Cognitive therapies

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Cognitive therapies

  1. 1. Cognitive Therapies/Treatments• Rational-Emotive Behavioural Therapy
  2. 2. Quick recap of the cognitiveapproach – what can you remember? Errors in thinking stimulus and responseCognitive Bias – Minimisation, maximisation, all or nothing, selective abstractionNegative Triad – Negative thinking of self, world and future Investigated using experiments (comparing cognitive therapies with other therapies)
  3. 3. If the cognitive approach believes that allabnormalities are the result of errors in thinking between a stimulus and response – whattreatments do you think the approach would use to treat disorders? (Or, what would the treatments focus on ?) Modifying thinking!!!
  4. 4. CBT – how it worksUsed for depression and some anxiety disorders• Aims to challenge irrational/maladaptive thoughts• Replace irrational thoughts with rational ones• Becks - Cognitive Therapy• Ellis’ – Rational-Emotive Behavioural TherapyEllis’ REBT is based on the idea that problems are theresult of irrational thinkingIncorporates the ABC model to demonstrate thatbeliefs are the main influence behind emotional well-being
  5. 5. ABC model – before REBTA B C • Activating • Beliefs • Consequences EventEllis believes that activating events in an individual’s life have consequences such as feelings and actions. However, these consequences are affected by beliefs about these eventsA B C • Failing a • I am never • State of driving test going to pass anxiety (even depression)
  6. 6. REBT – how it works•Ellis believes that irrational and self-defectingthoughts should be challenged•The therapy is focussed on designing a newbeliefs system – allowing the individual tointerpret situations in a more realistic andpositive way D B It was my first test, I am never going to pass this lots of people fail, test I’ll be ok in the end
  7. 7. ABC model – after REBTA B C • Activating • Beliefs • Consequences EventEllis believes that activating events in an individual’s life have consequences such as feelings and actions. However, these consequences are affected by beliefs about these eventsA B C • Failing a • It was my • State of driving test first test, anxiety (even lots of people depression) fail – it will
  8. 8. REBT – how it worksThe first part of the therapy is confrontational – with the aim of the therapist persuading the client that their beliefs are irrational and the cause of their emotional turmoilThe clients beliefs are constantly challenged (cognitive element)The client is given homework to make them face up to theirirrational beliefs in everyday life to ultimately change theirbehaviour (behavioural element)The eventual goal is full acceptance of the new, rational beliefs
  9. 9. REBT – how it works E.G – someone with OCD who has to turn a light switch on and off 30 times before leaving a room becausethey fear something awful will happen to them if they don’t. The person is taught to challenge this belief andthen change their behaviour to match their new belief
  10. 10. CBT– is it any good as a treatment?Yes and no…+ Engels et al (1993) found that CBT is effective in some cases- CBT isn’t effective for all disorders- Ignores the idea that some disorders may be due to biological factors
  11. 11. CBT is effectiveFor example, Engels et al (1993) conducted meta-analysis andconcluded that CBT is effective for a range of differentdisorders e.g. OCDThis is positive because it suggests that CBT can be usefulto more people than many other treatments, especially as it doesn’t involve the use of drugs
  12. 12. CBT isn’t effective for all disordersFor example, it’s not effective in treating disorders such asschizophrenia – where anti-psychotics would be preferable This means that CBT isn’t always the best therapy for everyone and the needs of the client need to be considered
  13. 13. CBT doesn’t acknowledge that biology could play a part in disordersFor example, according to the biological approachdepression is caused by low levels of serotonin This is problematic as it ignores the role the biologycould play in certain disorders and means that CBT will not work for all clients

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