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  • 1. HUMAN SKELETON Effects of Microgravity Ms. Tobie Brandriss Biology Teacher, Hunter College High School
  • 2. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/skeleton/skelcolor.GIF
  • 3. FUNCTIONS OF OUR SKELETON 1. Gives us Shape – Structure 2. Protects delicate body parts like brain 3. Makes blood cells 4. Helps us move
  • 4. SPINAL CARTILAGE DISC SPINAL CARTILAGE DISC
  • 5. FUNCTIONS OF CARTILAGE DISCS BETWEEN YOUR SPINAL COLUMN BONES 1. Act as cushions between the spinal column bones 2. Shock absorbers as you walk and move 3. Allow you to bend and straighten
  • 6. ASTRONAUTS’ CARTILAGE DISCS EXPAND IN MICROGRAVITY CS COMPRESSED DISCS EXPANDED DISCS
  • 7. DATA ON CHANGE IN ASTRONAUTS’ BODY HEIGHT IN SPACE
  • 8. EFFECT OF GRAVITY ON SPINAL CARTILAGE DISCS • Due to gravity, spinal column discs are compressed during the day, expand again at night • Astronauts increase in height while they are in outer space, because there is no gravity to compress their discs
  • 9. EFFECT OF MICROGRAVITY ON ASTRONAUT’S SKELETON 1. Height of astronauts increase in space
  • 10. UPPER ARM BONE OF CHILD AND ADULT
  • 11. UPPER ARM BONE OF CHILD AND ADULT
  • 12. HOW BONES CHANGE 1. Bones Grow 2. Broken Bones Heal
  • 13. LOWER ARM BONES FRACTURE
  • 14. UPPER ARM BONE FRACTURE
  • 15. UPPER ARM BONE FRACTURE
  • 16. SPINAL CARTILAGE
  • 17. FRACTURE HEALING
  • 18. OSTEOCLASTS 3 TYPES (Digesters) OF BONE CELLS OSTEOBLASTS (Builders) OSTEOCYTES (Maintenance Crew)
  • 19. 3 TYPES OF BONE CELLS 1. OSTEOBLASTS – Make new bone 2. OSTEOCLASTS – Digest away bone 3. OSTEOCYTES – Maintain healthy bone
  • 20. 3-D SECTION OF BONE TISSUE
  • 21. BONE HOMEOSTASIS 1. Most of our skeleton is constantly being broken down, and built back up 2. Amount of bone built up = amount of bone broken down 3. This balance of breakdown and buildup is called bone homeostasis
  • 22. Osteoporotic bone Normal bone
  • 23. EFFECT OF MICROGRAVITY ON ASTRONAUT’S SKELETON 1. Height of astronauts body increases in space 2. Osteoporosis – weakening of bone due to bone loss
  • 24. MEDICINE EXERCISE (Artificial Gravity) OTHER (Biophysical Stimulation)
  • 25. Height change after bedrest 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 inches 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 n z e e as u o a na a de lo tid ig ab m nc d om pe tra co pa ar an la ris sh de es po th rn ar he Students who conducted activity