Biological, Cognitive and Learningapproaches to explaining initiation,maintenance and relapse, and theirapplications to sm...
Initiation Maintenance RelapseAddictionA repetitive habit pattern thatincreases the risk of diseaseand/or associated perso...
Cognitive ExplanationIn groups identify key words that youassociate with the cognitive approachto PsychologyHow can we app...
According to the CognitiveApproach• Addiction is due to dysfunctional beliefs(e.g. A belief that they can‟t get throughthe...
Smoking initiation –TPBAttitude – positive/negativeevaluation of the behaviourSubjective norm – Perception ofnorms/pressur...
Smoking initiation –TPBAttitude towards thebehaviour e.g., smokingwill make me popularSubjective normse.g., my friends smo...
Smoking initiation –TPBConner et al (2006) investigated the role of planned behaviourin smoking initiation in 11-12 year o...
Smoking initiation –TPBIt is estimated that over one-third of the world‟ssmokers live in China, so identifying people most...
Smoking maintenance & relapse- Cognitive processing modelWe pay little attention to routine tasks.When a behaviour such a ...
Smoking maintenance & relapse- Cognitive processing modelThis was supported by Hester andGaravan (2005) who suggest that a...
Smoking maintenance & relapse- Cognitive processing modelBrandon (2004) suggests that as anaddiction develops, the activit...
Cognitive ExplanationIDEA‟s /A03Approaches:Alternative approach?Debates:Determinism Vs. Free willNomothetic Vs.Idiographic...
According to the CognitiveApproach• Addiction is due to dysfunctional beliefs(e.g. A belief that they can‟t get throughthe...
Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceInitially –It would befun/exciting/interestingto gambleEventually…I must put a bet on ...
Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceKoski-Jannes (1992) found that addictions caninitially form from short-sighted means o...
Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceAccording to the Rational Choice theoryshould addicts be able to make the decisionto s...
Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceHow can we apply this theory to create atherapy?A02Floyd et al (2006) demonstrated tha...
Gambling M&R- Cognitive BiasGambling addiction may also be based oncognitive bias, i.e., gamblers may haveirrational thoug...
Gambling M&R- Cognitive BiasGriffiths (1994) set out to discover whether regular gamblersthought and behaved differently t...
Gambling M&R- Cognitive Bias A02Brandon (2004) – loss ofcontrol can be explained asthe cognitive approach viewsgambling be...
Cognitive ExplanationIDEA‟s /A03Approaches:Alternative approach?Debates:Determinism Vs. Free willNomothetic Vs.Idiographic...
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Cognitive explanations 2013

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Cognitive explanations 2013

  1. 1. Biological, Cognitive and Learningapproaches to explaining initiation,maintenance and relapse, and theirapplications to smoking and gamblingAddictive Behaviour
  2. 2. Initiation Maintenance RelapseAddictionA repetitive habit pattern thatincreases the risk of diseaseand/or associated personal andsocial problemsOften experiencedsubjectively as a „loss ofcontrol‟The behaviour continuesdespite attempts to abstainor moderate use
  3. 3. Cognitive ExplanationIn groups identify key words that youassociate with the cognitive approachto PsychologyHow can we apply these terms toaddictive behaviour?i) Theory of planned behaviourii) Cognitive processingiii) Cognitive bias
  4. 4. According to the CognitiveApproach• Addiction is due to dysfunctional beliefs(e.g. A belief that they can‟t get throughthe day without engaging in their addictiveactivity)• Maladaptive thoughts may link to mood• Incapability of controlling the addiction• Positive consequences outweigh negative• Has formed the basis for lots of verysuccessful treatmentsA01People who engage in potentially self-destructive activities such as addictivebehaviours have impaired control over theirown actions.They often want to stop or reduce theiraddiction but seem unable to do so.One reason for this is that addicts havefaulty ways of thinking when they areweighing up the consequences of an actiondemonstrating a preference for immediatereward over future benefits– Cognitive Myopia
