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Jerome Euzenat's presentation at SSSW 2011

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  • 1. What you have learned so far Ontology matching J´rˆme Euzenat eo Data can be expressed in RDF Linked through URIs Modelled with OWL ontologies & Retrieved through SPARQL queries Montbonnot, France Jerome.Euzenat@inrialpes.fr Thanks to Pavel Shvaiko and Natasha Noy for our collaboration on former versions of these slides J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 2 / 28 Being serious about the semantic web Ontology heterogeneity Monograph Item integer pages price isbn It is not one person’s ontology string title author It is not several people common ontology doi title creator uri It is many people’s many ontologies pp Essay So it is a mess, but a meaningful mess. Person Literary critics DVD Human Politics Book Biography author WriterHeterogeneity is not a bug, it is a feature subject Paperback Autobiography Hardcover Literature CD J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 3 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 4 / 28
  • 2. Heterogeneity problem How can we address the problem?Resources being expressed in different ways must be reconciled before beingused.Mismatch between formalized knowledge can occur when: different languages are used (OWL vs. Topic maps); different terminologies are used: First ontology parameters English vs. Chinese; Book vs. Monograph. Initial alignment matching Resulting alignment different models are used: different classes: Autobiography vs. Paperback; Second ontology resources classes vs. property: Essay vs. literarygenre; classes vs. instances: One physical book as an instance vs. one work as an instance. different scopes and granularity are used. Only books vs. cultural items vs. any product; Books detailed to the print and translation level vs. books as works. J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 5 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 6 / 28 Ontology alignment Expressive alignments (EDOAL) ≥ Monograph integer Volume Item pages Pocket ≥ price 14 size string isbn title ≥ author doi title Book creator uri = Essay topic Autobiography pp = ≥ Literary critics author Person DVD ≤ Human Politics Book Biography author ≥ Writer subject ∀x, Pocket(x) ⇐ Volume(x) ∧ size(x, y ) ∧ y ≤ 14 Paperback Autobiography ∀x, Book(x) ∧ author (x, y ) ∧ topic(x, y ) ≡ Autobiography (x) Hardcover Literature CD J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 7 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 8 / 28
  • 3. Transformation and mediation Ontology networks a2 b5 SELECT x.doi SELECT x.isbn o2 WHERE x : Book WHERE x : Autobiography o5 AND x.author = ”Bertrand Russell” AND x.author = ”Bertrand Russell” b2 c2 A2,4 f5 g5 AND x.topic = ”Bertrand Russell” a4 A1,2 a1 f2 g2 d2 e2 h5 j5 o4 mediator A2,3 o1 b4 c4 b1 c1 a3 f4 g 4 d4 e4 d1 e1 o3 b3 c3 A3,4 x.doi=http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/041522862X x.isbn=041522862X A1,3 f3 g3 d3 e 3 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 9 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 10 / 28 Why should we deal with this? Application: Catalog integrationApplications of semantic integration First Second Matcher Catalogue integration ontology ontology Schema and data integration Query answering Alignment Peer-to-peer information sharing Web service composition Generator Agent communication Data transformation Integrated Catalog Transformation Ontology evolution portal Data interlinking J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 11 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 12 / 28
  • 4. Applications: Query answering Applications: Agent communication First Second First Second Matcher Matcher ontology ontologyontology ontology Alignment Alignment Generator Generator Transformed message ontology First query reformulated query Second Translator mediator Transformed message peer reformulated answer answer peer First Second agent agent J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 13 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 14 / 28Data interlinking Ontology matching in three steps Reconciliation can be performed in 3 steps o o First Second Matcherontology ontology Match, Matcher Alignment thereby determines the alignment A Generator Generate Generator a processor (for merging, transforming, etc.) Transformation First Second links dataset dataset Apply J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 15 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 16 / 28
  • 5. On what basis can we match? Name similarity Monograph Content: relying on what is inside the ontology Item pages Name, comments, alternate names, names of related entities: NLP, IR, price isbn etc. title author Internal structure: constraints on relations, typing doi title External structure: relations between entities: Data mining, Discrete creator ≥ mathematics pp Essay Extension: Statistics, data analysis, data mining, machine learning Person Literary critics Semantics (models): Reasoning techniques DVD Human Politics Context: the relations of the ontology with the outside Book Biography Annotated resources: author Writer The web subject Paperback External ontologies: dbpedia, etc. Autobiography External resources: wordnet, etc. Hardcover Literature CD J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 17 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 18 / 28Structure similarity Instance similarity Monograph Monograph Item integer pages Item creator string isbn author DVD uri title Book Essay Essay price Literary critics Literary critics title DVD doi Human Politics Politics pp Book Biography Biography author Person Writer subject Paperback Paperback Autobiography Bertrand Russell: My life Autobiography Hardcover Hardcover Literature Albert Camus: La chute Literature CD CD J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 19 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 20 / 28
  • 6. Combining different techniques How well do these approaches work?Basic matchers provide candidate correspondences, most of the systems use Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI)several such matchers and further combine and filter their results. o Formal comparative evaluation of different ontology-matching tools; Run every year since 2004; M A Variety of test cases (in size, in formalism, in content); Results consistent across test cases; A A A Results very dependent on the tasks and the data (from under 50% of precision and recall to well over 80% if ontologies are relatively similar) M A M A Progress every year! o Matcher composition Aggregation Filtering http://oaei.ontologymatching.org Iteration Now involved in the SEALS (Semantics Evaluation At Large Scale) project. J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 21 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 22 / 28 Evaluation process Benchmark results (precision and recall curves) 1. 2010 R ASMOV 2009 o parameters evaluator m Lily 2008 precision matching A Lily 2007 ASMOV o resources 2006 RiMOM 2005 Falcon 0. edna 0. recall 1. J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 23 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 24 / 28
  • 7. Tools you should be aware of Selected challenges Scalability and efficiency Current matchers can be fast, scale and accurate, but not all at once. Frameworks New sources of matching Context-based matching, Alignment API: used by many tools; provides an exchange format and evaluation tools for OAEI. Alignment server for sharing. General purpose matching (vs. special purpose matching) PROMPT (a Prot´g´ plug-in): includes a user interface and a plug-in e e Matcher combination, architecture. Matcher selection and self-configuration, COMA++: oriented toward database integration (many basic algorithms User involvement, implemented). Matching (serendipitously) while working, Matching systems How to explain alignments? Social and collaborative ontology matching, OAEI best performers (Falcon, RiMOM, ASMOV, etc.) Available systems (FOAM, Falcon, COMA++, Aroma, etc.) Alignment management: infrastructure and support, How do we maintain alignments when ontologies evolve? Reasoning with alignments, Being robust to incorrect alignments. and, of course, many others, J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 25 / 28 J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 26 / 28Further reading “Ontology Matching” by Euzenat and Shvaiko Jerome.Euzenat@inria.fr Proceedings of ISWC, ASWC, ESWC, WWW conferences, etc. Journal of web semantics, Semantic web http://exmo.inrialpes.fr journal, Journal on data semantics, etc. http://www.ontologymatching.org J´rˆme Euzenat eo Ontology matching 27 / 28