2013 RBMS Premodern manuscript application profile presentation
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2013 RBMS Premodern manuscript application profile presentation



presentation for a workshop on cataloging medieval manuscripts with Debra Cashion, Sheila Bair and Sue Steuer which was held at the Rare Book and Manuscript Section (RBMS) of the Association of ...

presentation for a workshop on cataloging medieval manuscripts with Debra Cashion, Sheila Bair and Sue Steuer which was held at the Rare Book and Manuscript Section (RBMS) of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) in Minneapolis, MN on June 27, 2013.



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  • University of Pennsylvania Libraries
  • Standardized and parsed
  • http://lod-cloud.net/versions/2011-09-19/lod-cloud_colored.png
  • Each triple represents a statement of a relationship
  • Each triple represents a statement of a relationship
  • In selecting vocabularies for reuse the following criteria should be applied: Usage and uptake – is the vocabulary in widespread usage? Will using this vocabulary make a data set more or less accessible to existing Linked Data applications? Maintenance and governance – is the vocabulary actively maintained according to a clear governance process? When, and on what basis, are updates made? Coverage – does the vocabulary cover enough of the data set to justify adopting its terms and ontological commitments? Expressivity – is the degree of expressivity in the vocabulary appropriate to the data set and application scenario? Is it too expressive, or not expressive enough?
  • Breaks up lump of data which is the record into data components which can be reusedOne way it does this by using Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples which include a Subject, a Predicate, and an ObjectRDF = a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web
  • Machine-readable identifiers/URIs
  • Transforming the Subject, Predicate, and Object into unambiguous identifiers

2013 RBMS Premodern manuscript application profile presentation 2013 RBMS Premodern manuscript application profile presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Using a Dublin Core Application Profile for Description and Teaching 1
  • Planning metadata • Collaboration and responsibilities • Documentation • What is “good” metadata?
  • Planning metadata: collaboration and responsibilities “Metadata creation is an incremental process that should be a shared responsibility among various parts of an institution.” A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections • Existing metadata? – Finding aids? Codicological description? Provenance? • Subject specialists – Description • Technicians – File format, extent, color management • Administrators – Access rights • Users? – Reviews, comments, tags
  • Planning metadata: documentation • Documentation –Best practices –Local decisions, application profile –“Data dictionary” • Plan for the future –Preservation and migration –Maintenance
  • Planning metadata: what is “good” metadata? • Appropriate to objects in collection • Appropriate to users and use • Appropriate to system and resources • Use of standards • Interoperable and shareable
  • Good metadata: appropriate to objects Format(s) & file type(s) – Images? Text? – JPEG, XML files, MP3, MPEG, PDF – More than one format in collection? Images courtesy of Western Michigan University Libraries
  • Good metadata: appropriate to objects • Genre(s) – Manuscripts? Maps? Cultural objects? Music? – More than one genre in collection? • Subject matter Images courtesy of ArtStor
  • Good metadata: appropriate to users • Who are your primary users? – Medieval scholars? Undergraduate students? • How will they expect to search? – Searching skills? • What will they be looking for? • What “language” do they speak? – Community of practice? Vocabulary?
  • Communities of Practice & Metadata • Library community – Mission: access, description, organization – Shared records using shared standards • Museum community – Mission: outreach, education, interpretation – Records created primarily for internal use • Archives community – Mission: archive, preservation – Collection-level records, finding aids • Research and education community – Mission: research and collaboration – Shared records using a variety of standards
  • Good metadata: appropriate to intended use • How do people use it now? • Education or research? • What are their expectations? • What is their interest in the material? – Botany, hagiography, art, language, music? • What are other ways it may be used in the future?
