Implementation Users Feedback How do E-books fit into our collection development policy
EBL gives us archival rights to all e-titles we purchase
DATA only fron October to April – we have continued to offer STLs through June convenience and immediate access are most important to users
Number of these 1442 NOT-OWNED titles were popular (e.g. the “…For Dummies” series, “Cliffs Notes,” etc.).
Convenience and immediate access are more important than format (print or electronic.)
This security protocol is one of the features that first attracted us to the EBL service, but it became clear during our test period that library staff would have found information on who was using what very helpful in making their purchasing decisions.
Emory is a liberal arts college and the titles loans often suggest undergraduate assessments in the Humanities and the Social Science.
*However the EBL time stamp protocol precludes retaining any such permanent digital copy. During our trial we got complaints from several users about their inability to open and read titles which they had previously downloaded (and whose pre-set circulation periods had expired.) Such complaints also indicate that Emory users still may have a very tenuous understanding of electronic resources and how they can be used. It is likely that more needs to be done by the Emory libraries to educate our users as to various electronic access models and the costs involved in providing digital availability. Based on the complaints we received, many users still believe that the Internet and all things digital are free and can be freely shared. **A large proportion of materials read in under 3 min. this category were popular (e.g. the “…For Dummies” series, “Cliffs Notes,” etc.). We strongly suspect that many of these titles were consulted out of curiosity or to do a quick citation or fact check, the way one might pick up and scan a book in a bookstore to see if it’s worth buying and reading in its entirety. ***Throughout our test online reading time for these kinds of titles grew steadily from an initial average of 12 minutes reading online in October-November 2006 (when we started our trial) to an average of 37 minutes reading online per title in March-April 2007. While it is clear that online reading still remains less popular than reading print hard copy, our users slowly are becoming more accustomed to reading on a screen rather than off a page.
Digital Library Federation Forum, Pasadena, CA. April 23rd, 2007 Key skills of publishers Creation of self sustaining content packages and services. Sales forces and ability to market materials Commissioning new material Editing material, ensuring quality Licensing material
Our greatest hope was that e-books would help us streamline and automate many of our internal processes, saving staff work and reducing delays in providing timely access to resources. While EBL did allow us to provide users with instantaneous access to e-editions, it also required new, parallel procedures for acquisitions, invoicing, and cataloging. While e-books certainly save money on storage costs – and potentially on ILL and course reserve services – they add considerable “back-end” costs related to acquiring and discovery of the materials. Since following existing book ordering processes used in academic libraries would have delayed access with handoffs between library staff, we designed a workflow that eliminated human intervention to the fullest extent imaginable. Further, we experienced major and persistent delays with OCLC sending full MARC cataloging copy for EBL titles we purchased. (sometimes 6 weeks) Because we were waiting for the MARC record loads to attach invoices in our system, this hampered timely payment of EBL invoices and caused confusion for many subject liaisons. Now,we receive brief confirmation records from EBL for titles we had purchased. These brief records were then overlaid with full OCLC MARC cataloging when it eventually was provided. Ordering EBL titles during our test period required them learning a whole new search interface and acquisitions workflow, skills easily lost if you didn’t use EBL on a regular basis. YBP partnership will help.
