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Memory revision booklet

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  • 1. 1AS Psychology: Unit 1 PSYA1 (January exam)Revision for Memory Booklets 1 and 2(Including a ‘Memory Dictionary’)Name…………………………………………
  • 2. 22,Characteristics of Memory (STM and LTM):AO1Short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) differ from each other in3 main ways (YOU MUST KNOW THE WAYS IN WHICH THEY DIFFER!!):CHARACTERISTICS STM LTMCapacityEncodingDurationResearch into the Characteristics of STM and LTM (AO1):1. Capacity – the amount of information the memory store holdsResearch:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................................................................................Duration – the length of time the memory store holds informationResearch: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....3, Coding – the way information is encoded in the memory storeResearch: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
  • 3. 3Evaluation (AO2) of this Memory Research:(1)A strength of these studies is that the investigations into thecharacteristics of the STM and LTM are conducted in a laboratory settingand therefore the researcher has a high degree of control.Explain:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evidence/Example:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evaluation:...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(1)A weakness however is that within laboratory experiments there arehigh demand characteristics (environmental cues and clues in theinvestigation that cause participants to behave unnaturally.Explain:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evidence/Example:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evaluation:...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(2)Another weakness of the research is that the studies are conducted ina laboratory and therefore they lack ecological validity.Explain:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evidence/Example:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evaluation:...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 4. 4Encoding by……………………….Encoding by……………………….Models of MemoryThe Multi-Store Model (MSM) of Memory (AO1):………………………. and ………………………… (1968):……………………...Now have a go at writing a description (AO1) of the Multi-Store Model of memory (use your buzz words)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………….…………...…………...………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………Create a set of buzz words to help you remember the Multi-Store Model of memory...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 5. 5Evaluation of the Multi-Store Model (AO2)(1)Evidence to support the MSM comes from research that supports theidea of separate memory stores.Explain: …………………………………………………………...................................................................……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................................................……………………(1)However, one weakness of the MSM is that it suggests that the STMand LTM stores are unitary.Explain: This means that………………………………………………………......................……………..................................................................................................................................................Example/Evidence:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................……………….Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................................................................................................................….(2)Another weakness of the MSM is that there is evidence to go againstthe notion of unitary LTM.Explain: Brain scanning techniques have found that in fact the LTM is madeup of different stores which are located in different areas of the brain.Example/Evidence: Cohen and Squire proposed........................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......................................................................................…………………………….(3)A further weakness of the MSM is that there is evidence which suggeststhat the LTM is not unitary.Explain:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Example/Evidence:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evaluation:...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 6. 6The Working Memory ModelDescription of the Working Memory Model (WMM) (AO1):……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Create a set of buzz words to help you remember the Multi-Store Model of memory...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 7. 7The Components of Working Memory (AO1):1, Central Executive: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2, Phonological Loop (inc. Articulatory Loop): ……….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………….…..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3, Visuo-Spatial Scratchpad: …………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………EEvvaalluuaattiioonn ooff tthhee WWoorrkkiinngg MMeemmoorryy MMooddeell ((AAOO22))(1)One strength of working memory is that there is evidence to support theview that STM is not unitary.Explain: This means… ……………………………………………….......................................………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................................………Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………(2)Another positive aspect is that there is physiological evidence to support theWMM.Explain: This means… ……………………………………………….......................................………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................................………Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 8. 8Evaluation continued...(1)However, a weakness is that the exact role of the Central Executiveunclear.Explain: This means… ……………………………………………….......................................………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................................………Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………(2)A further criticism is that the model fails to account for ‘musicalmemory’.Explain: This means… ……………………………………………….......................................………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................................………Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Question CheckpointWhy not have a go at this 6 Mark Application Question?Zac is playing a computer game which involves sorting coloured shapes thatappear on the screen. He has to capture the shapes and drag them to theappropriate collection box. While he plays, he chats to Dan about a footballmatch. When he has completed Level 1, he moves on to Level 2. Here, theshapes are replaced by words that have to be sorted according to theirmeaning. Zac begins to make mistakes and so stops talking to Dan.With reference to features of the working memory model, explain why Zaccan easily cope with Level 1 and chat to Dan but, when he gets to Level 2, hecannot do both things at the same time. (6 marks)
