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  1. 1. Objectives• Be able to define social norms• Be able to outline the Deviation from Social Norms definition• Be able to identify limitations of the DSN definition• Be able to apply DSN to Tourettes syndromeSome will be able to• Apply DSN to other disorders (e.g. Depression, schizophrenia)
  2. 2. Abnormality Definitions: Deviation from Social Norms Failure to Function AdequatelyDeviation from Ideal Mental Health
  3. 3. Deviation from Social Norms - Those who break the ‘rules/norms’ of society are abnormal Definitions Deviation from Failure to Function Ideal Mental Health Adequately - Those who lack - Those who characteristics ofcan’t cope with ideal mental daily life are health are abnormal abnormal
  4. 4. Deviation from Social NormsRecap: What are social norms? What are the 2 types? Social norms allow for the regulation of normal social behaviour. All societies have norms for appropriate behaviours and beliefs (expectations of how people should behave/thinkExamples:- A behaviour to suggest you are ‘normal’ e.g. Being quiet inthe cinema- A behaviour to suggest you are ‘abnormal’ e.g. Talking loudlyin the cinema
  5. 5. Deviation from Social Norms Deviation from Social Norms Someone is abnormal if they do not follow/break social norms
  6. 6. What’s wrong with it?Discuss with the person next to you potential problems with the DSN definition Does it Would it account for include different everyone? times in history? Does it account for difference cultures?
  7. 7. DSN – Limitations (A02)P – Social norms change over time and therefore abehaviour that broke social norms in the past wouldn’tnowE – For example an unmarried mother in the 1940/50’swould have been breaking social norms and so would havebeen classed as abnormalE – This is a limitation because it brings into questionthat validity of this definition in terms of definingabnormality – society has changed not the individual
  8. 8. DSN – Limitations (A02)P – Social norms differ between culturesE – For example in British culture it is considered politeto finish the food on your plate, but in India to finish allfood from your plate is a sign that you are still hungryE – This is a limitation because it means that thedefinition is different according to culture and the samecriteria cannot be applied universally
  9. 9. DSN – Limitations (A02)P – DSN does not distinguish between ‘abnormal’behaviour and deviant behaviourE – For example a drink-driver may have broken a socialnorm but would not be considered to have a mentalabnormalityE – This is a limitation because some behaviours aredeviant but not indicators of mental illness so the DSNdefinition is inadequate in identifying abnormality
  10. 10. Objectives• Be able to outline and identify DSN• Be able to list the 5 characteristics of the FFA definition• Be able to apply the characteristics of FFA to depression• Be able to identify limitations of FFASome will be able to-• Be able to apply the characteristics of FFA to other disorders• Be able to explain limitations of FFA
  11. 11. Failure to Function Adequately Failing to function is generally taken to mean that a person is unable to cope with everyday life.Their behaviour is seen to be maladaptive, disruptive (to work) and causing distress (self and others) Rosenham & Seligman (1989) suggested the characteristics It is the presence of these characteristics that indicate Psychological abnormality
  12. 12. Failure to Function AdequatelyPersonal Distress• Suffering Psychological distressObserver Distress• Causes discomfort to othersMaladaptive Behaviour• Behaviour interferes with ability to cope with normal life• Maladaptive or dysfunctionalUnpredictable Behaviour• Behaviour that doesn’t fit the situation, or is unexpected and uncontrolledIrrational Behaviour• Behaviour that doesn’t make sense to others
  13. 13. What’s wrong with it?Discuss with the person next to you potential problems with the FFA definition Could there be other What if the reasons for behaviour is someone desirable? failing to function? Can people still function normally with an abnormality?
  14. 14. FFA – Limitations (A02)P – Failing to function does not always indicate thepresence of a psychological abnormalityE – For example in the current economic climate someonemight struggle to hold down/get a job because of limitedavailability rather than a psychological abnormalityE – This is a limitation because environmental factorsbeyond an individuals’ control may cause a failure tofunction rather than a psychological abnormality
  15. 15. FFA – Limitations (A02)P – The presence of an abnormality doesn’t always resultin a failure to functionE – For example an individual with depression may be ableto keep a job and run a family successfullyE – This is a limitation because it shows that thisdefinition is inadequate in truly identifying behavioursthat may be considered abnormal, as an abnormalitymight not always result in an inability to function
  16. 16. FFA – Limitations (A02)P – Behaviour that looks as if it’s a ‘failure to function’may actually be desired/admired by societyE – For example some political prisoners will go on hungerstrike as part of their political protest will often berespectedE – This is a limitation because although starvingyourself may be seen as irrational, maladaptive andunpredictable (failing to function) but it isunderstandable in a certain context & not an indication ofan abnormality
  17. 17. Deviation from Ideal Mental Health This defintion stands out because it doesn’t directly define abnormality, but it outlines ‘ideal mental health’ and considers someone with an abnormality will deviate from these characteristics Marie Jahoda (1958) created a list of characteristics indicating psychological health and therefore an absence of these characteristics suggests abnormality
  18. 18. Characteristics...Strong sense of self- • Individual should be in touch with their own identity identity and feelings • Individual should be resistant to stress and Resistant to stress it’s negative effects • Individual should be focussed on the future Self-actualisation and fulfilling their potential • Individual should be able to function Autonomy independently, recognising own needs with an accurate perception of reality • Individual should show understanding towards Empathy others
  19. 19. What’s wrong with it?Discuss with the person next to you potential problems with the DIMH definition Can you easily decide Anything what ‘normal’ else? is? Can anyone realistically fulfil all of the criteria?
  20. 20. DIMH – Limitations (A02)P – The criteria of this definition are too idealisticE – For example Maslow (1968) argued that very fewpeople actually ever reach self-actualisationE – This is a limitation because if this definition is truemany of us would be considered abnormal as the criteriafor ideal mental health is set too high.
  21. 21. DIMH – Limitations (A02)P – The definition requires a subjective judgement onhow many criteria need to be absent to determineabnormalityE – For example one individual might consider a lack of 2criteria and another an absence of 4 criteria beforeconsidering the individual abnormalE – This is a limitation because using a subjectivejudgement in this way decreases the reliability andvalidity of the definition RM recap What does reliability mean? What does validity mean?
  22. 22. DIMH – Limitations (A02)P – The criteria of this definition are based on Westernculture – the definition is ethnocentricE – For example, Jahoda’s emphasis on personal growthand autonomy reflect Western individualistic culturerather than collectivist cultureE – This is a limitation because it means that thedefinition is subjective, may therefore be biased and thesame criteria cannot be applied universally.