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  • 1. Brazil, India and South Korea: Markets andOpportunitiesSSP 2C: Working in Global MarketsConrad GuettlerConsultant and Wolfson College Cambridgecg119@cam.ac.uk29 May 2008
  • 2. Introduction and brief outline Presentation based on journals market reports prepared for The Publishers Association of the UK but will be broader Information on education and research systems, on funding and publishing Brazil, India and South Korea: noteworthy aspects for each country
  • 3. Introduction - 2To set the scene, some summary figures Brazil India South Korea USAArea 8.5m 3.3m 98,500 9.8m(Sq km)Population 189m 1.1bn 49m 304mGDP growth 4.5% 8.5% 4.9% 2.2%Education 4.4% 3.6% 4.6% 5.3%(% of GDP)Students in HE 4.5m 11.8m 3.2m 17.5m
  • 4. Brazil: General 8.5m sq km; federal republic population of 189m; main languages Portuguese, Spanish, English annual GDP growth 3.0-4.5% Southeast contributes 60% of GDP A promising future: – Growing economy – Government committed to education and research
  • 5. Brazil: Education & Research Net enrolment of 95% in primary, almost 80% in secondary education: – total of 25m pupils of whom 11% attend private schools Net enrolment of 12% in tertiary (higher) education (HE): – 4.5m students of whom 70% are enrolled in private universities (e.g. PUCs) and other institutions 564,000 students graduated in 2005: 61% in humanities and social sciences, 26% in education, 13% in science & technology Some 124,000 students on Masters and PhD courses Public (federal) universities are highly regarded and carry out most research
  • 6. Brazil: Higher Education 2,270 HE institutions but only about 11% of these are publicly funded: Public PrivateUniversities 92 86University centres 4 115Polytechnics (faculdades & 86 1,679Escuolas)CeT/FaT 66 142Total 248 2,022
  • 7. Brazil: Higher Education Ministry of Education (MEC) holds the federal education budget (4.4% of GDP). – CAPES is the Federal agency that supports and evaluates all graduate programmes; it also manages the purchasing consortium for e-resources – State agencies (e.g. FAPESP) important for education and research support Top Universities (all federal or state universities): University of Sao Paulo, University of Campinas, UFRJ, UNESP, UFMG, UFRGS Priorities for the future: – Expansion of federal universities – To double output of PhDs by 2010 and to increase Masters degrees – expand FaTs in Sao Paulo state – Priorities: engineering, computer science, agricultural sciences, life sciences
  • 8. Brazil: Research Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) responsible for most R&D spending (about 1.0% of GDP) – The Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and other agencies (FINEP etc) CNPq funded 90,000 researchers in 2006; research grants were 42% in life sciences, 40% in natural sciences and 18% humanities & social sciences Brazil contributes 2% of the world’s scientific papers (50% of the Latin American total): ranked 15th worldwide by ISI
  • 9. Brazil: Research - 2 President Lula da Silva announced a US$28bn package for S&T in November 2007: – to increase R&D share from 1.0% to1.5% of GDP – incentives for the private sector to invest in research projects – increased support for postgraduate qualifications Research-intensive companies: – Petrobras (oil) – Vale (mining and minerals) – Embraer (aircraft) – Embrapa (agribusiness)
  • 10. Brazil: Book Publishing Brazilian Book Chamber (CBL) is the trade association; compiles good statistics; e.g. in 2006 – First editions 20,000 – New editions & reprints 26,000 Book sales estimate: US$990m of which Schoolbooks account for 41%, General for 29%, STM & Professional for 19% and Religious titles 11% International publishers with strong local presence: – Elsevier (Campus), Pearson, Thompson (Pioneira), McGraw-Hill – Macmilland, OUP and CUP for ELT Most textbooks and academic titles published in Portuguese – Photocopying a concern for publishers of English language texts
  • 11. Brazil : Book Publishing - 2 Brazilian University Presses: – USP, UNESP, Unicamp, other federal universities – Editora Mackenzie, Editora PUC-Rio, PUC-SP, PUC Minas Research centres and institutions: – IMPA (mathematics) – Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (biomedical) – Getulio Vargas Foundation (social sciences)
  • 12. Brazil : Journals Publishing & Consortia Journals publishing mainly by societies, institutes and UPs Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO): – 200 Brazilian journals – A further 200 journals from Latin America – Open Access CAPES portal periodicos (consortium): – over 12,300 journals and databases – 190 member institutions – usage mirrors research intensive universities COPERE consortium for private institutions Close consortia contacts with other Latin American countries
  • 13. Brazil: Journals Publishing - 2 Subscription agents still important – e.g CAPES prefers to work with them on training etc – PTI, PPT, dotLib, Systems Link; EBSCO Sales & Marketing services – Accucoms and EmPact