  5. 5. Smoking initiation –TPBAttitude – positive/negativeevaluation of the behaviourSubjective norm – Perception ofnorms/pressures to performbehaviour (including motivation tocomply)Perceived behavioural control –belief that they can carry out thebehaviour based on internal &external control factorsBehaviouralintentionActualBehaviourOn the TPB sheets infront of you, in pairs thinkof as many attitudes,subjective norms andbehavioural controls asyou can think of relatingto smokingA01
  6. 6. Smoking initiation –TPBAttitude towards thebehaviour e.g., smokingwill make me popularSubjective normse.g., my friends smokeand I want theirapprovalPerceived behaviouralcontrol e.g., I cangive up when I want toBehaviouralintentionActualBehaviourI.e., startsmokingA01
  7. 7. Smoking initiation –TPBConner et al (2006) investigated the role of planned behaviourin smoking initiation in 11-12 year olds.- 675 non-smoking adolescents with various baseline measuresincluding TPB- 9 months later they checked whether any of the adolescentshad taken up smoking, (they used a carbon-monoxide breathmonitor to assess this).- They found that behavioural intentions were generally a goodpredictor of later smoking behaviour.This shows that cognitive factors in adolescents may influencewhether an individual becomes addicted to smoking. Thesecognitive factors are also influenced by social factorsassociated with group membership and a feeling of groupacceptance.A02
  8. 8. Smoking initiation –TPBIt is estimated that over one-third of the world‟ssmokers live in China, so identifying people most likelyto start smoking is important in developing preventioncampaigns.- Guo et al (2007) tested more than 14,000 Chineseschoolchildren with TPB measures and found that thesemeasures were useful predictors of later smokingbehaviour.• This supports the cognitive explantion of smokinginitiation as it shows a link between cognitive factorsand the start of smoking behaviour.A02
  9. 9. Smoking maintenance & relapse- Cognitive processing modelWe pay little attention to routine tasks.When a behaviour such a smoking becomespart of our routine, we become so practiced,that the behaviour becomes automatic e.g.,buying cigarettes, lighting up a cigarette(Tiffany 1990). The cognitive processingmodel therefore suggests that smokingbehaviours are maintained because over aperiod of time they simply becomeautomatic.Think of some things that might trigger anautomatic smoking responseA01
  10. 10. Smoking maintenance & relapse- Cognitive processing modelThis was supported by Hester andGaravan (2005) who suggest that asthe addictive thoughts are in workingmemory; so the environmental featuresassociated with the addiction are alsogiven attention and focused on – whichin turn leads to thoughts about theaddiction. They suggest that addictivebehaviours and cravings thereforebecome self-perpetuating and thismaintains the addiction.A02
  11. 11. Smoking maintenance & relapse- Cognitive processing modelBrandon (2004) suggests that as anaddiction develops, the activity isinfluenced less by conscious expectationsbut rather unconscious expectationsinvolving automatic processes – explainingthe „loss of control‟ subjectivelyexperienced by addictsA02
  12. 12. Cognitive ExplanationIDEA‟s /A03Approaches:Alternative approach?Debates:Determinism Vs. Free willNomothetic Vs.IdiographicIssues:SubjectiveEthics:Human (social sensitivity?)A03Individual differences
  13. 13. According to the CognitiveApproach• Addiction is due to dysfunctional beliefs(e.g. A belief that they can‟t get throughthe day without engaging in their addictiveactivity)• Maladaptive thoughts may link to mood• Incapability of controlling the addiction• Positive consequences outweigh negative• Has formed the basis for lots of verysuccessful treatmentsA01People who engage in potentially self-destructive activities such as addictivebehaviours have impaired control over theirown actions.They often want to stop or reduce theiraddiction but seem unable to do so.One reason for this is that addicts havefaulty ways of thinking when they areweighing up the consequences of an actiondemonstrating a preference for immediatereward over future benefits– Cognitive Myopia
  14. 14. Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceInitially –It would befun/exciting/interestingto gambleEventually…I must put a bet on today,I must log onto the onlinebingoGambling seems like a rational choice at the beginning – it‟s exciting/daringto engage in gambling, however soon the individuals thinking changesEventually the behaviour changes from being exciting to being an absolutenecessity…It would be awful to forget to get a lottery ticket, I‟ve got to put a bet ontodayA01
