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Ontology Engineering and               Resource Re-Engineering                             Asunción Gómez-Pérez (asun@fi.u...
 Motivation                  Index State of the Art on Methodologies for Ontology Engineering Building an ontology Con...
Motivation                                                                                                   Classical    ...
Where is the terminology?     DBs from a Geographical institute                                                       Cata...
Different Data Models                          with the same informationOntological Engineering         5   © A. Gómez Pér...
Lot of terminologies being used …                            Music              On-line activitiesE-Gov                   ...
Tools for searching vocabularies                              http://schemaweb.info                                       ...
After some proces….Ontological Engineering      8   © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. ...
Geolinkeddata ontologiesOntology Network                                                                                  ...
Motivation                                                                                                                ...
Index Motivation State of the Art on Methodologies for Ontology Engineering Building an ontology ConclusionOntological...
Building ontologies in the 1990s and 2000sMethodologies for building single ontologies do not  consider the reuse of knowl...
Current situation• Reuse of knowledge-aware resources       – Already consensuated by domain experts• Ontologies are built...
Knowledge Resources                                                                                                       ...
NeOn MethodologyProcess and activities covered:                      All processes and activities are described with:  On...
Handbook on the NeOn Methodology                                                               http://www.neon-project.org...
 22 Executive Chapter Summaries are available at the NeOn Web Site                                                       ...
Index Motivation State of the Art on Methodologies for Ontology Engineering Building an ontology ConclusionOntological...
Looking for an European Employment                                                               o                        ...
Helping Job Seekers on their way                                                                                      Loca...
Key issues• Reuse of proprietary knowledge-aware  resources• Heterogeneity  – Terms are in different languages  – Differen...
Key aspects of Ontological Engineering• Ontologies   – Single versus network of ontologies?   – Are ontologies built from ...
Centralized network of                               Federated network of ontologiesontologies where data are             ...
Knowledge Resources                                                                                                       ...
Ontology Requirement                          Specification Document                                                      ...
Ontology Specification:      Identify requirements using competency questionsOntological Engineering   26   © A. Gómez Pér...
Ontology Specification.               The Ontology Requirement Specification                             DocumentOntologic...
Knowledge Resources                                                                                                       ...
Searching Resources• Use the terminology from the ORSD• Find resources covering the terminology                           ...
Search and Select                                non-ontological resources•   We select the most appropriate    standards ...
ISO 4217 (currencies)                          ISO 3166 (countries)Ontological Engineering   31   © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. S...
Multilingual Non-ontological resources - ISCO-88 (COM)Ontological Engineering     32    © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de F...
Searching OntologiesOntology RequirementSpecification Document• Search ontologies• Compare and Assess ontologies• Select t...
Knowledge Resources                                                                                                       ...
Gantt chart for your project. Waterfall modelOntological Engineering   35   © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. ...
Reuse and Re-engineer ing + Incr ementalOntological Engineering   36                                                      ...
Knowledge Resources                                                                                                       ...
MotivationI want to transform myadjacency      list-basedclassification into anontologyOntological Engineering     38   © ...
Types of non-ontological resourcesNon-OntologicalResources       areknowledge-awareresources     whosesemantics have notbe...
Types of non-ontological resourcesOntological Engineering   40   © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E...
Approaches to transform                          resources into ontologies        ABox         TBox   PopulationOntologica...
Approach for Re-engineering Non-Ontological                   ResourcesOntological Engineering   42   © A. Gómez Pérez, M....
Patterns for Re-engineering Classification Schemes into Ontologies                          – ABox transformation         ...
Re-engineering NORs                          Template for the PR-NOR                                                      ...
Patterns for Re-engineering Classification Schemes   Pattern for re-engineering a classification scheme, which follows the...
Technological support                 PR-NOR library at the ODP Portal    NOR2O: a Library for Transforming  Non-Ontologic...
Pattern based approach for re-engineering          non ontological resources     ISCO-88 (COM)Inter national Standar d Cla...
