Sarah L. Strout, Maryanne Fisher, Daniel J. Kruger & Lesley-Anne Steelworthy
Previous Research <ul><li>Darwinian literary criticism documented the existence of male mating strategies in various ficti...
<ul><li>Women prefer the rebellious hero for short term relationships and the loyal hero for long term </li></ul>
<ul><li>Men prefer the loyal hero for friendship or business relationship and not the rebellious hero.   </li></ul>
Current Research <ul><li>There has been no investigation of women’s mating strategies in literature and whether students i...
Method <ul><li>Demographic Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Responses to Female Literary Characters Questionnaire </li></ul...
Demographic Questionnaire
Responses to Female Literary Characters <ul><li>Used description of three characters representing the long-term mating str...
Responses to Female Literary Characters <ul><li>Used description of three characters to represent the short-term mating st...
Responses to Female Literary Characters <ul><li>Participants read three sets of counterbalanced descriptions:  </li></ul><...
Questions <ul><li>Participants answered various questions, such as:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who they would prefer to be fri...
Self- Monitoring Scale <ul><li>Measures the extent to which someone is high or low in self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Hi...
Jane Passage- Mom <ul><li>She was a most beloved sister and a willing listener. Her feelings, though fervent, were little ...
Lydia Passage- Unmom <ul><li>She was always unguarded and often uncivil. She had an imprudent, wild giddiness and although...
Jane vs. Lydia Forced Choice Questions- Men Favors Jane  vs.  Lydia  ‘ Mom’  ‘Unmom’ With which person would you prefer to...
Jane vs. Lydia Forced Choice Questions-  Women Favors Jane  vs.  Lydia  ‘ Mom’  ‘Unmom’ With which person would you prefer...
Emma Passage- Unmom <ul><li>She was indeed the pride and delight of them all, a perfectly flawless angel. She was the fine...
Mary Passage- Mom <ul><li>Her air though awkward, was not vulgar, her voice was sweet, and when she spoke, her countenance...
Emma vs. Mary Forced Choice Questions- Men Favors Emma  vs.  Mary  ‘ Unmom’  ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer to a...
Emma vs. Mary Forced Choice Questions-  Women Favors Emma  vs.  Lydia  ‘ Unmom’  ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer ...
Maria Passage- Unmom <ul><li>She was handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition. She was do...
Fanny Passage- Mom <ul><li>She was remarkably pretty, with manners that were lively and pleasant. She had lively dark eyes...
Maria vs. Fanny Forced Choice Questions- Men Favors Maria  vs.  Fanny  ‘ Unmom’  ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer ...
Maria vs. Fanny Forced Choice Questions-  Women Favors Maria  vs.  Fanny ‘ Unmom’  ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefe...
Scale Questions Analyses <ul><li>Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were performed.  </li></ul><ul><li>The depende...
*=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Jane vs. Lydia Scale Questions- Men Favors Difference To what extent do you think...
*=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Jane vs. Lydia Scale Questions- Women Favors Difference To what extent do you thi...
*=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Emma vs. Mary Scale Questions- Men Favors Difference To what extent do you think ...
*=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Emma vs. Mary Scale Questions- Women Favors Difference To what extent do you thin...
*=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Maria vs. Fanny Scale Questions- Men Favors Difference To what extent do you thin...
*=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Maria vs. Fanny Scale Questions- Women Favors Difference To what extent do you th...
Conclusions <ul><li>Our results partially support our hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>For some comparisons the difference bet...
Future Directions <ul><li>Future research should find consistent passages or use sentences rather than passages to describ...
References <ul><li>Kruger, D. J., Fisher, M., & Jobling, I. (2003). Proper and dark heroes as dads and cads: Alternative m...
