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  • 1. Digital Art Preflight and Analysis Society for Scholarly Publishing Baltimore, MD 27 May 2009 Chris Coleman, Digital Specialist, Greg Suprock, VP/GM 1
  • 2. Digital Art PreflightWhat is Preflight?– An objective review of an image designed to identify: – Resolution problems, – File format issues, – Color space concerns that may compromise quality, – Other problematic issues that could affect reproduction.What Preflight is not…– A way to evaluate the context of the image…that is copyediting.– A way to evaluate the scientific merit of an image…that is an editor or reviewer’ role. s– A way to evaluate whether an image is “ photoshopped”. 2
  • 3. Rapid Inspector: A preflight toolWhat is Rapid Inspector? – It’an application designed to ensure the quality and the s accuracy of images of images submitted by authors. – Help reduce time spent re-working digital art and quickly detect and resolve any manipulations before production.What does it do? – Rapid Inspector equips users with a technical assessment of a file and how it was built & it’characteristics. s – It accepts or rejects images based on your criteria and provides a list of errors with instructions for fixing them. 3
  • 4. Rapid Inspector Home Page 4
  • 5. Rapid Inspector Title Selection 5
  • 6. Rapid Inspector Online Help 6
  • 7. Rapid Inspector Interface 7
  • 8. Rapid Inspector Results 8
  • 9. Rapid Inspector Results 9
  • 10. Rapid Inspector Results •File Formats •Creator (Applications) •Vector verses Raster images •Color •Size / Width & Height •Resolution •Fonts 10
  • 11. File Formats Graphic Formats designed for print –TIFF Acceptable Formats –EPS –PDF Peer Review only Graphic Formats designed for www –JPEG, GIF, BMP, PICT, WMF 11
  • 12. Industry Standard Editing Software Adobe Photoshop (tif) Best suited for editing images photos Adobe Illustrator (eps) Best suited for editing charts and graphs 12
  • 13. Pitfalls of Power Point Color accuracy PowerPoint files are intended for screen display (RGB color model). CMYK color conversion is required for (commercial printing). Poor typeface management PowerPoint files can be opened with no warning that a font is substituted. Thus, the font substitution is invisible but very common and potentially bad. Cross-Platform inconsistencies Power Point presentations are not interpreted identically across platforms. Graphics may be altered in appearance or not display at all. Image format and resolution PowerPoint does not have the ability to save high resolution tiff or eps files. PowerPoint exports images using screen resolution, (72 dpi). 13
  • 14. Using PowerPoint Files The best option is to copy images from PowerPoint and paste into Adobe Illustrator. This copy-and-paste method will actually give you more predictable results without resolution, font, and quality issues. Please see this tutorial available on the Cadmus Digital art site http://cpc.cadmus.com/da/howto/creating_ai_eps_excel 14
  • 15. Vector Graphics• Vector graphics are made up of mathematically defined lines and curves called vectors. You can move, resize, or change the color of a line without losing the quality of the graphic.• Vector graphics are resolution-independent—that is, they can be scaled to any size and printed at any resolution without losing detail or clarity. As a result, vector graphics are the best choice for representing bold graphics that must retain crisp lines when scaled to various sizes (logos, for example). •Note: Because computer monitors can display images only on a grid, both vector graphics and bitmap images are displayed as pixels on-screen. 15
  • 16. Bitmap or Raster Graphics• Bitmap images—technically called raster images—are made up of a grid of dots known as pixels. When working with bitmap images, you edit pixels rather than objects or shapes. Bitmap images are the most common electronic medium for continuous-tone images, such as photographs or digital paintings, because they can represent subtle gradations of shades and color.• Bitmap images can lose detail when scaled on-screen because they are resolution- dependent, they contain a fixed number of pixels, and each pixel is assigned a specific location and color value. Bitmapped images can look jagged if they’ re printed at too low a resolution because the size of each pixel is increased. 16