  • Image courtesy of Western Michigan University Libraries How will it be used? • Example of pre-printing press, handmade book • Study of artwork, pigments, symbolism • Study of paleography • Study of the text – grammar, words & word usage • Study of the text – people, places, subjects • Comparison to other manuscripts – for textual variants, relationships between copies, identifying scribes or artists
  • Good metadata: appropriate to system & resources • System – CONTENTdm – Luna Insight – DLXS – DSpace • Resources – One-time grant money vs. budget line-item – Knowledge, skill, time of people – Availability of existing metadata
  • Metadata for images vs. text • Image – Metadata is everything • Text – Transcription and markup • Text as image – Image of the manuscript page – Full-text in metadata Image courtesy of ArtStor
  • Describing images Ofness Who? what? where? when? –People –Objects/activities –Places, times Image courtesy of ArtStor
  • Describing images Aboutness • What is the meaning of the work? • What is expressed by the work? • What do the objects, events, etc., depicted in the work symbolize? • How may the image be interpreted? • What was the intention of the work’s creator? • How has the work been interpreted historically? Image courtesy of ArtStor
  • Metadata Schema & standards selection
  • Schemas or Element sets • Dublin Core • VRA (Visual Resources Assoc. Core) • TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) • EAD (Encoded Archival Description) • MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging)
  • Simple Dublin Core – Title – Creator – Subject – Description – Publisher – Contributor – Date – Type – Format – Identifier – Source – Language – Relation – Coverage – Rights
  • Expanded/Qualified Dublin Core • Accrual Method • Accrual Policy • Accrual Periodicity • Audience • Instructional Method • Provenance • Rights Holder • Description – Abstract • Identifier – Bibliographic citation • Relation – Is Part Of – Is Referenced By • Title – Alternative title
  • What is an application profile? “There is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ metadata schema” Tony Gill, et al. • Draw elements from more than one set • Tailor set of elements to serve your user requirements • Document decisions, provide guidelines for use
  • Premodern Manuscript Application Profile • Adds medieval manuscript description fields from ENRICH • Can be used as teaching tool – http://web.library.wmich.edu/DIGI/reference/PMAP_D ata_DictionaryTOC.pdf • Audience – Catalogers who are not medievalists – Researchers who are not technicians • Easy to use with CMS like CONTENTdm – Will be included in 6.5 release 21
  • PMAP Elements • Manuscript Identifier (R) • Title (R) • Incipit (O) • Author (M) • Origin Date (M) • Origin Location (M) • Description (R) • Provenance (M) • Manuscript Parts (O) • Explicit (O) • Secundo Folio (O) • Extent (O) • Subject (O) • Dimensions (O) • Material (O) • Collation (O) • Foliation (O) • Binding (O) • Decoration Description (O) • Contributor (O) • Description of Hands (O) • Musical Notation (O) • Additions and Marginalia (O) • Relation-Is Part Of (RA) • Publisher (R) • Date-Issued (R) • Type (R) • Format (R) • Format-Extent (RA) • Identifier (R) • Relation-Is Referenced By (O) • Rights (RA) 22
  • Required Elements • Manuscript Identifier • Title • Description • Publisher • Date-Issued • Type • Format • Identifier Image courtesy of WMU
  • Mandatory if Available • Author • Origin Date • Origin Location • Provenance 24
  • Recommended as Appropriate • Relation-Is Part Of • Format-Extent • Rights 25
  • Optional Elements • Incipit • Manuscript Parts • Explicit • Secundo Folio • Extent • Subject • Dimensions • Material • Collation • Foliation • Binding • Decoration Description • Contributor • Description of Hands • Musical Notation • Additions and Marginalia • Relation-Is Referenced By 26
  • Content, Carrier, Context • Content = text or work (author/title) • Carrier = cultural/physical artifact • Context = historical record (provenance) 27
  • Content • Title • Author • Incipit • Explicit • Language • Subject • Musical Notation 28
  • Carrier • Extent • Dimensions • Material • Collation • Foliation • Secundo folio • Description of hands 29
  • Context • Binding • Provenance • Origin Date • Origin Location • Relation-Is Part Of • Relation-Is Referenced By 30
