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  1. 1. Peru<br />Stephanie Stimson<br />History 28<br />
  2. 2. History of Peru<br />History goes back over 10,000 years<br />Early Peruvian culture thrived in one of the harshest environments in the world- the Andean highlands<br />The Incan empire was once of the largest and most sophisticated in the world<br />
  3. 3. History of Peru<br />Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Inca’s under the leadership of the Incan Emperor Atahualpa in 1532<br />The Spanish colonized Peru, establishing the Viceroyalty of Peru<br />The native Amerindians became the main workforce for the Spanish<br />They mined gold and silver which were, for a time, a main income source for the Spanish crown<br />
  4. 4. Independence <br />Most of Latin America was fighting for independence while Peru remained loyal to the crown<br />It wasn’t until the efforts of Simon Bolivar and Jose San Martin that Peruvians were able to overcome loyalists <br />Independence was achieved but Peru struggled with political instability<br />Peru had a period of stability under Castilla<br />Guano became a primary export and helped improve the economy <br />
  5. 5. Political Geography<br />Peru sits on the western coast of South America<br />Its borders include, the Pacific on its western side, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Chile <br />Only 3% of the land is arable<br />66% of the land is forest and woodland<br />
  6. 6. Physical Geography<br />Western coast is arid and mountainous<br />The Andes mountain range runs through the center of the country<br />The puna is grassland and plateau in the southern region<br />The East has semi-tropical lowlands, part of the Amazon Basin<br />
  7. 7. Peru’s People<br />Peru has almost 30 million inhabitants<br />Lima is the most populated city with over 8 million people<br />Most people speak Spanish, but a large minority speak Quecha the language of the indigenous people<br />Peruvians are the descendents of Amerindians, Spanish, Africans and a significant number of Chinese, who came to Peru as a workforce when slavery declined<br />
  8. 8. Education and Health in Peru<br />Education <br />Health<br />Infant mortality is 22/1000 live births<br />Life expectancy <br />Men 70 years<br />Women 74 years<br />Infectious disease rate is high, there remains a lack of potable water<br />Many women die each year seeking illegal abortions<br />Pre-primary for the first 6 years<br />Free 6 years of primary education<br />Secondary education begins at age 12<br />58% of children attend school<br />Literacy for males is 92%<br />Literacy for females is 79%<br />Peru has 27 national universities<br />
  9. 9. The Culture of Peru<br />The culture is primarily Amerindian and Spanish<br />Peruvian food is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish with some African influence<br />Many people are becoming interested in Peruvian food due to its variety and use of different meats and vegetables<br />Machu Picchu is the source of great pride with it’s amazing architectural feats<br />The Indigenismo art movement became strong in the 1920s<br />Roman Catholicism is the major religion, however some urban poor are turning to Mormonism<br />
  10. 10. Sources for Information<br />Historical, political and cultural information<br /><br />Geographical and economic information<br /><br />Images of Peru<br /> -<br />