Instructor: Dr.abolghasem arabiun & Dr.reza mohammad kazemi
What is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.
Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.
What happens at the nanoscale?
At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials differ in fundamental and valuable ways from the properties of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter.
Nanotechnology R&D is directed toward understanding and creating improved materials, devices, and systems that exploit these new properties.
Why is the nanometer length scale significant? The wavelike properties of electrons inside matter are influenced by variations on the nanometer scale. It is possible to vary fundamental properties of materials ( e.g., melting temperature, magnetization, and charge capacity) without changing the chemical composition by patterning matter on the nanometer length scale. Life works at the nanometer scale. The systematic organization of matter on the nanometer length scale is a key feature of biological systems. Nanotechnology promises to allow us to place artificial components and assemblies inside cells, and to make new materials using the self-assembly methods of nature. This is a powerful new combination of materials science and biotechnology. By virtue of their size, nanoscale components have very high surface areas. Thus, they are ideal for use in composite materials, reacting systems, drug delivery, solar cells, and energy storage. The finite size of material entities, as compared to the molecular scale, determine an increase of the relative importance of surface tension and local electromagnetic effects, making nanostructured materials harder and less brittle. The interaction wavelength scales of various external wave phenomena become comparable to the material entity size, making materials suitable for various opto-electronic applications.
Why develop nanotechnology?
Gaining better control over the structure of matter has been a primary project of our species since we started chipping flint. The quality of all human-made goods depends on the arrangement of their atoms. The cost of our products depends on how difficult it is for us to get the atoms and molecules to connect up the way we want them. The amount of energy used - and pollution created - depends on the methods we use to place and connect the molecules into a given product. The goal of nanotechnology is to improve our control over how we build things, so that our products can be of the highest quality and while causing the lowest environmental impact. Nanotech is even expected to help us heal the damage our past cruder and dirtier technologies have caused to the biosphere.
Nanotechnology has been identified as essential in solving many of the problems facing humanity. Specifically, it is the key to addressing the following challenges:
1. Providing Renewable Clean Energy 2. Supplying Clean Water Globally 3. Improving Health and Longevity 4. Healing and Preserving the Environment 5. Making Information Technology Available To All 6. Enabling Space Development
How is nanotech different from biotech?
Based on the definition of nanotech given above, biotech can be thought of as a subset of nanotech - "nature's nanotechnology." Biotech uses the molecular structures, devices, and systems found in plants and animals to create new molecular products. Nanotech is more general, not being limited to existing natural structures, devices, and systems, and instead designing and building new, non-biological ones. These can be quite different: harder, stronger, tougher, and able to survive a dry or hot environment, unlike biology. For example, nanotech products can be used to build an automobile or spacecraft.
What Is All the Fuss About Nanotechnology?
Any given search engine will produce 1.6 million hits
Nanotechnology is on the way to becoming the FIRST trillion dollar market Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of every day life such as security and medicine.
Where is nanotechnology being developed?
Research and development of nanotechnology is taking place worldwide. As this is written, government spending is at approximately one billion U.S. dollars in each of four global areas: (1) the United States, (2) Europe, (3) Japan, and (4) the rest of the world, including China, Israel, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, and India. Similar amounts are said to be being spent in the private sector, with these figures being quite difficult to determine accurately due to the breadth of the nanotech definition, which includes a large number of older technologies.
Which country leads in nanotechnology?
World leadership in nanotechnology varies according to which sub-category of technology is being examined. In general, nanotechnology is unlike a number of recent major technological innovations in that the U.S. does not hold a very strong lead at the start. High quality work is taking place around the world, including countries with a higher fraction of engineering graduates, much lower R&D costs, and (unfortunately) less-stringent environmental standards.
What nanotechnology products are available today or are currently being developed ?
With basic research under way for 20-plus years, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial introductions. In the short term, nanoparticles will be introduced into many existing materials, making them stronger or changing their conductive properties. Significantly stronger polymers will make plastics more widely used to reinforce materials and replace metals, even in the semi-conductor area.
One of the most innovative new products is one that enhances biological imaging for medical diagnostics and drug discovery. Quantum dots are semi-conducting nanocrystals that, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emit a vast spectrum of bright colors that can be used to identify and locate cells and other biological activities. These crystals offer optical detection up to a thousand times brighter than conventional dyes used in many biological tests, such as MRIs, and render significantly more information.
