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  • 1. 1AS Psychology: Unit 1 PSYA1 (January exam) Revision Revision for Attachment Booklets 1 and 2 Attachment DictionaryNNaammee..................................................................
  • 2. 2Explanations of AttachmentAttachment: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..You need to know two explanations of attachment………………………………..………… ….………………………….........(attachment is learned) (attachment is innate)The Behavioural Explanation (Learning Theory) (AO1)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Create a set of buzz words to help you remember the Behavioural Explanation...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 3. 3Evaluation of the Behavioural Explanation (AO2)(1)Learning theory can provide an adequate explanation of how attachments form.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)There is strong evidence from Psychological studies that suggests thatattachments that form between and infant and their primary caregiver or not basedon feeding.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)Evidence against Learning theory comes from Harlow’s research (1959).Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……However, can you think of any problems with Harlow’s research?......................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 4. 4(3)Further evidence against Learning theory comes from Lorenz’s theory ofimprinting.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……The Evolutionary Perspective (Bowlby’s Theory) (AO1)The Evolutionary Theory of Attachment……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......................................................................................................................................Create a set of buzz words to help you remember the Evolutionary Explanation...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 5. 5Evaluation of the Evolutionary Explanation (Bowlby’s Theory) (AO2)(1)Lorenz’s imprinting study can be used as evidence to support Bowlby’s theory.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)Hazen and Shaver’s research can be used to support Bowlby’s theory.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)However, Howes et al (1994) provide evidence against Bowlby’s theory.Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)The Evolutionary argument is a post-hoc assumption:Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……
  • 6. 6Differences between the Behavioural and Evolutionary Theories:Behavioural Explanation:‘Learning Theory’WHEREASEvolutionary Explanation: ‘Bowlby’sTheory’Types of Attachment: Individual Differences in AttachmentResearch study into ‘individual differences in attachment’:(including the 4 key observations and findings (3 categories))Aim:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…....................................................................................................................................Procedure:…………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………...........................................................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......…Findings:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......…………………………………………………………………………………………......………………………………………Conclusions:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...........................................................................................................................
  • 7. 7Characteristic Behaviours of each ‘Attachment Type’:Evaluation of the ‘Strange Situation’ Study (AO2)(1)The Strange Situation provides a huge amount of detail very quickly.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)The study can be criticised for ethical issues.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……ATTACHMENTTYPE:BEHAVIOUR CATEGORY:Separation Anxiety Stranger Anxiety Reunion Behaviour Willingness to ExploreSecurelyAttachedInsecure-AvoidantInsecure-Resistant
  • 8. 8(2)Another criticism is that the classification system doesn’t fit all infants.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(3)Another weakness of the Strange Situation is that it lacks ecological validity.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……Causes (or Influences) of Differences in Attachment Type:What factors affect the type of attachment infants have with their primarycaregiver?1. Sensitivity of the mother: …………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...2. ‘Temperament hypothesis’: …………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 9. 9Effects of Attachment Type:How can early attachments shape behaviour in later life?1. Behaviour at school: ……………………………………………………………………………..……………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2. Adult romantic behaviour: …………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...Cultural Variations in Attachment (AO1)Research demonstrating Cross Cultural differences (................................)Aim:.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Procedure:...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Findings:...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Conclusions:.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 10. 10Evaluation of Cross-cultural variations (AO2)(1)The Strange Situation is easy to replicate cross-culturally.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)However, comparing cultures using the Strange Situation attachmentbehaviour may be ethnocentric.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)Furthermore, Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg used the Strange Situationtechnique which can be criticised as lacking ecological validity.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……
  • 11. 11(3)Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……Disruption of AttachmentAre the effects of short term separation long lasting?The Robertson’s and Bowlby’s Naturalistic Observation(AO1)Research study into disruption of attachment: Robertson and Bowlby (1952)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………The ‘PDD’ Model:• ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………• ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………• ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 12. 12Evaluation of Robertson’s and Bowlby’s Study (AO2):(1)The study used a naturalistic observation which has high ecological validity.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)The research may suffer from observer bias.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)Disruption of attachment is more complex than Robertson and Bowlby suggested.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……