  • 9. 9Booklet 2: Eyewitness TestimonyLoftus’ Research into EWT – The effect of misleadinginformation on the accuracy of EWTResearch Study: ……………………. and ………………….. (1974)Aim: This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of memory of a caraccident to see if ………………… questions distort the accuracy ofimmediate recall.Procedure: …… students were shown ……. films of different trafficaccidents. After each film the participants were given a questionnaire. Therewas one critical question: ‘About how fast were the cars going when they hiteach other?’ One group received this question, the other 4 groups receiveda variation on this, with ‘hit’ being replaced by either ‘…………………’,‘……………………’, ‘…………………’ or ‘……………………’.Findings: The mean speed estimates were calculated for each group.Smashed: _______mphCollided: _______mphBumped: _______mphConclusions: It was concluded that misleading information (leadingquestions) can affect the accuracy of memory. It may be that such post-……………… information causes the information to be altered before it isstored so that memory is permanently affected.Information Checkpoint(1) What are ‘leading questions’? : ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(2) What is Post Event information: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Hit: _______mphContacted: _______mph
  • 10. 10EEvvaalluuaattiioonn ooff LLooffttuuss aanndd PPaallmmeerr’’ss ((11997744)) RReesseeaarrcchh ((AAOO22))(1)One strength of Loftus and Palmer’s study is that there was a high degreeof control over variables.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(1) However, the research was conducted in the artificial setting of thelaboratory.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(2)Another problem is that due to the fact the research was carried out in alaboratory the findings may not be representative of real life.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(3)A further criticism is that Loftus used her own students as participants.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………
  • 11. 11Validity in EWT ResearchDiscuss the validity of research into EWT (as most EWT research isusually conducted in laboratory settings does it have high/lowinternal/external validity)?Question Checkpoint(1) Explain why studies of EWT have been criticised as lacking validity. (5 marks)Revision Tip: In this question discuss the external validity of EWT research, e.g.low population validity (Loftus and Palmer used their own Psychology students) and lowecological validity (are laboratory settings reflective of real life?)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Internal Validity External ValidityEcological Validity:Population Validity:
  • 12. 12Factors Affecting the Accuracy of EWT:Anxiety:How can anxiety affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? Laboratory Studies have shown that anxiety can ................................. theaccuracy of eye witness testimony (e.g. research by.....................................) Other researchers (e.g. ............................................) have found throughreal-life investigations that anxiety can ........................................ recall.1. ………………. 2. ……………………What does Deffenbacher (1983)suggest?Research into the Weapons-focus effect. ( )Aim:..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Procedure:.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Findings:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Conclusion:.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 13. 13EEvvaalluuaattiioonn ooff LLooffttuuss’’ ((11997799)) WWeeaappoonn--FFooccuuss RReesseeaarrcchh ((AAOO22))(1)Loftus’ findings are supported by further research into anxiety and EWTExplain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(2)Deffenbacher et al (1983) agree that high anxiety decreases theaccuracy of EWT.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(1)There are contradictory findings from studies in real-life settings whichsuggests that anxiety can improve the accuracy of EWT.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(2)Another weakness is that the research carried out by Loftus wasconducted in a laboratory and it is likely that this is problematic becauseother factors could have affected the findings.Demand Characteristics:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Ecological Validity:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 14. 14……….. of the Eyewitness (including ‘Source Monitoring’)Young children are poor at ‘Source Monitoring’Poole and Lindsay (2001)EEvvaalluuaattiioonn ooff PPoooollee aanndd LLiinnddssaayy ((22000011)) RReesseeaarrcchh ((AAOO22))((11))AA ssttrreennggtthh ooff tthhee ssttuuddyy iiss tthhaatt iitt wwaass aa ffiieelldd eexxppeerriimmeenntt..Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………((22))AA ffuurrtthheerr ssttrreennggtthh ooff tthhee ssttuuddyy iiss tthhaatt tthhee pprroocceedduurree wwaass ccoonndduucctteedd iinnaann eetthhiiccaall mmaannnneerr..Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………Aim:........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Procedure:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Findings:...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Conclusion:...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 15. 15(1)However, the fact that Poole and Lindsay used a field experiment can alsobe considered a weakness.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(2)In comparison to Poole and Lindsay, some studies have shown that childrencan show accurate and reliable memory for events.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………What is the ‘own age’ bias? (AO1)Evaluation of the ‘own age’ bias? (AO2)
  • 16. 16The Use of The Cognitive InterviewResearch study: Fisher and Geisleman (1992) reviewed the relevantpsychological literature on memory, and related this to the way thatinterviews were carried out by the police in real life. They found thatproblems with the standard police interview include:(1).............................................…………………………………………………………………………......(2).…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………(3)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…(4)………………………………..........................................................................…………………(5)..............................................................................................................................They also found memory research suggested people remember events betterwhen they are provided with ……………… …………….. This could be accomplished inthe police interview by mentally reinstating the context of the event beingrecalled. Fisher and Geisleman developed an interview technique, the cognitiveinterview, which was based on established psychological principles concerningeffective recall. The original cognitive interview technique is characterised byfour distinct components:Cognitive Interview Techniques(1)C ………………… R………………….. (CR) – ……….....................................……………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....How does this stage help increase recall? ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................(2) R……………….. E…………………. (RE) – …………………..................................……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How does this stage help increase recall?……………………………………….................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3) C…………… the P………………………. (CP) - ………………………………...............................………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How does this stage help increase recall?………………………………………………….......................................................................................................................................................................4. R…………….. the O……………….. (RO) …………………………………………………............................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How does this stage help increase recall?………………………………………………….........................................................................................................................................................................