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Literaryneepsfinal

  1. 1. Sarah L. Strout, Maryanne Fisher, Daniel J. Kruger & Lesley-Anne Steelworthy
  2. 2. Previous Research <ul><li>Darwinian literary criticism documented the existence of male mating strategies in various fictional texts (ie. Dad vs Cad) </li></ul><ul><li>Male heroes are loyal, kind, loving and faithful, or rebellious, unfaithful and promiscuous. </li></ul><ul><li>College students identify these differences, and report how they would interact with these characters (Kruger, Fisher & Jobling, 2003; Kruger & Fisher, 2005) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Women prefer the rebellious hero for short term relationships and the loyal hero for long term </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Men prefer the loyal hero for friendship or business relationship and not the rebellious hero. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Current Research <ul><li>There has been no investigation of women’s mating strategies in literature and whether students identify and relate to these characters. </li></ul><ul><li>We propose that similar to a “dad” vs “cad” distinction, women might also display this distinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Past research has focused on male authors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Method <ul><li>Demographic Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Responses to Female Literary Characters Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Sociosexual Orientation Inventory </li></ul>
  7. 7. Demographic Questionnaire
  8. 8. Responses to Female Literary Characters <ul><li>Used description of three characters representing the long-term mating strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane Bennett </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Crawford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanny Price </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Responses to Female Literary Characters <ul><li>Used description of three characters to represent the short-term mating strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lydia Bennett </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emma Woodhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Bertram </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Responses to Female Literary Characters <ul><li>Participants read three sets of counterbalanced descriptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane vs Lydia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emma vs Mary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanny vs Maria </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Questions <ul><li>Participants answered various questions, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who they would prefer to be friends with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who would make a better mother </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who they would prefer to have casual sex with or to marry (men only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who they thought men would prefer to have casual sex with or to marry (women only) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Self- Monitoring Scale <ul><li>Measures the extent to which someone is high or low in self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>High self-monitors: Social chameleons, change with the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-monitors: consistent across situations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jane Passage- Mom <ul><li>She was a most beloved sister and a willing listener. Her feelings, though fervent, were little displayed, and there was a constant complacency in her angelic air and manner. Her look and manner were open, cheerful and engaging, an undiminished beauty with good sense and disposition. She would willingly have gone throughout the world without believing that wickedness existed. Her delicate sense of honour, was matched with the most generous and forgiving heart in the world. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lydia Passage- Unmom <ul><li>She was always unguarded and often uncivil. She had an imprudent, wild giddiness and although self-willed and careless, she would scarcely give them a hearing. She was ignorant, idle, vain, and absolutely uncontrolled. While there was an officer in town, she would flirt with him. She would flirt, in the worse and meanest degree of flirtation, and be the most determined flirt. She saw herself as the object of attention. She seldom listened to anybody for more than half a minute, and never intended to marry at all. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Jane vs. Lydia Forced Choice Questions- Men Favors Jane vs. Lydia ‘ Mom’ ‘Unmom’ With which person would you prefer to attend a party? DRAW 19 vs. 17 Which person would you prefer to go with on a formal date? MOM 35 vs. 1 With which person would you prefer to have sexual relations? UNMOM 15 vs. 21 Assuming you are already in a romantic relationship, with which person would you prefer to have an affair (cheat on your mate with)? DRAW 18 vs. 18 Which person would be more likely to have an affair (cheat on you)? UNMOM 2 vs. 34 With which person would you prefer to marry? MOM 32 vs. 4 Which person would your parent(s) prefer you to marry? MOM 33 vs. 3 With whom would a romantic relationship last longer? MOM 33 vs. 3 Which person would make a better mother? MOM 27 vs. 9 Which person would you prefer to see engaged to your 25-year-old son? MOM 31 vs. 5
  16. 16. Jane vs. Lydia Forced Choice Questions- Women Favors Jane vs. Lydia ‘ Mom’ ‘Unmom’ With which person would you prefer to attend a party? DRAW 31 vs. 20 Which person do you think men would prefer to go with on a formal date? MOM 44 vs. 7 With which person would you think men would prefer to have sexual relations with? UNMOM 13 vs. 37 With which person would men prefer to have an affair with (cheat on mate with)? UNMOM 4 vs.46 Which person would be more likely to have an affair (cheat on her mate)? UNMOM 2 vs. 34 Which person would have sex with more individuals over her lifetime? UNMOM 8 vs. 42 Which person would be better with children? MOM 47 vs. 3 Which person would make a better mother? MOM 47 vs. 4 Which person would you prefer to see engaged to your imaginary 25-year old son? UNMOM 3 vs. 47
