Clinical characteristics


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Clinical characteristics

  1. 1. Unit 4PsychopathologySchizophrenia Specification –Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia
  2. 2. Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia AO1Schizophrenia is seen as a serious disorder that ischaracterised by:• distorted thinking• impaired emotional responses• poor interpersonal skills• decreased attention and motivation• distortion of reality
  3. 3. Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia AO1The term schizophrenia does not represent one disorder but agroup of disorders – there are thought to be 5 main types ofschizophrenia:• Disorganised• Catatonic• Paranoid• Undifferentiated• ResidualMake sure you can identify the key characteristics of thedifferent types of schizophrenia by completing the researchexercise in the extension materials (back of the booklet)
  4. 4. Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia It is the most common and best AO1 known of the psychotic disorders Symptoms not cause! ICD-10 DSM-IV 1% in over Frequently 18s revised
  5. 5. Clinical characteristics of schizophreniaSchizophrenia is a serious mental disordercharacterised by severe disruptions in psychological AO1functioning and a loss of contact with reality.It is largely seen as a serious disorder that affects the person’sthinking processes, emotions, attention, relationships andmotivation.
  6. 6. Clinical characteristics of schizophreniaDevelopment • Usually develops in early adult life AO1 • Men and women equally affected Gender • Female onset is typically 5-10 years later Children • Childhood schizophrenia is rare • Periods of psychotic behaviour interspersed with Episodic period of more ‘normal’ functioning • Depression frequently occurs with schizophrenia Depression • 10-15% of people diagnosed commit suicide
  7. 7. Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia AO1 Chronic onset Acute onset • Insidious change • Signs appear suddenly • Young person • Usually as a result of gradually loses stress drive/motivation • Very disturbed • Months/years of behaviour visible in deterioration days
  8. 8. Clinical characteristics of schizophreniaPositive symptoms - are those which are inaddition to the individual’s behaviour. AO1Negative symptoms - involve losses of emotion, interests,pleasure, etc. Positive Symptoms Negative Symptoms 1. Hallucinations 2. Delusions (persecution, grandeur) 1. Affective Flattening 3. Disorganised thinking 2. Alogia (poverty of speech) (including disorganised 3. Avolition (no goal directed speech e.g., clangs) behaviour) 4. Disorganised behaviour 5. Catatonic behaviour
  9. 9. Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia In small groups, complete the case study exercise on page 22 Be prepared to feedback your answers to the classAMY: Mute, rigid posture, waxy flexibility, uncooperative (negativism?),extreme agitationCatatonic SchizophreniaELIZABETH: Delusions, hallucinations (auditory), Paranoia, no speechdeficits.Paranoid SchizophreniaMICHAEL: Bizarre behaviours, hallucinations (random), Social Isolation,language distortion, Emotional disturbance.Hebephrenic (Disorganised) Schizophrenia
  10. 10. Clinical characteristics – language difficultiesAn example of an incoherent word salad I am writing on paper. The pen which I am using is from a factory called “Perry and Co”. This factory is in England. I assume this. Behind the name Perry and Co, the city of London is inscribed, but not the city. The city of London is in England. I know this from my school days. Then I always like Geography; which hand has got a frog in it? My last teacher was Professor August A. He was a man with black eyes. I also like black eyes. There are also blue and grey eyes and other sorts, too. I have heard it said that snakes have green eyes. All people have eyes. There are some, too, who are blind. These blind people are led by a boy………… It is close to February, I feel claustrophobia. I am the nun. If that’s not enough, you are still his. That is a brave cavalier, take him as your husband Karoline, you well know, though you are my Lord, you were just a dream. If you are the dove-cote, Mrs. K. is still beset by fear. Otherwise I am not so exact in eating. Handle the gravy carefully. Where is the paintbrush? Where are you Herman? The King of Spain feels no pain in the drain of the crane. I’m lame, you’re tame: with fame, I’ll be the same you glump wooger. Identify any: Clangs ~ Neologisms ~
  11. 11. Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia AO1 Individual Written Activity Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (8 marks)