AttachmentDefinition: •An emotional bond between 2 people •2 way process that endures over time•Serves the function of protecting the child
Explanations of Attachment You need to know 2 explanations of attachment Learning Theory Bowlby’s Theory Attachment is Attachment is learned innate
Bowlby’s TheoryA01 Infants form attachments because it’s adaptive Adaptive = good for survival An infant displays social Babies have an ‘attachment gene’ releasers (such as crying, smiling) which - Ensuring the infant increase their chances stays close to caregiver of receiving care for food and protection
Bowlby’s Theory ContD…A01 Parents also have an Which drives the ‘attachment gene’ parents to provide careParents are driven to provide care for the infant while -this is also adaptive they’re young and (increases chances of defenceless – the critical genes continuing to period the next generation) Bowlby suggested that infants make one main attachment – called monotropy
A01 Bowlby’s Theory – beyond infancy The first The attachment relationship behaviours in provides the the internal infant with an working model attachment continue to template follow the same template in the future Internal Continuity working hypothesis model
A01 Bowlby’s Theory – key terms Social Releasers There’re loads – Attachment Gene make sure they’re in your Glossary Critical Period and that you KNOW them! Internal Working Model Continuity Hypothesis Monotropy
A02 Bowlby’s Theory – A02 Can you remember anything from Learning Theory A02 that you can apply to Bowlby’s theory?
Lorenz found that newly Hazen & Shaver hatched goose (after Conducted the ‘love quiz’ which assessed adult seeing Lorenz shortly romantic relationships andafter hatching) following childhood relationships and him everywhere and he found a strong correlationbecame their ‘imprinted between the 2 attachment parent’ types Howes et al Post-hocFound that parent- This means that the child relationships theory is based onwere not necessarily assumptions made the same as child- ‘after the fact’ peer relationships
A02 Bowlby’sTheory – Evaluation Positive Lorenz (1952) Lorenz found that newly hatched goose (after seeing Lorenz shortly after hatching) following him everywhere and he Why is that became their ‘imprinted Positive parent’ criticism?!
A02 Bowlby’sTheory – Evaluation Positive Hazen & Conducted the ‘love quiz’ Shaver which assessed adult romantic relationships and childhood relationships and Why is that found a strong Positive correlation between criticism?! the 2 attachment types
A02 Bowlby’s Theory – Evaluation Negative Howes et al (1994) Found that parent-child relationships were not necessarily the same as Why is that child-peer relationships negative criticism?!
A02 Bowlby’sTheory – Evaluation Negative This means that the Post-hoc theory is based on assumptions made ‘after the fact’ The theory looks Why is that backwards and argues Negative that specific behaviour is criticism?! adaptive just because it persists
In pairs write at least 15 key wordsKey words that link to the Evolutionary Theory of Attachment Glossary• Evolutionary Theory – Attachment is innate• Social Releasers• Attachment Gene• Critical Period• Internal Working Model• Continuity Hypothesis• Monotropy• Hazen & Shaver• Howes et al• Post-hoc
Exam style questionsHave a go at the following questions1. What is meant by the term attachment? (2 marks)2. Explain how the behavioural explanation of attachment differs from the evolutionary explanation of attachment. (4 marks)3. Explain two limitations of the evolutionary perspective explanation of attachment. (2 marks + 2 marks)