  • 14. India : General 3.3m sq km; federal republic, 5-year plans population of 1.1bn – about 70% rural – youth population (15-24yrs) expected to peak in 2011 at 240m main languages Hindi (30%), English, 14 other national languages annual GDP growth 6-8% Characteristics – Growing economy – Steady expansion of higher education – Growing middle class
  • 15. India: Education Ministry of Human Resource Development responsible for all education matters 3.6% of GDP spent on education in 2005-6; aim is to reach 6% Gross enrolment rates: – Primary 85%, secondary 39%, tertiary 9% 220m pupils in state schools, 42m in 50,000 private schools 6,000 new secondary schools planned for 2007-20012 Government targets for enrolment into HE: 15% by 2012 and 22% by 2017 University Grants Commission is the main administration and funding agency for universities
  • 16. India: Higher EducationUniversities as of March 2006 (UGC Annual Report 2005-2006) Central 20 State 216 Deemed 101 Other 18 Total 355 Colleges 18,064 (1,500 engineering and 1,200 management) 16 new universities created in 2004-5, 6 in 2005-6 and 26 in 2006-7 Some universities (62) and many colleges (11,955) are not (yet) recognized by UGC i.e. are ineligible for central funding. Since 2003 some 50 new engineering and 50 new business management colleges have been opened annually
  • 17. India: Higher Education - 2 Some Student enrolment figures: – 11.8m students (41% female) including over 800,00 postgraduates – 45% in Faculty of Arts, 21% in Science, 18% in Commerce, 16% in Professional faculties – 90% of undergraduates and 67% of postgraduates study in Colleges – 91% research students study in universities annual output: – over 2m graduates with Batchelor degrees – over 500,000 with Masters degrees – almost 18,000 PhDs – about 25,000 graduates of some 240 medical colleges almost 490,000 teaching staff in HE
  • 18. India: Higher Education - 3 Some highly ranked universities and institutes: – Universities of Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune; JNU Delhi, Banares Hindu University – Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad, Bangalore – Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Kaupur, Mumbai – Indian Institute of Science Bangalore – Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai – All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi – National Law School of India University
  • 19. India: Higher Education - 4 HE Objectives of the 11th Plan (2007-2012): – 30 new Central Universities, 14 of these aiming at world-class standards – 370 new degree colleges – 8 new Indian Institutes of Technology – 20 new Indian Institutes of Information Technology – 7 new Indian Institutes of Management – 5 new Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research – 10 new National Institutes of Technology Specific Indian concern: inclusiveness and equitable access: – reserved places in HE for ‘scheduled castes and tribes’: to be increased from 22.5% to 49.5% of admissions
  • 20. India: Research Ministry of Science & Technology (MOST) responsible for some 200 national laboratories. Spend on R&D: 0.8% of GDP (comparable to Brazil) MOST provides support for publications by professional bodies and societies through its Department of Science & Technology, e.g. – National Institute of Science Communication and Information Research (NISCAIR/CSIR) publishes 19 journals. In favour of Open Access – Most research funding goes to the top 20 universities and institutes – Centrally funded universities and institutes are much better supported than state ones Priorities: biotechnology, nanotechnology. pharmaceutical sciences India ranked 13th worldwide by ISI in terms of number of papers
  • 21. India: Publishing Federation of Publishers’ and Booksellers’ Associations in India (FPBAI) Federation of Indian Publishers (FIP) Association of Publishers in India (API, foreign-owned publishers) – Issues: piracy and photocopying of textbooks
  • 22. India: Book Publishing Over 80,000 new titles published in 2004 (26% Hindi, 22% English) Total book market estimated as US$2.4bn English Language book market estimated as US$1.25bn – Trade US$500m – School US$425m – HE & Professional US$325m HE books and journals market growing by 10% per annum. Journals component estimated as worth US$100-140m All the major international publishers are present in India Strong Indian college and academic book publishers
  • 23. India: Publishing and Data Services Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) – from typesetting to data conversion and online services: some examples • Scientific Publishing Services, Chennai • Aptara (Techbooks), Delhi • Macmillan India, Bangalore • Newgen, Chennai • Integra Software Services, Pondicherry – India is also becoming a major print centre for regional editions • Thomson Press India (India Today Publishing Group) claims to be the largest commercial printer in South Asia
