is usually end to<br />end it can also be side to side or end to<br />side. Anastomosis can also be performed<br />on arteries, veins, other areas of the<br />gastrointestinal tract (e.g., esophagus, bile<br />ducts and pancreas), and the urinary tract. <br />
  5. 5. Bite-wing X-ray<br />Bite-wings X-rays display the lower and upper back teeth and how they touch<br />when the patient bites down. The main purpose of this procedure is to check<br />how both rows of the teeth align, andfor tooth decay in between the teeth.<br />This x-ray can also show bone loss due to dental infections or gum disease. The<br />X-rays are called bite-wing because the X-rays film holder you have to bite<br />down on the surface of the X-ray secure it in place. <br />
  6. 6. The crowns and part of the root of 2 or 3<br />teeth can be seen as well as the immediate<br />adjacent bone level. The x-rays also detect<br />check the quality of prior dental repair such<br />as fillings. It is recommended to have dental<br />x-rays done yearly even though your in good<br />dental condition.<br />
  7. 7. Extraction<br /> A dental extraction is the removal of a tooth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a range of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to avoid restoration. The most common reason for extraction is tooth damage due to breakage or decay. Other reasons could be from severe tooth decay or infection, extra teeth which are blocking other teeth from coming in, severe gum disease which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth, teeth in the facture line, fractured teeth, or not enough space for the wisdom teeth to come in.<br />
  8. 8. Extractions are usually classified as simple or surgical. Simple extractions are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually under local anaesthetic, and require only the use of instruments to elevate and/or grasp the visible portion of the tooth. During this procedure, the tooth is lifted with a dental instrument called an elevator, and is swayed back and forth until the ligament brakes and the tooth is loose enough to take out. A surgical extractions is used when the dentist cannot remove the tooth easily. This is due to broken teeth from under the gum line or the tooth has not emitted completely. The tooth may be broken into more than two pieces in order to remove the entire tooth. The dentist will only get rid of the tooth if it is extremely damaged from decay, trauma, or an infection. It can also be removed due to teeth being overly crowded.<br />