The Working Memory Model Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
Arose from criticisms ofthe MSM – that STM isn‟t E.g. 21 + 12 + 52 unitary Or when reading, you store the words while determining the meaning You add 21 and 12 and hold that „Working Memory‟ refers to answer in thethat bit of memory that you use working memory when working on a complex before adding 52task which requires you to store information as you go along
Dual-Tasktechnique STM is active 2 tasks simultaneously if 3 components using different parts of the 1. Central Executive WMM 2. Phonological Loop3. Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
Central ExecutivePhonological Loop Visuo-spatial Phonological Sketchpad store Articulatory process
•CE is the supervisory component PL = Auditory Information •Can process info • Phonological Store is responsible for from any sensory holding auditory information (inner ear) modality •Articulatory Loop is a verbal rehearsal •Co-ordinates loop which prepares words to speak (inner activity voice) •Retrieves information from VSS = Visual & Spatial Information LTM •Inner eye •VERY LIMITED •Temporary store for visual and spatial CAPACITY information •Delegates •E.g. what a room looks like and how toinformation to the 2 get there slave systems
The Working Memory Model Instruction:Close your eyes and counthow many windows there are in the house or flat where you live.
The Working Memory Model1. Did you form a visual image of the house/ flat and count the windows by imagining going around either the inside (going through the rooms) or outside of the building?If so, you were using your visuo-spatial scratch pad (this is responsible for “setting up” and manipulating images in memory)2. Did you hear an inner voice counting the windows as you wentthrough the building?If so, this was the Phonological loop (this is responsible for “the inner voice”as well as for holding the auditory information) The whole process is organised and run by the Central Executive
WMM - Evaluation Physiological evidence 2 different areas of brain are shown as active whilst undertaking visual Why is this good? and verbal tasksIndicates that visual and verbal material is dealt with byseparate structures – support the WMM idea of the PL and VSS
WMM – A02 STM = severely KF impaired for verbal informationDemonstrates that it ispossible to damage just STM = visual information part of the STM unaffected This is a strength because it provides evidence forthe idea that visual and auditory material are stored separately in the STM, as suggested by the WMM
Homework Which component of the WMM do you use when writing an essay? Which component of the WMM do you use when listening to music? According to the WMMshould you be able to do both tasks well?