  • Where can you find metadata? • Catalog entries • Seller’s descriptions • Provenance – Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/schoenberg/i ndex.html 31
  • Controlled vocabularies • Library of Congress Authorities • Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) • Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) • ICONCLASS • Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM) • DCMI Type Vocabulary
  • Why use controlled vocabularies? “Do it once, do it right (consistent schemas, controlled vocabularies), and you can re-purpose metadata in a wide variety of ways.” Murtha Baca • Improve search retrieval – Precision – how many retrieved records are relevant? – Recall – how many relevant records retrieved? • Database organization – Allow for preset searches, lists of categories • Name disambiguation – People, places, organizations
  • Differences in vocabularies-meaning "You keep using that word. I do not think it means what you think it means.“ – The Princess Bride • Initials – RBMS – Provenance evidence • Initials – AAT, TGM & LCSH – Layout feature Image courtesy of Artstor
  • Differences in vocabularies- specificity • TGM – Initials • LCSH and AAT – Historiated initials • AAT – Factotum initials – Figure initials – Historiated initials – Inhabited initials
  • Differences in vocabularies-Interoperability ULAN: Buonarroti, Michelangelo (Italian sculptor, painter, and architect, 1475-1564) LCNAF: Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564 AAT: Illuminations LCSH: Illumination of books and manuscripts
  • Content standards & Best Practices • Descriptive Cataloging of Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern Manuscripts (AMREMM) • Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO) • Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books • CDP Dublin Core Metadata Best Practices • TEI Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange • Best Practices for CONTENTdm and Other OAI‐PMH Compliant Repositories: Creating Sharable Metadata, Version 3.0
  • Why are standards important? • Interoperability – “The goal of interoperability is to help users find and access information objects that are distributed across domains and institutions.” NISO • Agreed upon terminology – antiphoner, antiphonal, antiphonies, antiphonary • Easier to share data – OAI harvesting – Digital Scriptorium – Medieval Electronic Scholarly Alliance – Semantic Web/Linked Data 38
  • Linked Data – Tim Berners Lee (2006) • Use URIs as names for things • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information • Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things.
  • Planning for the Semantic Web 40 http://lod-cloud.net/versions/2011-09-19/lod-cloud.html
  • RDF triples 41 Subject Object Predicate
  • RDF triples 42 manuscript Antiphonaries has subject
  • Planning for the future: Use standard vocabularies “In order to make it easier for applications to understand Linked Data, data providers should use terms from widely deployed vocabularies to represent data wherever possible.” Tom Heath and Christian Bizer (2011) Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space 43
  • Record for digital object • Title: Hymnal for the Sanctoral Cycle and Common of Saints, f. 150 r. • Origin Location: Abbazia di Morimondo • Contributor: Reoldus, Bertramus, 13th century- 14th century (scribe) • Subject: Antiphonaries 44
  • Linked data: breaking record into data Reoldus, Bertramus, 13th century-14th century Antiphonaries 45 has contributor has subject has location Abbazia di Morimondo
  • 46
  • 47
  • 48 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85005734 (Antiphonaries) http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no201302 9609 (Reoldus, Bertramus, 13th century-14th century) http://purl.org/dc/ele ments/1.1/subject http://purl.org/dc/elem ents/1.1/contributor Linked data: Unambiguous identifiers http://luna.library.wmi ch.edu:8180/luna/servl et/s/td1586 (has contributor) (has subject)
  • http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nr9 3035920 (Abbazia di Morimondo) http://www.geonames.org/maps/google_45.352_8.955.html 49
  • What are the possibilities? 50
  • Questions? Sheila Bair, Metadata & Cataloging Librarian sheila.bair@wmich.edu Susan Steuer, Head of Special Collections susan.steuer@wmich.edu Western Michigan University Libraries Image courtesy of WMU Libraries