Knowledge Resource Re-engineering and                                   Aggregation….                 ISO 3166-1 (XML)    ...
Knowledge Resources                                                                                                       ...
Conceptualization:                              Modular approach for ontology constructionReusability                     ...
Reference Ontology                                         ISCO-88 COM                   EURES                            ...
Details of the ontology                has education /                                                                    ...
Conclusions1. The NeOn methodology   facilitates the reuse and   reengineering of non   ontological resources into   ontol...
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  1. 1. Ontology Engineering and Resource Re-Engineering Asunción Gómez-Pérez (asun@fi.upm.es) Credits to: Boris Villazón-Terrazas (bvillazon@fi.upm.es) Mari Carmen Suárez -Figueroa (mcsuarez@fi.upm.es)Work distributed under the license Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Ontological Engineering 1 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  2. 2.  Motivation Index State of the Art on Methodologies for Ontology Engineering Building an ontology ConclusionOntological Engineering 2 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  3. 3. Motivation Classical In our team, we want to build an OWL ontology in the geographical domain, but we want to use several geographical standardized terminology stored in DBs and classification schemes in our own format. I want to combine it with statistic information about unemployment Non Ontological Resource Reuse Non Ontological Resource ReengineeringOntological Engineering 3 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  4. 4. Where is the terminology? DBs from a Geographical institute Catalog/ID Implicit knowledgeHeterogeneity coded in numbers.- Language.- Terminology XX-YY-ZZ.- Granularity 02-01-02 02: transportation 01: road 02: 3-lines highway Ontological Engineering 4 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  5. 5. Different Data Models with the same informationOntological Engineering 5 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  6. 6. Lot of terminologies being used … Music On-line activitiesE-Gov Publications Cross-domains Geographic Life SciencesOntological Engineering 6 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  7. 7. Tools for searching vocabularies http://schemaweb.info http://swoogle.umbc.edu/ Linked Open Vocabularies Linked Open Vocabularies http://labs.mondeca.com/dataset/lovhttp://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk/WatsonWUI/ 7 Ontological Engineering 7 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  8. 8. After some proces….Ontological Engineering 8 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  9. 9. Geolinkeddata ontologiesOntology Network WGS84 Geo Positioning: an RDF vocabulary scv:Dimension scv:Item W3C 4 scv:Dataset hydrographical VocabularyTime ontology phenomena (rivers, lakes, etc.) O. hasStatisticalData Statistics hasLat/Long WGS84 hasLat/Long SCOVO SCOVO on hydrOntology hasLocation/isLocated FAO Vocabulary forhydrOntology O. instants, intervals, durations, etc. FAO Time UNESCO Geopolitical EGM / ERM 4 hasGeometry hasGeometry ontology W3C Time GeoNames … GML Names and Legend international code Ontology for OGC GML 4 systems for territories and Ontology Geography Markup Specification Language groups Specification 4 ThesaurusOntological Engineering 9 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  10. 10. Motivation Ontology Mappings In our team, we want to build an ontology about the Classical human resources management domain. The ontology should include information about occupations and activity sectors, data must be kept in the original DBs, and we want to have the ontology in several natural languages.Ontology-DBmapping Ontological Resource Reuse Re-engineering Non-ontological Localizing Ontological resources Resources Ontological Engineering 10 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  11. 11. Index Motivation State of the Art on Methodologies for Ontology Engineering Building an ontology ConclusionOntological Engineering 11 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  12. 12. Building ontologies in the 1990s and 2000sMethodologies for building single ontologies do not consider the reuse of knowledge• Uschold and King’s method• Grüninger and Fox’s methodology• KACTUS approach• METHONTOLOGY• SENSUS method• On-To-Knowledge• DILIGENTOntology learning approaches for building ontologies from structured, semi-structured and non-structured data• Are not integrated with current methodologies• Mainly from non-structured data using NLP techniques Ontological Engineering 12 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  13. 13. Current situation• Reuse of knowledge-aware resources – Already consensuated by domain experts• Ontologies are built collaboratively• Ontologies are connected in ontology networks• Multilingual features Ontology Development ProcessOntological Engineering 13 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  14. 14. Knowledge Resources NeOn Scenarios Non Ontological Resources Ontological ResourcesGlossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries 3 4 Flogic 5 6Classification Schemas Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) OWL Ontological Resource 2 Reuse 2 5 6 O. Aligning Non Ontological Resource Ontology Design 4 Reuse Pattern Reuse 3 6 O. Merging 2 Ontological Resource 7 Reengineering 5 Alignments Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 61 RDF(S) O. Specification Scheduling O. Conceptualization O. Formalization O. Implementation Flogic 8 9 Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, O. Localization Specialization, Modularization) OWL 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 14 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; OntologicalConfiguration Management; Evaluation Engineering 14 (V&V); Assessment Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C.