The latest display technology for laptops, cell phones, digital cameras and other uses are made of nanostructured polymer films. Known as OLEDs, or organic light emitting diodes, several large companies will begin producing them in late 2003 and early 2004. Among OLED screen advantages are brighter images, lighter weight, less power consumption and wider viewing angles.
What nanotechnology products are available today or are currently being developed ?
Nanoparticles also are being used increasingly in catalysis, where the large surface area per unit volume of nanosized catalysts enhances reactions. Greater reactivity of these smaller agents reduces the quantity of catalytic materials necessary to produce desired results. The oil industry relies on nanoscale catalysts for refining petroleum, while the automobile industry is saving large sums of money by using nanosized – in place of larger – platinum particles in its catalytic converters.
Because of their size, filters made of nanoparticles also have been found to be excellent for liquid filtration. Several products are now available for large-scale water purification that can take out the tiniest bacteria and viruses from water systems, in addition to chemicals and particulate matter.
Another example of rapid insertion of nanotechnology into useful applications is in the field of wear-resistant coatings. In the mid-1990s nanoceramic coatings exhibiting much higher toughness than conventional coatings were first developed. Beginning in 1996, the DOD supported partnerships among the Navy, academia, and industry to develop processes suitable for use in manufacturing and to evaluate the coatings for use in the marine environment. In 2000, the first nanostructured coating was qualified for use on gears of air-conditioning units for U.S. Navy ships. In 2001, the technology was selected to receive an R&D100 Award. DOD estimates that use of the coatings on air valves will result in a $20 million reduction in maintenance costs over 10 years. The development of wear-resistant coatings by the DOD is clearly allied with its mission, yet will lead to commercial applications that can extend the lifetime of moving parts in everything from personal cars to heavy industrial machinery.
What results can be expected in the near-term? The mid-term? The long-term?
Nanotech's development can usefully be divided into stages, for example:
1st generation: Passive nanostructures
2nd generation: Active nanostructures
3rd generation: Three-dimensional nanosystems with heterogeneous nanocomponents
4th generation: Heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, where each molecule in the nanosystem has a specific structure and plays a different role
1st generation products are commercially available, 2nd generation work is taking place in the laboratory, and later generations are at the computational experiment and modeling stage.
Goal: Commercialize Nanotech Identify Market Needs (Pull-Through) Ideas Academia Government Industry Applications Funding $
Is nanotechnology a means to an end? Sustainability Nanotechnology
Yes, if we invent and innovate in these key areas…
NINT (National Institute for Nanotechnology at the UofA)
A Culture of Entrepreneurship
Alberta has: ‘ The only debt-free jurisdiction in North America’
Building on Prior Investments
National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT)
$120M initial investment
Informatics Circle of Research Excellence (iCORE)
Attracting top 5% highly quality people (HQP) in the world.
Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical
$1.5B to support medical researchers
Alberta Ingenuity Fund
$1.0B to support science and engineering.
Building on People
University Technologies International (UTI)
Calgary Technologies Inc. (CTI)
$100M Alberta Enterprise Fund
Alberta SR&ED credit
Alberta Landscape NINT (National Institute for Nanotechnology) CEIN (Center of Excellence for Integrated NanoTools) MSTRI (Microsystems Technology Research Initiative) AMIF (Advanced Microsystems Integration Facility) ACSES (Alberta Center for Surface Engineering & Science) CIHM (Center for Intelligent Health Monitoring) INRF (Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility) Protein Gene Discovery Centre Institute for Biomolecular Design NanoFab (Open Access Fabrication Facility)
CONNECT – Bringing Technology to Market
$178M Action Plan for 5 years:
$100 million venture capital
Technology Development Advisors
Innovation Vouchers for technology development services
Product development centres
Demonstration fund for testing new products
Pre-commercial and seed stage fund
Youth entrepreneurship in technologies
Additional 10% provincial tax credit for R&D
Biotechnology and Nanotechnology:
Science-based Enabling Technologies as Windows
of Opportunity for LDCs?
Department of Management and Technology, UQAM, Que., Canada