Privation

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Privation

  1. 1. PrivationFailure to form attachments
  2. 2. PrivationDefinition:Occurs when a child has never formed anattachment bond.Usually as aresult ofcomplete lack ofemotional care ofthe child – duringthe first fewyearsCan causepermanentdamage toemotional andsocialdevelopment
  3. 3. Hodges & Tizard (1989)Aim –Investigate whether a lack of emotionalcare had permanent and irreversibleeffects to emotional and socialdevelopment
  4. 4. Hodges & Tizard (1989) –procedureInterviews in an institutionInterviewed children, parents and teachers regardingattitudes and behaviourThe institution had a high turnover of staff(why would they do this?)65 children who were institutionalised before 4 monthsInterviews were compared with a control group(who might their control group be?)
  5. 5. Hodges & Tizard (1989)Findings –• Children exhibited unusual attachmentbehaviours – demanding of adult attentionBy the ageof 2• Children did not have any deeprelationships, were much more attention-seekingAt the ageof 4• Less likely to have a special friend or bepart of a social group• More likely to be quarrelsome and bulliesAt 16
  6. 6. Hodges & Tizard (1989)What conclusions can bedrawn from Hodges &Tizard’s research?There is evidence thatearly institutionalisationcan cause permanentdamage
  7. 7. Evaluation – A021. Genie2. Attrition3. Contradictory Evidence
  8. 8. Positive Evaluation - GenieThis is positive at it demonstratesHodges and Tizard’s findings thatprivation has irreversible effectsHowever...Genie was locked in her room by her fatheruntil she was 13 ½ because he thought shewas retarded. When she was found she wasseverely physically underdeveloped andcouldn’t stand or talk. Genie never fullyrecovered socially or learned to speak
  9. 9. Negative Evaluation - AttritionThis is a weakness because it would resultin sample bias, specifically as it isusually the most troubled participantswho drop out.Hodges and Tizard’s study waslongitudinal meaning that people arevery likely to drop out – resulting in areduction in the sample
  10. 10. Negative Evaluation – Czech twinsThis is a weakness because itdemonstrates that the effects ofprivation are reversibleHowever...The Czech twins were locked up for 7 years by theirstepmother and couldn’t talk when first discovered.They were subsequently looked after by 2 lovingsisters and by 14 they had near normal intellectualand social functioning. By 20 they were aboveaverage intelligence and had excellent relationshipswith members of their foster family

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