  15. 15. NeOn MethodologyProcess and activities covered: All processes and activities are described with:  Ontology Specification  A filling card  Scheduling  A workflow  Non-Ontological Resource Reuse  Examples  Non-Ontological Resource Re-engineering  Reuse General Ontologies  Reuse Domain Ontologies  Reuse Ontology Statements  Reuse Ontology Design Patterns Ontological Engineering 15 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  16. 16. Handbook on the NeOn Methodology http://www.neon-project.org/nw/NeOn_BookOntological Engineering 16 Slide© A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza 16
  17. 17.  22 Executive Chapter Summaries are available at the NeOn Web Site Slide 17 Ontological Engineering 17 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza Slide 17
  18. 18. Index Motivation State of the Art on Methodologies for Ontology Engineering Building an ontology ConclusionOntological Engineering 18 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  19. 19. Looking for an European Employment o EURES p ESES (Int) n Cand. ES ES m q ES  Cand. ES Vacan.  Vacan. Cand. l Catalonia r ESES (Es) ES Vacan. i Lombard ES ES (It) Cand. a h ES ESLEGENDA b ES  g Private ES ES (Int) ES Employment Service c f Vacan.Cand.Cand. ES ES Job Seeker’s Candidacy d e Wallonia ES ESES (Be)Vacan.Vacan. Employer Job Vacancy Ontological Engineering 19 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  20. 20. Helping Job Seekers on their way Local o EURES Matching p ESES n (Int) algorithm ES ES m Local Matching q ES algorithm Cand. ES Cand. Cand. Vacan. l Catalonia r Vacan. Vacan. Cand. Cand. ESES (Es) ES Cand. Cand. European Vacan. Vacan. i Lombard Employment ES ES (It) Mediators Vacan. Vacan. Marketplace Cand. Cand. a h ES ES LEGENDA Cand. Cand. Vacan. Vacan. Vacan. Vacan. Local Matching Requester ES b Private algorithm g ES ES ES (Int) Responding ES Local Matching ES not involved c f algorithmCand.Cand. ES ES d e Wallonia Job Seeker’s Candidacy ESES (Be) ESVacan.Vacan. Employer Job Vacancy Ontological Engineering 20 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  21. 21. Key issues• Reuse of proprietary knowledge-aware resources• Heterogeneity – Terms are in different languages – Different conceptualization (different ways of organizing job categories) – Different DB schemas• Data must be kept in the original sources and in their own language. Ontological Engineering 21 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  22. 22. Key aspects of Ontological Engineering• Ontologies – Single versus network of ontologies? – Are ontologies built from scratch or reusing knowledge-aware resources? – Are mappings used for solving conceptual mistmaches?• Instances – Where are the data/instances? • Instances are in the ontology • Instances are in RDF files independently of the ontology • Data are kept in the original sources – Are instances distributed or centralized? – Have instances a very high rate of changes? – Heterogeneous provenance of instances – Degrees of data quality – Permissions Ontological Engineering 22 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  23. 23. Centralized network of Federated network of ontologiesontologies where data are where data are distributed distributed Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms Ms 1. Build a reference ontology for the domain 1. Build a reference ontology 2. Build local ontologies 3. Build mappings between the core and local ontologies 2. Build mappings between the 4. Build mappings between the local ontologies and the data reference ontology and the data sources sources Ontological Engineering 23 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  24. 24. Knowledge Resources NeOn Methodology Non Ontological Resources Ontological ResourcesGlossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries 3 4 Flogic 5 6Classification Schemas Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) OWL Ontological Resource 2 Reuse 2 5 6 O. Aligning Non Ontological Resource Ontology Design 4 Reuse Pattern Reuse 3 6 O. Merging 2 Ontological Resource 7 Reengineering 5 Alignments Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 61 RDF(S) O. Specification Scheduling O. Conceptualization O. Formalization O. Implementation Flogic 8 9 Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, O. Localization Specialization, Modularization) OWL 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 24 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; OntologicalConfiguration Management; Evaluation Engineering 24 (V&V); Assessment Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C.