  17. 17. Emma Passage- Unmom <ul><li>She was indeed the pride and delight of them all, a perfectly flawless angel. She was the finest young woman in the country, with high spirit and strong passion, but wanted neither pride nor resolutions. Her behavior to her prospective husband was careless and cold, she could not, did not, like him. She was preparing for matrimony with the misery of disappointed affection and contempt of the man she was to marry; she despised him, and loved another. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mary Passage- Mom <ul><li>Her air though awkward, was not vulgar, her voice was sweet, and when she spoke, her countenance was pretty. She was a courteous listener with a timid nature, with delicacy of taste, of mind, of feeling. She was clever, had a quick apprehension as well as good sense, and a fondness for reading, which, properly directed, must be an education in itself. The modesty of her nature showed the truth and purity of her own scruples. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Emma vs. Mary Forced Choice Questions- Men Favors Emma vs. Mary ‘ Unmom’ ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer to attend a party? DRAW 26 vs. 8 Which person would you prefer to go with on a formal date? MOM 26 vs. 1 With which person would you prefer to have sexual relations? UNMOM 15 vs. 21 Assuming you are already in a romantic relationship, with which person would you prefer to have an affair (cheat on your mate with)? DRAW 18 vs. 18 Which person would be more likely to have an affair (cheat on you)? UNMOM 2 vs. 34 With which person would you prefer to marry? MOM 32 vs. 4 Which person would your parent(s) prefer you to marry? MOM 33 vs. 3 With whom would a romantic relationship last longer? MOM 33 vs. 3 Which person would make a better mother? MOM 27 vs. 9 Which person would you prefer to see engaged to your 25-year-old son? MOM 31 vs. 5
  20. 20. Emma vs. Mary Forced Choice Questions- Women Favors Emma vs. Lydia ‘ Unmom’ ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer to attend a party? DRAW 21 vs. 30 Which person do you think men would prefer to go with on a formal date? DRAW 23 vs. 27 With which person would you think men would prefer to have sexual relations with? DRAW 19 vs. 31 With which person would men prefer to have an affair with (cheat on mate with)? DRAW 22 vs.28 Which person would be more likely to have an affair (cheat on her mate)? DRAW 30 vs. 20 Which person would have sex with more individuals over her lifetime? DRAW 22 vs. 28 Which person would be better with children? DRAW 18 vs. 32 Which person would make a better mother? DRAW 20 vs. 31 Which person would you prefer to see engaged to your imaginary 25-year old son? DRAW 24 vs. 27
  21. 21. Maria Passage- Unmom <ul><li>She was handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition. She was doing just want she liked, and the real evils of her situation were the power of having too much her own way, and a disposition to think a little too well of herself. She will never submit to anything requiring industry and patience. She was always quick and assured, and spoiled by being the cleverest of her family. She always declared she will never marry. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fanny Passage- Mom <ul><li>She was remarkably pretty, with manners that were lively and pleasant. She had lively dark eyes, clear brown complexion, and general prettiness. She possessed an air of grandeur. She had the idea of being the child of good luck, and to her selfishness and vanity, it would be good luck for her to have a son. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Maria vs. Fanny Forced Choice Questions- Men Favors Maria vs. Fanny ‘ Unmom’ ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer to attend a party? DRAW 18 vs. 18 Which person would you prefer to go with on a formal date? UNMOM 26 vs. 10 With which person would you prefer to have sexual relations? MOM 10 vs. 26 Assuming you are already in a romantic relationship, with which person would you prefer to have an affair (cheat on your mate with)? DRAW 19 vs. 17 Which person would be more likely to have an affair (cheat on you)? DRAW 19 vs. 17 With which person would you prefer to marry? DRAW 18 vs. 18 Which person would your parent(s) prefer you to marry? DRAW 18 vs. 18 With whom would a romantic relationship last longer? DRAW 13 vs. 23 Which person would make a better mother? DRAW 18 vs. 18 Which person would you prefer to see engaged to your 25-year-old son? DRAW 23 vs. 13
  24. 24. Maria vs. Fanny Forced Choice Questions- Women Favors Maria vs. Fanny ‘ Unmom’ ‘Mom’ With which person would you prefer to attend a party? DRAW 24 vs. 26 Which person do you think men would prefer to go with on a formal date? DRAW 29 vs. 21 With which person would you think men would prefer to have sexual relations with? MARIA 35 vs. 15 With which person would men prefer to have an affair with (cheat on mate with)? DRAW 28 vs.22 Which person would be more likely to have an affair (cheat on her mate)? MARIA 33 vs. 17 Which person would have sex with more individuals over her lifetime? DRAW 30 vs. 20 Which person would be better with children? FANNY 13 vs. 37 Which person would make a better mother? FANNY 15 vs. 35 Which person would you prefer to see engaged to your imaginary 25-year old son? FANNY 15 vs. 36
  25. 25. Scale Questions Analyses <ul><li>Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were performed. </li></ul><ul><li>The dependent variables were the difference scores calculated for each question, by passage comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>  Covariates were SOI and self monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Performed separate analyses for men and women  </li></ul>