  • 24. India: Journals Publishing Sage has an active local journals publishing programme Springer is now distributing the journals of the Indian Academy of Science in Bangalore Medknow Publications publishes over 60 biomedical journals, all with Open Access to full-text Indian journals available online are generally Open Access
  • 25. India : Journals Publishing & Consortia Subscription agents still important: – Allied Publishers Subscription Agency – Globe Publication Pvt. – Informatics India Ltd – Universal Subscription Agency Pvt. Ltd. and Global Information System Technology Pvt. Ltd. (GIST) Two major consortia – INDEST-AICTE (managed by NISCAIR): for all CSIR laboratories, IITs, IIMs and more recently engineering colleges – Inflibnet (UGC funded): for over 150 universities
  • 26. South Korea: General 98,500 sq km, strong US influence population 49m; 25% live in Greater Seoul area English widely taught in schools GDP growth 4-5% (13th largest economy in the world) Major companies Samsung Electronics, Hyundai Motor, LG Electronics, SK (Energy & Telecom) Characteristics – National determination to become a leading knowledge-based society – Government committed to education but shrinking student cohort – High broadband penetration
  • 27. South Korea: Education Previous Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development and Ministry of Science & Technology have been merged in to a new Ministry of Education, Science & Technology. – Kim Doh-Yeon, professor of materials science and engineering at SNU, appointed as minister on 29 February 2008 2008 Education budget up 13.4%, equal to 19.4% of the national budget – 230 four-year universities with 2.1m students and 54,000 faculty – 3.5m students in all of HE including junior colleges – 40% of students studying S&T subjects – about 9,000 doctorates a year
  • 28. South Korea: Higher Education HE allocation up by 27% in 2008 education budget to increase the global competitiveness of universities – More specialization Challenge: college-bound age-cohort (18-21 years) will drop – Government reducing student admission quotas – Imposing mergers on public and private universities Restructuring of graduate education – Now 35 professional graduate schools of dentistry and medicine – A new law school system starting in 2008: 25 universities approved to open US- style law schools for applicants with a first degree
  • 29. South Korea: Higher Education - 2 Brain Korea 21 Phase 2 (2006-2012) – Nurture 10 top research universities – Be in top ten countries in terms of ISI rankings (currently 11th) – Attract more foreign students Top universities: Seoul National University, Korea, Yonsei, Hanyang, Ewha Womans, Sungkyunkwan, Kyungbook; KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, POSTECH (Pohang University of Science and Technology)
  • 30. South Korea: Research Basic research deemed essential for the country’s long-term development: – 25% of the R&D budget R&D expenditure now 3.0% of GDP (has steadily increased); 75% from the private sector Over 10,000 industrial R&D centres Korea Research Foundation (KRF) and Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) are the main agencies for research funding – also support academies, conferences and publications Over 700 S&T societies
  • 31. South Korea: Book Publishing Korean Publishers Association has almost 1,000 members 43,585 new titles publishes in 2005 total publishing turnover was US$2.7bn – children’s books and literature the biggest sectors strong interest in e-books Academic sales estimate: US$200m – of which US$75m journals, US$21m databases
  • 32. South Korea: Journals Publishing Korean journals are mostly published by societies and professional bodies, with most content in Korean Korean language journals available online are generally Open Access Springer starting to publish the journals of 8 Korean engineering and life sciences societies in 2008
  • 33. South Korea: Journals & Consortia Korea Education & Research Information Service (KERIS) – National licences for databases and e-books Korean Electronic Site Licence Initiative (KESLI) – Almost 400 libraries participating in National Digital Science Library – 317 libraries in e-journals consortium – over 13,400 e-journals licensed Subscription Agents – EBSCO Korea – E*Public – Geonet F1 – Journalpia – Shinwon Datanet (iGroup)
  • 34. General observations Some important points – English language proficiency can be somewhat variable – A local presence or representation is essential – Need to establish long-term relationships – Publishing collaborations are welcome Note how Exchange rate variations can affect business 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Real/US$ 3.08 2.93 2.43 2.18 1.85 Rupee/US$ 46.6 45.3 44.1 45.3 46.6 Won/US$ 1,192 1,145 1,024 955 929
  • 35. Conclusion For the market survey reports – Contact Mandy Knight at The Publishers Association – mknight@publishers.org.uk For any other queries contact me Conrad Guettler Wolfson College Cambridge CB3 9BB, UKcg119@cam.ac.uk Thank you!