  • 17. The 2 Worlds of Color Transmitted Light Reflected Light 17
  • 18. The 2 Worlds of Color• RGB exists in the transmitted world of light.• Is a reality in computer monitors and TV’ s.• Suitable for internet publishing at 72 PPI. • CMYK exists in the reflected world of light utilizing pigments. • Is a reality in all printed materials. 18
  • 19. The 2 Worlds of Color 60 52 99 Reflected Light Transmitted Light “Perceived” “Actual” 19
  • 20. The 2 Worlds of Color RGB Color Space Visible Spectrum Computer Monitors Human Eye (soft proofing)CMYK Color Space Offset Printing 20
  • 21. The 2 Worlds of Color RGB Conversion To CMYK 21
  • 22. Color Accuracy Please do not rely on a monitor display to predict color output on press. RGB colors on the screen are brighter than what is printed on paper. Colors onscreen are created with light, which adds brightness of its own to the colors. When printing on paper, the light is taken out of the equation. RGB color can also be "out of gamut" for CMYK printing, meaning that some of the colors cannot be replicated with printing inks. 22
  • 23. Column width A pica is printers unit measure, equal to 12 points or 1/6 of an inch. Composition unit of measurement used in determining the dimensions of lines, illustrations, or printed pages. 1 column = 20 pica or 3.33 inches 1 1/2 column =30 pica or 5 inches 2 column = 41 pica or 6.833 inches 1 column 1.5 column 2 column 23
  • 24. Column Width & SizingCalculating Sizing Percentage: “ ideal for scanning”The formula to determine resizing by percentage is to divide the target column width bythe original width. A 4x5 original intended for 1 column: 3.33” 4” 0.832” 83% / = orUsing rulers & guides to size:To create a ruler guide: If the rulers are not already displayed, choose View > ShowRulers. Position the pointer on the left ruler for a vertical guide or on the top ruler for ahorizontal guide. Drag the ruler guide into position.To change the rulers zero origin: Position the pointer over the intersection of the rulersin the upper left corner of the window, and drag diagonally down onto the image. A setof cross hairs appears, marking the new origin on the rulers.Drag guides to the desired column width. With the selection tool, select the object orobjects to scale. Drag a handle until the selection is the desired size. Shift-drag thehandle to preserve the proportion. 24
  • 25. Line weight & Type Fine Line Weights 100% Original and Small Type Small Type may be too small after reduction 1/2 Point 1 Point 2 Point 4 Point 25% Reduction 25
  • 26. Line weight & Type Tips Avoid using lines less than .5 Point Panel labels should be 14 point Helvetica Bold Type should be at least 9 pt at 100% Submit Artwork final size that it will appear in the journal (1 column wide, etc.) 26
  • 27. Adjusting Line ThicknessUsing Adobe Illustrator Under the Window pull down menu click on Stroke to display the Stroke pallet if not already visible. Using the direct selection tool click to select one of the thin lines. (see screen captures below) Under the Select pull down scroll to Same and select Stroke Weight With the all of the strokes with the same weight selected increase the stroke value by clicking on the right arrow in the Stroke pallet and selecting a greater value. As a general rule thin rules should not be less than .5 pt. 27
  • 28. Shaded Area Tips Use 20% Increments starting with 0% Patterns fills can also be used instead of Shading Shades of grey are preferred because they are most compatible when copying and pasting into Illustrator. Pattern fill’that are not compatible can be substituted s using Adobe Illustrator preset patterns. 28
  • 29. Replacing FillsIllustrator comes with a variety of presetpatterns. These patterns can be found onthe Hard drive and accessed by selectingWindow->Swatch Libraries->Other Libraries:Typical location of preset patterns :Local Disk(C:) ->Program Files->Adobe->Adobe Illustrator ->Presets->Patterns->Basic Graphics 29
  • 30. Input Resolution In order to print, we need to get: From Here To Here 30
  • 31. Input Resolution• Image files are made from tiny picture elements known as pixels.• Input resolution is expressed in pixels per inch (PPI). 31
