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    Seminar4.4 Seminar4.4 Presentation Transcript

    • Access to Scientific Information Past, Present, and Future Michael J. Kurtz Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
    • Research Communication is Changing•After WWII Maxwell/Pergammon –Publishers sell paper journals to libraries –Publishers create journals according to market –Publishers make profit –Libraries satisfy scientists•This model worked for 60 years
    • What is at Risk? drives Research Innovation 4% dr dri iv ve es s EconomyThe Future of the World!
    • What does 4% per year mean?•Population growth ~1.7%•Per capita growth 2.3%•After 60 years per capita GDP 4 times•If 2.5% per year then 0.8% per capita•Then after 60 year a 60% rise in GDP/person Changes in the rate of growth have profound consequences
    • The Value of Research•High yield crops•Transistor•DNA•Bone marrow transplant•2.7K background radiation•Giant Magnetoresistance --- Moore’ Law s
    • Beyond the JournalScientific Communication for Today An Example from Astrophysics
    • Astronomer CDS/NED ADSData Centers Journals arXiv Data Links Data Links VO
    • Some New Directions•myADS-arXiv an Open Access Virtual Journal•Protein Data Bank (Borne & Fink) data mining journals into a structured DB•Work Flow/Provenance Systems capture the exact details of data reduction for publication and reuse (VisTrails, Freire)
    • Freire, VisTrails, 2007
    • Facts & Fallaciesabout Open Access
    • 1. Money will be saved•Publication costs are 1% of research costs, less than yearly uncertainties in funding agency budgets•Large efficiency increases due to digital communications (~7% in astronomy)•4% growth breaks budgets over time•The funding model is broken, but the new technologies will still have to be paid for
    • Green versus Gold• Papers appear free in • Papers appear free in local/central repositories journals• PDF mainly, no additional • Full formatting options formatting • A single system• Journals separate system • Requires (unknown)• No solution to the funding solution to the funding problem, no cost for author problem (author pays?) or reader • Funding agency driven• Can happen very quickly (direct vs indirect cost)• Opposed by publishers and • Accepted by publishers scientific societies
    • Green: IR Mandates(NIH, Harvard, … ) S. Harnad & A. Swan
    • Green: CR - arXivP. Ginsparg
    • Gold: Author Pays (Page Charges)
    • Gold: Consortium Pays The SCOAP3 model A consortium sponsors HEP publications and makes them Open Access by re-directing subscription money. Today: (funding bodies through) libraries purchase journal subscriptions to (indirectly) support the peer-review service and to allow their users to read• Tomorrow: funding bodies and libraries contribute to SCOAP3, which pays centrally for the articles. S. Mele
    • 2. OA Increases Citations•If all OA: no changed•OA articles are 2 to 1 more cited than non-OA•This is NOT caused by financial considerations•The best authors post their best work•Early Access via arXiv•80-20 rule
    • 2½ OA Increases Reads•True, but …•Most new reads are casual•Does not measurably effect citation
    • The Immediate Cost•The discovery not made•Science is highly non-linear•We do not know who will discover the next big thing –Cross-disciplinary work? – Inner city MD with patients? –Theorists with pencils? –…
    • The Cost of Doing Nothing•The most important intellectual work of the 20th century was done by a junior clerk in the Swiss patent office•Today he would not be able to access the on-line journals•What work is not being done now because a junior engineer in an Indonesian shoe factory cannot read The Physical Review (or Cell or … ) on her lunch break?