Lines of Appeal Model AnswersQuestion 1. Use of humour as a persuasive device. This advert for Intersport (a sports clothing and equipment retailer) uses the juxtaposition of two easily recognisable (but very different) situations put together to create humour. The runner on a treadmill which is actually a conveyer belt at a supermarket is used to reinforce the message of the advert that we all have a desire to partake in sporting activities and that with the right equipment, there is nothing stopping us. This is taken to exaggerated proportions in the advert, creating an impossible situation which is obviously ridiculous and incongruous to real life. The target audience would be the Mainstreamers from Young & Rubicam‟s 4Cs model. The ideologiesencoded in the advert are that sport can be an everyday activity for anyone. That it should beas much a part of your daily routine as shopping in the supermarket. There is also a universalappeal in the advert through the assumption that everyone has a desire to „Free‟ the sportinside them. The audience may also recognise the Adidas logo on the clothing. Adidas is along standing and world renowned brand and therefore valued by the Mainstreameraudience. The prestige of the Adidas brand may also appeal to the Succeeder audience type,who look for „the best‟, this may also be reinforced by the ideology encoded that manypeople lead busy lives which makes physical fitness difficult to fit in as part of their hecticschedule, again fulfilling the needs of the Succeeder audience.Question 2. Use of slogans. In some ways this slogan is effective simply because of its fame and notoriety, but it is worth analysing just why the slogan has enjoyed the longevity it has. Obviously three short words are easy to remember however there is more to the slogan‟s effectiveness than this. The slogan is an imperative, it tells the audience to do something. This acts as an order, but also creates a link to the audience establishing arelationship and therefore allowing them to form Personal Identity with the brand.The slogan offers a positive ideology that „anything is possible‟, all that is required is action,fulfilling the need to achieve. To emphasise this, the verb „Do‟, central to the slogan, signifiesactivity of some kind. The word „Just‟ connotes that there is simplicity in the command and
Lines of Appeal Model Answersthat to achieve what you want in life needn‟t be complicated or „put off‟ for another day. Theword „It‟ is open to interpretation – suggesting that everyone has their own „It‟ in life and thisreinforces the personal identity that the audience will have already formed. When presentedin print form, the slogan is always concluded by a full stop. This small punctuation markconnotes that there is nothing left to discuss, that no other advice needs to be taken onboard other than that offered by Nike.Question 3. The use of shock tactics. This advert for fashion label Dolce & Gabbana caused much controversy with an obviously shocking image in an advert that was banned in many countries. The ad represents what looks to be an attack on a young woman, as she is restrained by one man and another three look on voyeuristically. For many, the implication is that she will be raped. This representation of women as weak, submissive and to be usedfor violent sexual abuse was rejected by many and seen as promoting sexual violence againstwomen. However this would give weight to the Hypodermic Syringe or Inoculation audiencetheories which treat the audience as passive robots, unable to make their own decisions.Modern thinking suggests that audiences are actively involved with consuming the media. Soif audiences already reject the ideology of violence against women this advert is unlikely tochange their mind. In this case we must look closer at why it is so shocking. Firstly the advertcreates fear by challenging certain needs we have – the need for safety is clearly challengedby the image. Also the need to nurture and protect those who are vulnerable is madeimpossible. In addition to this the audience is positioned in a way that forces us to lookwithout helping. Even more uncomfortable is that the advert positions the audience in a waythat suggests that we are one of the figures partaking as they all look on.Apart from presenting challenges to our needs, the advert also juxtaposes different needswith the violent act depicted in the advert. Sexualising the models used, both men andwomen wear clothes and have body types which connote sex appeal and are generallyconsidered an aspiration or even „beautiful‟ within the context of advertising. The elite brandname also fulfils the need for prominence. Experiencing the fulfilment of these needs sharplycontrasts with a hideous and taboo act – making the audience feel uncomfortable,challenged and even exploited.Question 5. Stereotypes in advertising.
Lines of Appeal Model Answers This advert for Post-it notes uses the Stereotype of men as forgetful and occasionally thoughtless in regards to their relationships with women. Whilst it is not necessarily suggesting that thisman has so many sexual partners that he has to use the notes to remember them all, it may be considered a negotiated reading that the ad also uses thestereotype of men as being promiscuous. It also stereotypes men as finding practical solutions to problems even if they might not always be appropriate!Question 6. Intertextuality in advertising. This simple but effective advert uses various intertextual references and primarily uses Nostalgia as a technique to engage with the audience and encourage them to Personally Identify with the text. The main image is of a cassette tape, now seen as an obsolete form of musical storage but one which people will recognise as having its heyday in the 1980s. This particular era is in popular consciousness at the moment as the clothing, music and cultural effects of that time are now considered „retro‟ and have a cache of cool. The second intertextual reference is the written code:“Ipod... I‟m your father” a misquote from a Star Wars movie of the same era. Recognising thequote will reward the audience for having knowledge of the movie that others may not.Interestingly, knowledge of the quote is not compulsory for the text to still be understood asmany will still get the joke about cassette tapes being the ancestor of MP3 players. Theadvertising slogan: “Do You Remember?” emphasises the sense of nostalgia and alsodeepens the Personal Identification through the personal pronoun: “You”.Question 7. Elite Persons in advertising.Scarlet Johansson is the celebrity used in this advert for Dolce & Gabbana‟s make-up range.The choice of this actress is particularly apt as she embodies and represents many of thequalities and ideologies that D&G wish to promote about their brand.
Lines of Appeal Model Answers As a Hollywood „A list‟ star, Johansson‟s represents exclusivity and prestige – one of the best! She is the archetypal movie icon and this is emphasised by herwhite underwear and change of hairstyle which is an intertextual reference to Classic Hollywood movieidol, Marilyn Munroe, furtherrepresenting Johansson (and the D&G brand) as timeless and classic.Her known beauty and sex appeal, emphasised by the body language and dress codes in theadvertisement, also reinforce the ideologies of the product but also give the product a sense of mystery and difference as Johansson is notoriously guarded about her private life and associated with making slightly more unusual films away from the mainstream compared with her contemporaries in Hollywood.Question 8. Reward & Punishment inadvertising.There are numerous ideologies at work in thisadvert that offer Reward & Punishment –mostly punishment! Firstly the central ideologythat children are the most vulnerable when itcomes to smoking, challenging an audiencesneed to nurture and emphasised by thechildlike handwriting of the copy. By extensionthis will also feed an audience‟s need for Love& Belonging, suggesting that the family unit isat risk from those who smoke.As many people are scared of spiders the textuses the shock tactics in the main image of alarge dangerous looking spider, lit frombehind to exaggerate the shadow of its longlegs. Some might equate this fear to smoking,again challenging their need to feel safe and secure.This advert does not only punish it‟s audience, it offers the audience an opportunity to fulfilthe need to achieve by giving them a phone number to call which may lead to quitting their
Lines of Appeal Model Answershabit and through this an audience may also see the advert as fulfilling the need forguidance – in a sense, the advert is giving audiences the opportunity to find rewards that willavoid the punishments that the advert itself is dishing out!Where people go wrong...The following are the most frequent mistakes made by students when they answer thesequestions. Not enough detail in analysis Overly generalised answers Not using the actual Lines of Appeal handout to complete the answers Not being thorough when looking for suitable advertisements Sometimes using ads from the internet which are not actually adverts! Not thinking about the other audience theories that we have already studied Ignoring the ideologies that are encoded into the advert – i.e. not realising that adverts do not just sell us a product – they are often selling us ideas, lifestyles and concepts Not using the visual codes and written codes from the actual adverts as evidence