  • 13. 13As well as attachment type what other factorsaffect a child’s response to disruption of attachment?(1) Age of the child:....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(2) The sex of the child:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................PrivationAre the effects of privation reversible?Privation (definition): ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Research into the effects of Privation: Hodges and Tizard (1989)Aim:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………Procedure:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………..........................................................................................................................……….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Findings:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................................................................................................…….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Conclusions:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 14. 14Evaluation of Hodges and Tizard’s Study (AO2)(1)Support for Hodges and Tizard comes from the case study of Genie.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……However, it may be that Genie was retarded meaning that she would have neverfunctioned ‘normally’ anyway.(1)The study can be criticised for attrition.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)The Hodges and Tizard study can be criticised as there is contradictoryevidence.Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……...............................................................................................................................................................Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……However, .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 15. 15The Effects of Institutionalisation/ PrivationDefinition Institutionalisation: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................AO1 Poor ParentingEvidence to support Poor Parenting (AO2)Further research supports the idea that early institutionalisation can leadto poor parenting.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……AO1 Deprivation Dwarfism
  • 16. 16Evidence to support Deprivation Dwarfism (AO2)The case study of Genie supports the assumption of deprivation dwarfism.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……However:Research has suggested that the age at which privation is stopped caneffect later development.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……AO1 Attachment Disorder
  • 17. 17Evidence to support Attachment Disorder (AO2)Hodges and Tizard’s (1989) longitudinal study supports the idea ofAttachment Disorder.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……However:Research has suggested that the quality of care at the institute can affectfuture development.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……
  • 18. 18Day CareThe effects of day care on social development1. The impact of day care on aggressionDay care can increase aggression (AO1):………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................Day care can reduce aggression (AO1):………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................................................................................................1. The impact of daycare on aggression2. The impact ofday care on peerrelations
  • 19. 19Evaluation of research into effects of day care on aggression(AO2)(1)Most research into the effects of day care on social development has highecological validity.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)The research into the effects of day care is contradictory.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)The impact of day care on social development is more complex than the researchsuggests.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……
  • 20. 20(3)A weakness is that most of the research into the effects of day care on socialdevelopment is correlational (e.g.___________________________________)Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……2. The impact of day care on peer relations(AO1) Day care can lead to more advanced peer relations (moresociability)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(AO1) Day care can lead to less advanced peer relations (decrease insociability)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 21. 21Evaluation of research into effects of day care on peer relations(A02)(1)Most research into the effects of day care on social development has highecological validity.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(1)The research into the effects of day care is contradictory.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……(2)The impact of day care on social development is more complex than the researchsuggests.Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……
  • 22. 22(3)A weakness is that most of the research into the effects of day care on socialdevelopment is correlational (e.g.___________________________________)Explain: …………………………………………………………..................................................................................…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............…Evidence/Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………........................................................……Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………........................................................................................………………...........................……Implications of research into attachment for childcare practicesWhat is meant by the term ‘implication’? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Hospital admissions Problems raised by research:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................ Solutions to these problems:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 23. 23Adoption Problems raised by research:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Solutions to these problems:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Implications of research into day care for childcare practicesStaff:Child ratios: Problems raised by research:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Solutions to these problems:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 24. 24High Turnover of Staff: Problems raised by research:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................ Solutions to these problems:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...........………................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Question CheckpointA psychologist conducted a research study to investigate the implications ofproviding caregivers with training designed to increase their sensitivity.Twenty caregivers were randomly assigned to the group receiving training toincrease their sensitivity. The remaining twenty, a control group, received nosuch training.The findings were that caregivers in receipt of sensitivity training wererated as more sensitive than caregivers in the control group. For childrenaround the age of two, those in the care of the caregivers who received thesensitivity training were more secure in their attachments than those whowere cared for by the control group. The researcher concluded the findingswere directly due to the sensitivity training.(a)Which experimental design was used in this study? (1 mark)................................................................................................................................................
  • 25. 25Term Definition/ExplanationAdult romanticrelationshipsAttachmentAttachmentdisorderAttritionBehaviouralExplanation(Learning Theory)Behaviour atschoolClassicalConditioning
  • 26. 26Cross-culturalvariationsCupbaord LoveTheory (part ofthe behaviouralexplanation)Day CareDeprivationdwarfismDespairDetachmentEvolutionaryExplanation(Bowlby’s Theory)ImprintingInsecure-avoidantInsecure-resistantInstitutionalisation
  • 27. 27Internal WorkingModel (continuityhypothesis)Key workerLongitudinalresearchMonotropyPrivationProtestPoor parentingPost-hocassumptionReunion Behaviour
  • 28. 28SecureAttachmentSensitivity ofmotherSeparationAnxietySocial releasersStrange SituationStranger AnxietyTemperamentHypothesisWillingness toexplore (from asecure base)

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