The Psyche The ID The SUPEREGO •Pleasure principle •Moral principle •Born with it •Develops around 5/6 •Libido – sexual •Child internalises energy moral of society •Fights with the •Fights with the ID Superego ID SUPEREGO EGO The EGO •Reality principle •Develops in childhood•Balances the demands of the ID and the moral rules of the SUPEREGO
Main Assumptions Abnormalities are caused by...1. Intra-psychic conflict (ego failing to balance ID and SUPEREGO)2. Overuse of defence mechanisms3. Fixation during psychosexual development
1. Intra-psychic conflictIf within the psyche, the ego fails to balance the demands of the ID and the SUPEREGO, conflicts may arise and this can result in the development of psychological disorders If the SUPEREGO is not If the ID is not kept in kept in check by the EGO – check by the EGO – then the then a person deprives person acts on their themselves of any sort of immediate desires/impulses, desires (even socially whatever they may be. accepted ones). Can result in destructive Can result in anxious behaviour, pleasurable acts behaviour, for example and uninhibited sexual Obsessive Compulsive behaviour Disorder
2. Overuse of defence mechanisms If intra-psychic conflict occurs anxiety can occur. In order to protect itself against thisanxiety, the EGO tries to balance the ID and the SUPEREGO – to do this the EGO uses defence mechanisms Can you think of any defence mechanisms?
Defence MechanismsRepression• Threatening impulses are pushed into the unconsciousDisplacement• Unacceptable drive is displaced from its primary target to a more acceptable targetDenial• Refusal to accept that a particular event has occurred
Defence MechanismsDefence Mechanisms protect our conscious self from the anxiety produced by theunconscious intra-psychic conflict – it this is unsuccessful, the anxiety may reveal itself through clinical disorders e.g. Phobias, anxiety disorders
3. Fixation during Psychosexual Development Freud believed that children goes through aseries of stages where the instinctive energy of the ID looks for gratification from different areas of the body – erogenous zones. If a child is under or over gratified at anystage the child may become ‘fixated’ and this could affect their adult behaviour
Oral Stage• Birth to 18 months• Pleasure from mouth (via eating and drinking)Anal Stage• 18 months to 3 years• Pleasure from anus (via withholding or expelling faeces)Phallic Stage• 18 months to 4/5 years• Gender differences are noticed – child relates to same sex parentLatency Stage• 4/5 years to adolescence• Sexual drives lay dormantGenital Stage• Adolescence• Sexual urges reawaken, interest turns to relationships
How would the psychodynamic approach investigate abnormality?Case StudiesMuch of Freudian theory ofpsychoanalysis was based oncase studiesWhat is a case study? An in-depth, detailed investigation of an individual or group. It would usually include biographical details, as well as details of behaviours or experiences of interest to the researcher.What is the problem with using case studies? Difficult to generalise Often uses retrospective data
Influential The Psychodynamic approach topsychopathology has influenced manytreatments, e.g. Dream analysis, free association This is a strength because many therapies/treatments based on thepsychodynamic approach are still used today to help people
Deterministic For example, according to this approach, if someone was overindulged or deprived at apsychosexual stage of development than they would develop an abnormalityThis is a weakness because the approach suggests our behaviour is ruled by our unconscious processes only and ignores free will
Reductionist For example, it suggests that the complex mental disorders are caused solely by our experience as a childThis is a weakness because it ignores therole of other factors in the development of mental illness, such as adult experience
Unscientific For example, concepts such as the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO and processes such as repression etc cannot be scientifically testedThis is a weakness because it means that many concepts proposed cannot bedirectly observed and measured and the theory proven or disproven
Key terms / Buzz words Deterministic Retrospective Defence Mechanism Unconscious Repression The Psyche Conflict Fixation ID Reductionist PsychosexualChildhood Case Studies stages EGO Unscientific SUPEREGOLittle Hans Influential Anna O
PsychodynamicTherapies/Treatments •Free Association •Word Association •Dream Interpretation
Quick recap of the psychodynamicapproach – what can you remember? Unconscious processesIntra-psychic conflict – EGO fails to balance the demands of the ID and the SUPEREGOOveruse of defence mechanisms – Failure to deal with an event can cause anxietyFixation at a psychosexual stage – Stuck due to over/under indulgence at a stage
If the psychodynamic approach believes that all abnormalities are the result of unconscious processes– what treatments do you think the approach would use to treat disorders? (Or, what would the treatments focus on ?) Accessing the unconscious!!!
Psychoanalysis – how it works Used for OCD, phobias, general anxieties• Revealing the unconscious• Lifting defence mechanisms• Focus on childhood experiences• NOT cure to ASSIST coping with unconscious conflicts •It is a long-term therapy – some patients will meet with their analysand 4/5 times a week for years – it is not quick or cheap!
3 main psychodynamic treatments 1. Free Association Express anything 2. Word Association Response to stimulus word 3. Dream Analysis Investigating the symbolism in dreams
Free associationClient is encouraged to express anything that comes to their mindTherapist is to identify thoughts extending back into the client’s (Analysand’s) childhood Client mustn’t hold backAim is to lower ego defence mechanisms to gain access to unconscious material
Word association Client is read a list of words – one at a timeClient is asked to reply with whatever comes instantly to mind The therapist pays attention to unusual responses, hesitation and mind blanksThe above indicate that repression has taken place in the past
Dream AnalysisDreams are the royal road to the unconscious Manifest content – actual dream content Latent content – meaning of dream Dreams are symbolic- e.g. Snake, train, sword = penis Tunnel, cupboard = vaginaSymbols might highlight information regarding psychosexual development
Psychoanalysis is effectiveFor example, Bergin (1971) found that 80% of clientsbenefitted from psychoanalysis compared to 65% withother therapiesThis is positive because it suggest, compared to other therapies, psychoanalysis can be useful
Case study evidenceFor example, Anna O suffered from hysterical paralysisand once Freud made her unconscious thoughts consciousshe was cured but later spent time in insitutions. This is weakness as whilst psychoanalysis is a verypowerful treatment it doesn’t appear to have long-term effects
False Memories For example, research by Loftus (1975) shows that retrospective memory is prone to bias/inaccuracy A weakness because instead of helping patients to recover ‘repressed’ memories, therapists might beplanting ‘false’ memories, meaning the therapy is unlikely to work.