EBOOKS & HANDHELDS IN ACADEMIA Society for Scholarly Publishing 2009 DAVID SEAMAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE LIBRARY BALTIMORE, 28 MAY 2009
CONTEXTDespite the resurgence of interest in e-books and the emergence of a new generation of reading devices, many scholarly publishers dismiss them as gadgets on which to read novels. But as e-books become more mainstream--and as handhelds like the iPhone become ubiquitous--they can no longer be ignored.About Dartmouth: A private, four-year liberal arts college open since 1769. A member of the Ivy League, with approximately 4,100 undergraduate and 1,700 graduate students. Campus setting but many overseas programs promote need for mobile access. Carnegie Classification: "research university with very high research activity."
WHAT IS AN EBOOK TODAY INACADEMIA?• Generally confused definition.• Is it any book content on any screen? Sometimes.• Is it book content coupled with hardware and/or software that intentionally promotes a reading experience over an extended time? Sometimes.• Does it target pleasure reading as well as business or academic/pedagogic use?• Rarely supports basic paper-derived annotation features.• Aggressively non-social –read not share. Network delivers but does not enhance. Solitary.
WHAT IS A HANDHELD IN ACADEMIA?IMPRESSIONS FROM DARTMOUTH.• Cell phone and iPod Touch predominate. iPhone still the hot phone for students.• iPhone/Touch “ surprisingly non-terrible”facility at web browsing makes “ mobile”much more content. http://metrics.admob.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/admob-mobile-metrics-april-09.pdf
WHAT IS A HANDHELD IN ACADEMIA?IMPRESSIONS FROM DARTMOUTH.• Blackberry and Palm Pre not seen much in the undergrad population. Business and medicine uses.• Texting, talking, music, Face Book, video, email, shopping, photos, maps, web searching –more a “ social life”than an “academic life”device? Not single use.• Kindle/other book readers invisible in the student landscape at present. “Kindle for students”experiment.• “ Dad’ got one.”Kindle rivals Second Life as My s something old people wish students thought was cool? 5% of Kindle owners 20 or under; 8% over 70 years old.
OLD PERSON – SINGLE-USE DEVICEYOUNG PERSON – LAPTOP AND IPOD
Handhelds and book content –looking back and looking forwards
“WHOLE LIBRARY IN ANUTSHELL.”POPULAR SCIENCE,196512,000 pages; 15 secondretrieval; in space!http://blog.modernmechanix.com/mags/PopularScience/2-1965/spce_library.jpg
PHASE ONE: 1970s-1996• 1971 : Project Gutenberg –one book per year through 1991. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext90/when12.txt• 1981: Dictronics Publishing -- Dick Brass -- first dictionary-based spelling checker and The Random House Electronic Thesaurus.• Standard Generalized Markup Language –SGML (1986)• Text Encoding Initiative –TEI (1987)• HyperText Markup Language -- HTML (1990)• Large commercial collections –Oxford English Dictionary and Chadwyck-Healey literature collections (late 1980s/early 1990s)• University Library etext production –Virginia; Michigan; Brown; Rutgers; Oxford; Sydney, etc.• Adobe PDF (1993)• Franklin Readers: http://www.franklin.com/handhelds/bibles/• Palm Pilot (1996): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_pilot• Palm Press and Peanut Markup Language: http://store.fictionwise.com/palm/
PHASE TWO 1997-2002• Gemstar -- Softbook and RocketBook (1998-2001). http://www.biblio-tech.com/BTR900/February_2000/e-book_update.html• EveryBook. Twin screens for 2-page effect.• Glassbook / Adobe ebook software (2000). MobiPocket.• Stephen King: Riding the Bullet. March 2000. 400,000 downloads in the first 24 hours.• August 2000: Microsoft Reader. http://www.microsoft.com/Reader/• PocketPC (HP Jornada et al). http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/abouthp/histnfacts/museum/personalsystems/0039/0039 threeqtr.html• RosettaBooks: http://www.rosettabooks.com/
PHASE TWO IN ACADEMIA• Major academic niche markets emerge – computer science and medicine: http://www.amsa.org/meded/choosingapda.cfm• Some evidence of interest: Over 8.5 million free ebook files from 2,100 publicly-available ebooks at the University of Virginia Librarys Etext Center shipped 2000-2002 to over 100 countries for MS Reader, Palm, and PDF: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/ebooks/• Successful experiments with XML/XSLT production streams –value of standards.