Concurrent 1A: The Coverless BookKim Collins, Emory’s E-Book Library Pilot Projectfinal report compiled and submitted by Betsey Pattersonhttp://web.library.emory.edu/services/collmgt/ElectronicBookLibraryPilotProject.html October 2006 – April 2007 Emory adds 50,000 EBL (E-book Library) digital titles to OPAC
Pilot a User-Driven Testing Model What would be involved in acquiring and providing access to e-books? How would our users and staff respond to the availability of e-books? Could e-books present an effective service and space-saving alternative to print materials? 2
EBL’s business model PDFs of several thousand scholarly books published by major university presses and academic publishers Users can print, cut and paste, make notes, even temporarily download EBL titles to their desktop or PDA for later study. Purchased EBL titles can be used for online course Reserves. E-books are owned by the library in perpetuity. Optical character recognition (OCR) also supports in-depth searching of EBL content. EBL’s digital titles can be viewed online on campus or remotely (24x7). Emory user accessed an EBL title through our EZ Proxy server, their NetID and password was encrypted by the EBL system in order to ensure customer privacy EBL’s short term rental program we can provide immediate user access to materials which previously we would have ordered through interlibrary loan. 3
Executive Summary1. Use of EBL e-books proved popular2. E-books were frequently consulted in lieu of print editions3. Undergraduates appeared to be the heaviest users (Second was users of health and medicine materials). 4
1. Use of EBL e-books proved popular 3624 short term loans (STLs) with an average cost of $5.25 per title 400 EBL digital editions purchased and these were read or downloaded 767 times during the test period. 5
2. E-books consulted in lieu of print editions Of the titles rented, fully 57% (1701) already were held in print by the Emory libraries. Immediacy of access compelling as well as ‘safety net” 31% of the titles were for checked out 11% were for titles in Storage. 5% were for LOST, IN-PROCESS or ON-Hold materials 6
EBL rentals On shelf, 778Not ow ned, 1442 Checkedout, 467 Reserve, 35 Lost, 27 On hold, 19 Storage, 160 In Process, 25 On shelf Checkedout Reserve On hold Storage In Process Lost Not ow ned 7
Safety net alternative to requesting print editions in temporary storage, such as humanities and chemistry titles in off-site storage during construction projects Future Recommendation--Load a revised EBL temp profile of records in LC classifications HN- KZ and N-NX These call numbers are in temporary storage from June 07-Jan 08 8
Ordering of Results confirms E-Book preference One interesting – and totally unplanned – aspect of our test was the way in which EBL records appeared to users. From October – December, EBL titles usually displayed first in any results list in our OPAC (the last bib record in, first bib record out filing convention). Reindexing in late December, resulted in most EBL records filing at the end of any results list. short term loan reports for the spring 2007 semester still showed that users sought out the e-book rather than the same print book on the shelf. 9
Who was using the Ebooks ? 3. Undergraduates were the heaviest users of e-books, with medical second –guess by titles loaned Use of e-books proved a boon to off-campus users. EZProxy activity showed Emory users accessing e-books from China, Iran, & Croatia. Because of the security encryption protocol used by EBL to protect user privacy, we were unable to track EBL usage by user category (e.g. undergrad, grad student, Arts &Sciences faculty, medical faculty, etc.) 10
What E-Books Are Being Used? Social Sciences - 36% of all STLs Humanities - 27% of all STLs Science - 18% of all STLs4 Health & Medicine - 14% of all STLs Theology 4% of STLs Other (Law)1% of STLs 11
LC Subjects of Rentals Socal Sciences Humanities Science Health and Medicine Theology Law & Other Law & Other, 37 Theology, 154Health and Medicine, 507 Socal Sciences, 1305 Science, 652 Humanities, 978 12
How are E-Books Being Used? directly online or downloading Both access protocols are controlled by digital time stamps; when the approved circulation period has expired the user no longer can view the e-title until they rent it again or check it out (if the title has been purchased by Emory.) During our trial the average time spent reading a non-owned EBL title was 3 minutes The average time spent reading an e-book that had been purchased by Emory was 27 minutes – Fall 12 min average vs. Spring 37 min. average 13
Pilot Project Recommendations Continue EBL as well as explore other e-book services. Retain full MARC bibliographic records for purchased E-books and continue to load MARC records for acquisitions as part of the existing cataloging workflow. Remove all Temp records from EUCLID and Load a revised EBL temp profile of records in LC classifications HN-KZ and N-NX These call numbers are in temporary storage from June 07-Jan 08 14
Pilot Project Recommendations, cont. Establish funding for some un-moderated Short Term Loans and set-up some moderated loan options. explore licensing, technical and service implications of expanding campus use of e-books. Begin a profile review with Yankee Book Peddler to identify e-books as the preferred format for specific subject areas Devlop a campus marketing campaign and provide more training 15
DLF session - Content Proliferations :Libraries and Publishers, April 23rd, 2007 Stephen Rhind-Tutt, President, Alexander Street Press, talked about Less and Less Distinction between Publishers and Libraries. Libraries are creating and publishing Publishers are taking on traditional library functions – “Cataloging and preserving content , Identifying and ensuring quality content , Making the content accessible at low or no cost to patrons , Assisting scholars in finding and discovery” 16
Conclusion- E-books require CHANGE Sell a print book to a library & you don’t need to worry about cataloging, assess, user needs (Reserve, ILL, etc.) Librarians may need to rethink established procedures of selection, ordering, receiving invoicing, cataloging, statistics, etc. & E-book publishers/ distributors will need to partner with us to develop better systems. Opportunity to give users what they want - convenience and immediate access 17