  15. 15. Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceKoski-Jannes (1992) found that addictions caninitially form from short-sighted means of dealingwith stressful situations, giving initially positive butlater negative consequences, leading to a self-perpetuating cycle of addiction regulated by self-serving thoughts.This demonstrates that addicts are likely to seekonly the short-term consequences of a behaviourand so it is easy to make a rational choice to engagein the behaviour – link to gambling…A02
  16. 16. Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceAccording to the Rational Choice theoryshould addicts be able to make the decisionto stop the gambling behaviour entirely?YES!A02If any activity is measured interms of its utility (i.e.,benefit), then the individualmight reach a point wherebylife is so unpleasant and theprospect of a better lifewithout the addictivebehaviour is so strong thatthey choose to stop.For example, if a gambler wasfacing bankruptcy, losingfamily, friends, facing prisonetc it is likely that eventuallythe Rational Choice would be tostop gambling – in theory thiswould continue to be therational choice until thesituation changed
  17. 17. Gambling initiation- Rational ChoiceHow can we apply this theory to create atherapy?A02Floyd et al (2006) demonstrated thatCognitive Therapy can be effective inchanging the beliefs and gambling behaviourof students who were asked to playcomputerised roulette with imaginary money.This suggests that the cognitive problemsidentified and explained by the theory mustbe important factors in developing andmaintaining addictive behaviours.If cognitivetherapieshelp to treatgambling itsuggeststhat thecause wascognitive
  18. 18. Gambling M&R- Cognitive BiasGambling addiction may also be based oncognitive bias, i.e., gamblers may haveirrational thoughts or faulty beliefs thatdistort the reasoning of their gamblingbehaviour i.e., they make irrationalverbalisations to justify continuing to gamblesuch as; “I am due a win any day now”This is known as the gamblers fallacy – i.e.,the belief that subsequent events will cancelout previous events to produce arepresentative sequence – Holtgraves andSkeel 1992. As well as the mistaken beliefthat the probability of winning will increasewith the length of an on-going run of losses(Wagenaar, 1988)This cognitive bias makes it difficult to giveup the gambling behaviour.A01Cognitive Bias is apattern of judgmentwhere an individualmakesinferences/drawsconclusions about asituation in an illogicalway
  19. 19. Gambling M&R- Cognitive BiasGriffiths (1994) set out to discover whether regular gamblersthought and behaved differently to non-regular gamblers.This shows that gambling addiction is based oncognitive bias, featuring irrational thoughts thatdistort the reasoning of addictive gamblers.30 regulargamblers30 non- regulargamblersRegular gamblers believed they were more skilful than they actually were,and were more likely to make irrational verbalisations during play (e.g.“putting a quid in bluffs the machine”). They tended to treat the machineas if it were a person (e.g. referring to the mood of the machine).Regular gamblers also explained away their losses as „near wins‟ – thisjustified their continuationA02
  20. 20. Gambling M&R- Cognitive Bias A02Brandon (2004) – loss ofcontrol can be explained asthe cognitive approach viewsgambling behaviour to beinfluenced by unconsciousexpectationsAutomatic processingRatelle et al (2004) – found viaquestionnaire, that gambling addicts hadpersistent thoughts about gambling andhad poorer concentration on daily tasks- Continual focus on gambling will makechanging a bias view extremely difficultToneatto (1999) – identified typicalcognitive distortions of gamblers includingmaximisation, magnification, superstitiousbeliefs, selective memory and illusion ofcontrol – all of which illustrate faultythinkingJoukhador et al (2003)found problem gamblers heldmore irrational beliefs (e.g.illusions of control) thansocial gamblers
  21. 21. Cognitive ExplanationIDEA‟s /A03Approaches:Alternative approach?Debates:Determinism Vs. Free willNomothetic Vs.IdiographicIssues:SubjectiveEthics:Human (social sensitivity?)A03Individual differences

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