  25. 25. Ontology Requirement Specification Document Ontology Requirements Specification Document Template 1 Purpose “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the purpose of the ontology” 2 Scope “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the scope of the ontology” 3 Level of Formality “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the level of formality of the ontology” 4 Intended Users “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the intended users of the ontology” 5 Intended Uses “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the intended uses of the ontology” 6 Groups of Competency Questions “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the groups of competency questions and their answers, including priorities for each group” 7 Pre-Glossary of Terms Terms “Software developers and ontology practitioners should include in this slot the list of terms included in the CQs and theirOntological Engineering 25 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza frequencies”
  26. 26. Ontology Specification: Identify requirements using competency questionsOntological Engineering 26 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  27. 27. Ontology Specification. The Ontology Requirement Specification DocumentOntological Engineering 27 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  28. 28. Knowledge Resources NeOn Methodology Non Ontological Resources Ontological ResourcesGlossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries 3 4 Flogic 5 6Classification Schemas Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) OWL Ontological Resource 2 Reuse 2 5 6 O. Aligning Non Ontological Resource Ontology Design 4 Reuse Pattern Reuse 3 6 O. Merging 2 Ontological Resource 7 Reengineering 5 Alignments Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 61 RDF(S) O. Specification Scheduling O. Conceptualization O. Formalization O. Implementation Flogic 8 9 Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, O. Localization Specialization, Modularization) OWL 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 28 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; OntologicalConfiguration Management; Evaluation Engineering 28 (V&V); Assessment Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C.
  29. 29. Searching Resources• Use the terminology from the ORSD• Find resources covering the terminology Knowledge Resources Non Ontological Resources Ontological Resources Glossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries Flogic Classification Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) Schemas OWL 2• Where: - Internet Linked Open Vocabularies - Standardization bodies (ISO,…) - Intranet of the organization - Ontology Registries Ontological Engineering 29 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  30. 30. Search and Select non-ontological resources• We select the most appropriate standards and taxonomies for: – Occupation Classification Language Classification ISCO-88 (COM), SOC, ISCO-88, ISO 6392, CEF ONET, Eures Taxonomy. – Classification of Economic Driving License Classification Activities European Legislation ISIC Rev. 3.1, NACE Rev. 1.1, Skill Classification NAICS – Apprenticeship classifications Eures Taxonomy ISCED 97, FOET Contract Types Classification – Currency Classification LE FOREM, Eures and BLL Classification ISO 4217 Work Condition Classification – Geography Classification LE FOREM, Eures and BLL Classification ISO 3166, Eures Taxonomy Is the terminology included in the Ontology Requirements Specification Document covered by the resources? Ontological Engineering 30 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  31. 31. ISO 4217 (currencies) ISO 3166 (countries)Ontological Engineering 31 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  32. 32. Multilingual Non-ontological resources - ISCO-88 (COM)Ontological Engineering 32 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  33. 33. Searching OntologiesOntology RequirementSpecification Document• Search ontologies• Compare and Assess ontologies• Select the best ontology based on – Coverage of the domain – Expressivity of the Implementation language Ontological Engineering 33 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  34. 34. Knowledge Resources NeOn Methodology Non Ontological Resources Ontological ResourcesGlossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries 3 4 Flogic 5 6Classification Schemas Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) OWL Ontological Resource 2 Reuse 2 5 6 O. Aligning Non Ontological Resource Ontology Design 4 Reuse Pattern Reuse 3 6 O. Merging 2 Ontological Resource 7 Reengineering 5 Alignments Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 61 RDF(S) O. Specification Scheduling O. Conceptualization O. Formalization O. Implementation Flogic 8 9 Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, O. Localization Specialization, Modularization) OWL 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 34 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; OntologicalConfiguration Management; Evaluation Engineering 34 (V&V); Assessment Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C.