  • 17. 17Outline the key differences between the standard and thecognitive interview.Standard Police InterviewWHERASCognitive InterviewEvaluation of the Cognitive Interview (AO2):(1)One strength of the cognitive interview is that it does enhance recall.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………The second principle behind the Cognitive Interview:E................. S................ P................. (1973)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Abernathy (1940):...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 18. 18(2)The effectiveness of the cognitive interview has been supported bypsychological research.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(3)A further strength is that evidence suggests that retrieval cues doenhance recall.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(1)A weakness of the cognitive interview is that research has suggested that itdoes not enhance recall.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(2)A weakness of the cognitive interview is that police have criticised theprocedure.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………
  • 19. 19(3)The cognitive interview raises ethical issues.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………Question CheckpointTrevor is a police officer. He is concerned that eyewitness statements he hastaken have often proven to be incomplete and some contain false elements.When he interviews witnesses, in generally asks lots of short, closed questions.Because he is always quite busy, he avoids asking general questions and tends tointerrupt if witnesses don’t really say what he wants to know immediately. Heclaims his habit of asking questions ‘in no particular order’ ensures he keepswitnesses on their toes and stops them elaborating on what really happened.Identify the problems with Trevor’s current method of interviewing witnessesand suggest changes he could make to improve the accuracy of the eyewitnesstestimony. (6 marks)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 20. 20Strategies for Memory Improvement (AO1)Verbal mnemonics:Acronym: ………………………………………………………………………………..............................................….………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................…………………….Example: ……………………………………………..........................................………………………………………...Why (or how) it works: …………………………………………………………................................………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………….................................................................................................…........................................................................................................................................................Acrostic: ……………............................................…………………………………………………………………..….………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................………………….Example: ………………………………………………………………………………..........................................……...Why (or how) it works: ………………………………………………………………................................…….………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................……….......................................................................................................................................................Rhyme: …………………………………...............................................……………………………………………..….………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................................................................Example: …………………………………………………………….........................................………………………...Why (or how) it works: …………………………………………………………………................................….………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................….......................................................................................................................................................Chunking: ………............................................………………………………………………………………………..….………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................…………….Example: ……………………………………………………………………………..........................................………...Why (or how) it works: ………………………………………………………………................................…….………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………...................................................................................................………….......................................................................................................................................................
  • 21. 21Visual imagery mnemonics:Mind Maps: …........................................……………………………………………………………………………..….………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................…….Example: …………………………………………………………………………………….............................................Why (or how) it works: ……………………………………………………………................................……….………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Method of Loci: ………...............................………………………………………………………………………..….………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................…….Example: …………………………………………………………………………………….............................................Why (or how) it works: …………………………………………………………………................................….………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Key Word Method: …………….........................…………………………………………………………………..….………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................….Example: …………………………………………………………………………………….............................................Why (or how) it works: …………………………………………………………………................................….………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Evaluation: Strategies for Memory Improvement (AO2)(1)Memory improvement techniques work.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………
  • 22. 22Evaluation Continued...(2)Visual imagery has been shown in many studies to enhance recall.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(3) Research into memory improvement strategies has validity.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………(1)Many of the memory improvement strategies are very simplistic.Explain: This means………………………………………………….................................................………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........……………Evidence/Example:……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………Evaluation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................………How can ESP help a person to remember information?
  • 23. 23Term Definition/ExplanationAcronymAcrosticAge of WitnessAnxietyArticulatoryStoreCapacityCentral ExecutiveChange thePerspectiveChunking
  • 24. 24CognitiveInterviewContextReinstatementDisplacementDurationEncodingEncodingSpecificityPrincipleEWTLeading QuestionsLTMMethod of LociMind-map
  • 25. 25MnemonicModel of MemoryMSMOwn-age BiasPhonological Loop(inc. PhonologicalStore)Post-EventInformationRehearsalRhymeSensory MemorySTMVisuo-SpatialSketchpadWeapon-focusEffectWorking MemoryModel