Cognitive interview


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Cognitive interview

  1. 1. Cognitive Interview technique to encourage information recall Fisher & Combined findingsGeiselman (1992) from research into memory with the traditional interview style
  2. 2. Cognitive Interview Standard InterviewEncourages witness to recreate Witnesses are bombarded withthe original context using open brief questions to elicit factsquestionsBased on the idea that there are Witnesses are frequentlymany retrieval paths to each interrupted which can breakmemory concentrationRetrieval cues improve memory Closed questionsrecallInterview technique should Answers are usually shortmaximise the amount ofrecalled detailWitness is given time to recall Interview technique doesn’t maximise recall
  3. 3. Cognitive interview techniques - 1 Context Instruct the witness to mentally return toReinstatement the place of the event Recall the environment and emotional context, preceding eventsWhy would this help improve memory recall?May provide the witness with retrieval cues to help access memory of the event
  4. 4. Cognitive interview techniques - 2Report Everything Instruct the witness to recall the maximum amount of information possible, even if it seem trivial Why would this help improve memory recall? What might seem irrelevant to the witness might not be to the investigation, irrelevant details might also serve as a retrieval cue and prompt further recall
  5. 5. Cognitive interview techniques - 3 Change Instruct the witness to try to recount the Perspective scene from the perspective of someone else involvedWhy would this help improve memory recall? Might result in the witness recalling a piece of information via a different recall route
  6. 6. Cognitive interview techniques - 4Reverse Order Instruct the witness to recount the scene in a different chronological orderWhy would this help improve memory recall? Might result in the witness recalling a piece of information via a different recall route
  7. 7. Conduct your own CognitiveThe Cognitive Interview works on 2 principles Interview1. Witnesses need time and encouragement to recall information & so the CI improves accuracy 2. Retrieval cues enhance memory recall (Tulving & Thompson – Encoding Specificity Principle ESP) ESP You recall things better if the retrieval context is the same or similar to the encoding context.If you learn and recall in the same or similar surroundings then you should remember more than if they were in different settings
  8. 8. Cognitive Interview - evaluation CI enhances recall Milne & Bull (2002) found that all 4 techniques used singularly produced more recall from CI has positive witnesses than aapplications to real life standard interview This is positive because it means that the memory recall of witnesses can be improved by using 4 simple techniques as part of the interview process
  9. 9. Cognitive Interview - evaluationEvidence for ESP Godden & Baddeley (1975) asked divers to learn a word list either on land or 15feetFurther support for the under water – recall wassuccess of the cognitive 30% better when in the interview same context as the learning.This is positive as it supports the concept behind CIinstruction in that memory is significantly improvedwhen encoding and recall are in the same or similar environments
  10. 10. Cognitive Interview - evaluationCI doesn’t improve recall in all cases Geiselman (1999) reviewed a number of cases and found that in children under the age of 6, recall of Possibly due to the event was slightly lesscomplex instructions accurateThis is problematic because it shows that CI is not thebest method to enhance recall in all cases, questioning whether the EWT from children should be used in court
  11. 11. Cognitive Interview - evaluation Ethical Issues For example, someone who witnessed a particularly violent murder or sexual Participants and witnesses assault might find going should be protected from through the event in suchundue harm during interview detail too traumatic This is a weakness as part of the cognitive interview process participants may be asked to recall traumatic events that could cause distress