  35. 35. Gantt chart for your project. Waterfall modelOntological Engineering 35 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  36. 36. Reuse and Re-engineer ing + Incr ementalOntological Engineering 36 Slide 36 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  37. 37. Knowledge Resources NeOn Methodology Non Ontological Resources Ontological ResourcesGlossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries 3 4 Flogic 5 6Classification Schemas Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) OWL Ontological Resource 2 Reuse 2 5 6 O. Aligning Non Ontological Resource Ontology Design 4 Reuse Pattern Reuse 3 6 O. Merging 2 Ontological Resource 7 Reengineering 5 Alignments Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 61 RDF(S) O. Specification Scheduling O. Conceptualization O. Formalization O. Implementation Flogic 8 9 Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, O. Localization Specialization, Modularization) OWL 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 37 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; OntologicalConfiguration Management; Evaluation Engineering 37 (V&V); Assessment Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C.
  38. 38. MotivationI want to transform myadjacency list-basedclassification into anontologyOntological Engineering 38 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  39. 39. Types of non-ontological resourcesNon-OntologicalResources areknowledge-awareresources whosesemantics have notbeen formalized yetby means of anontology Ontological Engineering 39 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  40. 40. Types of non-ontological resourcesOntological Engineering 40 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  41. 41. Approaches to transform resources into ontologies ABox TBox PopulationOntological Engineering 41 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  42. 42. Approach for Re-engineering Non-Ontological ResourcesOntological Engineering 42 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  43. 43. Patterns for Re-engineering Classification Schemes into Ontologies – ABox transformation – TBox transformationOntological Engineering 43 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  44. 44. Re-engineering NORs Template for the PR-NOR INPUT OUTPUT PROCESSOntological Engineering 44 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza© A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-Ontological
  45. 45. Patterns for Re-engineering Classification Schemes Pattern for re-engineering a classification scheme, which follows the adjacency list data model, into an ontology schemaINPUT: Non-Ontological Resource OUTPUT: Ontology PROCESS: How to Re- General Generated General engineer Example Example Example Ontological Engineering 45 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  46. 46. Technological support PR-NOR library at the ODP Portal NOR2O: a Library for Transforming Non-Ontological Resources to Ontologies http://mccarthy.dia.fi.upm.es/nor2o/Ontological Engineering 46 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  47. 47. Pattern based approach for re-engineering non ontological resources ISCO-88 (COM)Inter national Standar d Classification of Occupations Occupation Ontology (for Eur opean Union pur poses) FOET Classification of fields of Education Ontology education and tr aining Pattern for re-engineering a NACE classification scheme modelled Statistical Classification of with a Path Enumeration Data Model Economic Activities in the Economic Eur opean Community Activity Ontology ISO 3166 Pattern for re-engineering a English countr y names classification scheme modelled and code elements Geography with a Snowflake Data Model Ontology ISTAT Italian Geogr aphy Standar d Pattern for re-engineering a classification scheme modelled Italian Geography with an Adjacency List Data Model Ontology Ontological Engineering 47 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  48. 48. Knowledge Resource Re-engineering and Aggregation…. ISO 3166-1 (XML) Regions Table<ISO_3166-1_Entry> (Eures Oracle DB) <ISO_3166-1_Country_name>SPAIN</ISO_3166-1_Country_name> <ISO_3166-1_Alpha-2_Code_element>ES</ISO_3166-1_Alpha-2_Code_element> </ISO_3166-1_Entry>… Excerpt of the Location Geography Ontology Ontology model subClass-Of Country has region Region Spain Cataluña Canarias Ontology instances Galicia Ontological Engineering 48 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza Andalucía