  26. 26. *=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Jane vs. Lydia Scale Questions- Men Favors Difference To what extent do you think you would like this person? MOM# 2.42 To what extent do you think this person would like you? MOM# .81 How well do you think you would get along well with this person?    MOM# 2.84 How likely do you think you would be to hook-up (sexually) with this person for a one-night stand?   DRAW .42 To what extent would like to form a short-term relationship with this person?    MOM* 1.21 To what extent would you like to form a long-term committed relationship with this person?   MOM# 2.03 How well do the personality characteristics described in this passage describe a woman you would be attracted to? MOM# 2.58
  27. 27. *=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Jane vs. Lydia Scale Questions- Women Favors Difference To what extent do you think you would like this person? MOM 3.66 To what extent do you think this person would like you? MOM 2.81 How well do you think you would get along well with this person?    MOM 3.55 How comfortable would you be with this person accompanying your boyfriend on a three week trip to another city? DRAW 2.02 How likely is this person to form and maintain a good career?    MOM 3.66 To what extent would this person be able to form a long-term committed relationship?  MOM 3.72 How well do the personality characteristics described in this passage describe you?       MOM 2.77
  28. 28. *=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Emma vs. Mary Scale Questions- Men Favors Difference To what extent do you think you would like this person? DRAW -.28 To what extent do you think this person would like you? DRAW* -1.2 How well do you think you would get along well with this person?    DRAW .84 How likely do you think you would be to hook-up (sexually) with this person for a one-night stand?   DRAW -.56 To what extent would like to form a short-term relationship with this person?    DRAW -.56 To what extent would you like to form a long-term committed relationship with this person?   DRAW 0 How well do the personality characteristics described in this passage describe a woman you would be attracted to? DRAW -.59
  29. 29. *=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Emma vs. Mary Scale Questions- Women Favors Difference To what extent do you think you would like this person? DRAW -.36 To what extent do you think this person would like you? DRAW -.04 How well do you think you would get along well with this person?    DRAW -.64 How comfortable would you be with this person accompanying your boyfriend on a three week trip to another city? DRAW -.13 How likely is this person to form and maintain a good career?    DRAW -.27 To what extent would this person be able to form a long-term committed relationship?  DRAW+ -.96 How well do the personality characteristics described in this passage describe you?       DRAW -.47
  30. 30. *=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Maria vs. Fanny Scale Questions- Men Favors Difference To what extent do you think you would like this person? DRAW -1.39 To what extent do you think this person would like you? MOM* -2.12 How well do you think you would get along well with this person?    DRAW -.88 How likely do you think you would be to hook-up (sexually) with this person for a one-night stand?   UNMOM* .45 To what extent would like to form a short-term relationship with this person?    DRAW -.12 To what extent would you like to form a long-term committed relationship with this person?   DRAW* -1.85 How well do the personality characteristics described in this passage describe a woman you would be attracted to? DRAW* -1.45
  31. 31. *=SM interacts, #=SOI interacts, +=p<.10 Maria vs. Fanny Scale Questions- Women Favors Difference To what extent do you think you would like this person? DRAW+ -.33 To what extent do you think this person would like you? DRAW+ -.24 How well do you think you would get along well with this person?    DRAW -.26 How comfortable would you be with this person accompanying your boyfriend on a three week trip to another city? DRAW+ -.98 How likely is this person to form and maintain a good career?    DRAW -.10 To what extent would this person be able to form a long-term committed relationship?  DRAW -.17 How well do the personality characteristics described in this passage describe you?       DRAW -.69
  32. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>Our results partially support our hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>For some comparisons the difference between the ‘mom’ and ‘unmom’ were obvious, for others there were no differences. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be in part due to the passages themselves, for example one passage reads: </li></ul>She was indeed the pride and delight of them all, a perfectly flawless angel. She was the finest young woman in the country, with high spirit and strong passion, but wanted neither pride nor resolutions. Her behavior to her prospective husband was careless and cold, she could not, did not, like him. She was preparing for matrimony with the misery of disappointed affection and contempt of the man she was to marry; she despised him, and loved another.
  33. 33. Future Directions <ul><li>Future research should find consistent passages or use sentences rather than passages to describe the characters </li></ul>
  34. 34. References <ul><li>Kruger, D. J., Fisher, M., & Jobling, I. (2003). Proper and dark heroes as dads and cads: Alternative mating strategies in British Romantic literature, Human Nature, 14, 305-317. </li></ul><ul><li>Kruger, D. J. & Fisher, M. (2005). Alternative male mating strategies are intuitive to women. Current Research in Social Psychology, 11(4), 39-50. </li></ul>

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