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Definition: PersonalityAn individuals characteristic ways of behaving, thinking, feeling, reacting and perceiving the Ambitious, world, that are stable over time restless & pressured. Impatient, hostile & competitive. Prone to CHD! Have a sense of Relaxed, speak control, highly slowly & less committed to competitive. Do tasks, view life’s not suffer from same problem as health problems as challenges Type A’s
Research into type A personality Aim: Friedman & Rosenman (1959) aimed to determine whether there was a linkbetween stress-related illness and personality type
Procedure3154 healthy men, aged 39-59 from San Francisco were studied in a longitudinal study via structured interviews 25 questions to asses the way a person typically responds to everydaypressures, creating feelings of impatience, competitiveness and hostilityInterview was conducted in a provocative way aimed to elicit type A behaviours Participants were classified as type A or type B
Findings: Friedman and Rosenmanfound that 8 ½ years later that twice as many type A’s had died of cardiovascular problems than type B’s. Type A’s also have higher blood pressure and higher cholesterol Conclusion: It was concluded that aspects of a person’s personality are liked to CHD and the key may well be stress!
Additional A01 Although type A behaviour is claimed to be a risk for CHD, manytype A individuals appear resistant to disease. Kobasa et al (1977) suggested that some people are more psychologically ‘hardy’ then others The hardiness personality includes a range of characteristics which, if present, provide the individual with a defence against the negative effects of stress
Personality A02P • Williams et al support the findings of Friedman & Rosenman • e.g. Williams et al (2000) found that participants whoE scored highest on an anger questionnaire (type A trait) were 2.69 times more likely to have a heart attack • This is a strength because it supports the conclusion thatE aspects of personality are linked to illness, the link thought to be stress
Personality A02P • F&R’s research is androcentric • e.g. F&R used a sample of 3154 men agedE between 39 and 59 and female type A personalities are not represented • This is a weakness because the findings lackE population validity and cannot be generalised to the entire population
Personality A02P • F&R’s research can be criticised for ignoring individual differences • e.g. There are individual differences and lifestyle variablesE that can affect an individuals vulnerability to heart disease – Type A’s tend to engage more in smoking and drinking behaviour to relax themE • This is a weakness because is suggests that the link between personality and illness is not a direct as F&R initially suggested, raising an issue of cause and effect