The effects ofInstitutionalisation i.e. what happens if a child doesn’t form an attachment early on in life
Definition - InstitutionalisationThis refers to the behaviour patterns of children who have been raised in institutions such as children’s homes.In institutions, children may have relationships with staff however; they may not have one-to-one attachments.
The effects of institutionalisation1. Make Poor Parents 2. Deprivation Dwarfism 3. Attachment Disorder
The effects of institutionalisation 1. Make poor parentsInstitutionalised children may become poorparents later in life.Quinton et al (1984)- Women raised in institutions had extreme difficulties when acting as parentsWhy might this be? Lack of a role model?
The effects of institutionalisation 1. Make poor parents• +VE: Harlow (1960)The monkeys raised in isolation (without a realmother) went on to become poor mothers,many rejected their own offspring How/why does this support the theory? What is the problem with Harlow’s research?
The effects of institutionalisation 2. Deprivation DwarfismChildren who have a lack of emotional care maybe physically underdeveloped, as well as havingemotional problems.The production of hormones are affected bysevere emotional disturbances which may resultin this dwarfism
The effects of institutionalisation 2. Deprivation Dwarfism• +VE: GenieDeprived of emotional care from an early agewhen Genie was found she was severelyphysically underdeveloped and found it difficultto form attachments How/why does this support the theory?What is the problem with using this research of Genie?
The effects of institutionalisation 2. Deprivation Dwarfism• -VE: Czech TwinsDeprived of emotional care the boys wereadopted and grew to be of above averageintelligence and developed well socially andemotionally How/why does this criticise the theory?What is the problem with using this research of the Czech Twins?
The effects of institutionalisation 3. Attachment DisorderA psychiatric disorder that affects a child’s social and emotional development. There are 3 factors related with Attachment Disorder:• i) Children have experienced severe neglect or frequent changes of caregiver.• ii) They have no preferred attachment figure.• iii) They have an inability to interact and relate to others (this is evident before the age of 5) Reactive (inhibited) – Shy and withdrawn Disinhibited – over-friendly and attention seeking
The effects of institutionalisation 3. Attachment Disorder• +VE: Hodges & TizardFound that the children from their research bythe age of 16 did not have a special friends,were not likely to be part of a social group andwere more likely to become bullies How/why does this support the theory? What is the problem with using Hodges & Tizard’s research?
The effects of institutionalisationOutline and evaluate research intothe effects of institutionalisation onchild development (12 marks)