  • 32. Input Resolution 300 PPI Image Resolution • Formula for determining proper image resolution: two times the output screen frequency. 32
  • 33. Input Resolution At 300 PPI, 4 pixels generate 1 halftone dot. 33
  • 34. Output Device An imagesetter is a high resolution output device that can transfer electronic text and graphics directly to film or plates used in computer- based preproduction work. Unlike the resolution on a home or office printer, which is probably between 300 - 600 dots per inch (dpi), the resolution on a typical imagesetter is 1270 or 2540 dpi 34
  • 35. Output Resolution Halftone Grid 15 LPI 150 LPIHalftone screens are measured in lpi (lines per inch). This refers to howmany rows, or lines, of dots fit in a linear inch. The number of lpi in ahalftone screen is called the screen frequency or line screen. 35
  • 36. Resolution Summarized 300 PPI Image File 2400 SPI Imagesetter Resolution 150 LPI Halftone Screen Frequency 36
  • 37. Screens • Binary system results in an optical illusion of tone gradation. • Continuous tone images are converted to varying sized dots in a grid pattern. • This is known as the “halftone” process. 37
  • 38. Screens: Dots a Moiré • Uncontrolled variation of grid placement produces an undesirable Moiré pattern. 38
  • 39. Screen Angles • Pre-set grid rotation minimizes the effect of Moiré. • Grids placed at 45 degrees from each other result in the least amount of Moiré. 39
  • 40. Screen Angles•Moiré avoidance requiresmultiple screen anglesprecisely placed.•Dominant colors are placedat greatest angles.• degrees between 30dominant colors.•Proper screen anglingproduces a minimized“rosette” pattern. 40
  • 41. Screens Summarized Halftone screen attributes include the screen frequency and dot shape for each screen used in the printing process. Setting the screens at different angles ensures that the dots placed by the four screens blend to look like continuous color and do not produce moiré patterns. 41
  • 42. Digitizing Images:Types of scanning materialsContinuous-tone ArtLine ArtPreviously Printed 42
  • 43. Digitizing Images: Scanning & MoiréPreviously Printed Art Moiré Pattern 43
  • 44. Digitizing Images:Scanning MoiréPre-Printed Scanner Applied Moiré Result Artwork Screen 44
  • 45. FontsCadmus supports the use of the followingType 1 PostScript fonts for the creation ofdigital art figures: •Times Roman •Helvetica •Arial •Symbol •European PI •Mathematical PI 45
  • 46. Where to Get Help Application Help Adobe provides a variety of options for you to learn applications, including online Help, and tool tips. You can easily access a host of continually updated Web resources for learning Illustrator, from tips and tutorials to tech support information using the: Help menu Cadmus Digital Art Web Site http://art.cadmus.com/da/ Cadmus Email Support digitalart@cadmus.com 46
  • 47. Digital Art AnalysisDigital Art Tools make Electronic Images a Dynamic MediumNot all authors understand the Digital Art Tools they use – Unintentional changes to images may result – Data may be lost – Data may be hidden – Data may become confusing to interpretSome authors understand the Digital Art Tools they use – Proper image preparation may occur – Images may be enhanced – Images may be beautified – Images may be altered, in the worst cases, fraudulentlyHwang et al., Science 303(5664): 1669-1674, 2004 brought this issue to front page news
  • 48. Digital Art AnalysisMost preventative steps are: – Suitable for low volume workflows – Rely on manual detection – Require high-level Photoshop skills – Are time consuming – Catch those errors the human eye can seeThe optimal solution is: – Scalable – Capable of integration into Peer Review workflows – Robust, Fast, Easy to use – Software-based detection: Rigour ™, JPEG Snoop
  • 49. Digital Art Analysis –Workflow Example
  • 50. Digital Art Analysis –Sample One Original Manipulated Version Software Analyzed Output Healing/Touch-up detection
  • 51. Digital Art Analysis –Sample Two OriginalSoftware Analyzed Output
  • 52. Digital Art Analysis –Sample Three JPEGsnoop
  • 53. Digital Art Analysis –Quality MattersFor more information see: www.cenveo.com/pdf/digital_art_analysis.pdfContact Info: Chris Coleman, Digital Specialist, colemanc@cadmus.com Greg Suprock, VP/GM, suprockg@cadmus.com

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