  49. 49. Knowledge Resources NeOn Methodology Non Ontological Resources Ontological ResourcesGlossaries Dictionaries Lexicons O. Design Patterns O. Repositories and Registries 3 4 Flogic 5 6Classification Schemas Taxonomies Thesauri RDF(S) OWL Ontological Resource 2 Reuse 2 5 6 O. Aligning Non Ontological Resource Ontology Design 4 Reuse Pattern Reuse 3 6 O. Merging 2 Ontological Resource 7 Reengineering 5 Alignments Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 61 RDF(S) O. Specification Scheduling O. Conceptualization O. Formalization O. Implementation Flogic 8 9 Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, O. Localization Specialization, Modularization) OWL 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 49 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; OntologicalConfiguration Management; Evaluation Engineering 49 (V&V); Assessment Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C.
  50. 50. Conceptualization: Modular approach for ontology constructionReusability Usability - + Application Domain O. : Job Seeker, Job Offer Domain O.: Economic Activity, Occupation, Education, Skill, Driving License, Compensation, Labour Regulatory, Competence General/Common Ontologies: Time, Geography, Language + Representation Ontology: WSML -Ontological Engineering 50 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  51. 51. Reference Ontology ISCO-88 COM EURES CEF ONET ISO 6392 EURES Language Skill Ontology Ontology Occupation Ontology EURESLE FOREM + BLL + EURES ISO 3166 subClass-Of Labour Regulatory Geography Ontology Ontology DAML Time Ontology Job Offer Job Seeker Ontology Ontology Competence has date of birth Ontology / is date of birth of Time OntologyISO 4217 FOET subClass-Of ISCED97 Compensation Ontology European Legislation Education Ontology Driving Ad hoc wrapper License Economic Ontology External Sources Activity Ontology NACE Rev. 1.1 Ontological Engineering 51 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  52. 52. Details of the ontology has education / requires education / is education of Education is associated with Language has competence / requires competence / Ontology is competence of Competence is associated with Competence has mother language / Ontology Education has work condition / Language is mother tongue of Ontology has work condition / is associated to Work Condition Labour is associated with Regulatory has contract type / Job Offer has compensation / is associated to Ontology Ontology speaks / is spoken by Job Seeker has contract type / Contract Type Ontology is associated with has compensation / is associated with has nationality from / Compensation has location / Job Seeker is nation of Compensation is location of Organization is associated with / is associated to Ontology has candidacy/ resides in / has job vacancy/ belongs to is residence of Country belongs to Geography Ontology Candidacy has work experience / Job Vacancy belongs to Location has location is located in / has objective / has activity sector / is associated with has vacancy/has job category / belongs to is associated with belongs to Offered Work Requested Sectoris associated with Experience Work Experience Objective is associated with / Vacancy has activity sector / requires work experience is associated with has activity sector / subClass-Of is associated with subClass-Of Economic has activity sector / Activity is associated with has job category Computing Ontology has job category/ ICT ICT Objective is associated with Professionals is associated with Vacancy has job category / subClass-Of Occupation has job category/ Ontology is associated with is associated with Occupation has job category / is associated withOntological Engineering 52 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
  53. 53. Conclusions1. The NeOn methodology facilitates the reuse and reengineering of non ontological resources into ontologies2. The reuse of non-ontological resources that have been reached some degree of consensus in a community allows the development of ontologies easier and quicker Ontological Engineering 53 © A. Gómez Pérez, M.C. Suarez de Figueroa, B. Villazón, E.Montiel, G. Aguado, M. Espinoza
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