LESSONS SUBLIME …• Jeffrey Young. “ University That Reveres Tradition A Experiments With E-Books.” http://chronicle.com/free/2001/05/2001051101t.htm“ the classroom, students became on-the-spot historians, using the gadgets to home in on court In documents so they could argue for and against various interpretations of what happened in Salem, Mass., more than 300 years ago.”• Cathy Marshall (Microsoft) and Christine Ruotolo (UVA). “Reading-in-the-Small: a study of reading on small form factor devices.”“Because the devices held the readings for the entire semester, the faculty and students were able to spontaneously refer to materials from any part of the syllabus.”“ found that the handhelds were a good platform for reading secondary materials, excerpts, and We shorter readings; they were used in a variety of circumstances where portability is important, including collaborative situations such as the classroom. We also discuss the effectiveness of annotation, search, and navigation functionality on the small form factor devices.”
… AND RIDICULOUS• The 20th anniversary edition of Trivial Pursuit, the board game that features the likes of Joey Buttafuoco, Tonya Harding, Suzanne Sommers ThighMaster, the 2000 Florida Presidential election scandal, the Chia Pet, and the Smurfs, now contains the following digital library question:• Q: "What childrens classic was the top free download of the University of Virginias digital library in its first year of operation?”• Alice in Wonderland
PHASE THREE: 2003-6: THE FALLOW YEARSFOR HANDHELD EBOOK DEVICESWhat went wrong?ü Limited title selection;ü Expensive and fragile “ one-trick”hardware;ü Content that dies when a device does;ü Overpricing;ü Digital Rights Management that treats customer as crook;ü Lack of standards complicates production;ü Focus on solitary pleasure reading over classroom/academic activity (shared annotation, for example, not a feature).
MEANWHILE BACK IN THE ACADEMY(2003-2006)• Steady increase in % library budget going to e- resources.• Increased willingness to buy ebook content, both historical databases (includes Early English Books Online and Eighteenth-Century Collections Online; Chadwyck-Healey; Alexander Street Press) and contemporary titles (Safari; medicine; business, etc).• Google Books and library content available en masse but fairly mobile-hostile.• Increased local library production, including scholarly monographs and journals.
PHASE FOUR: 2006-PRESENT• E-ink research comes to market. Return of the single use device: http://www.eink.com/technology/howitworks.htmlü iRex iLiad (July 2006)ü Sony Reader (September 2006)ü Kindle (November 2007); Kindle 2 (March 2009); Kindle DX (Summer 2009)• Much more content of all sorts for all types of user.• Mobile devices become ubiquitous with students and grow in power –audio, video, motion, GPS services.
Recent indicators of use and acceptance of ebooks in academia
EBOOKS AT DARTMOUTH NOW(USING SERIALS SOLUTIONS SUMMON TM)
“EBOOKS ARRIVE.”CAROL TENOPIR. LIBRARYJOURNAL. FEB 1, 2008.•“The programs at two recent conferences (the Charleston Conference and London Online) confirm that ebooks have established themselves in libraries. While the trade and consumer book markets still struggle to find an affordable and compelling ebook reader, library users have embraced the ebooks connected to the library e-collection and accessible via the PC or laptop they typically use.”• Ebooks respond to some library needs –storage; damaged books; interlibrary loans; remote users.• Escrow services lacking (except Elsevier/Portico).
OCLC NETLIBRARY SURVEY OF UKLIBRARIES, NOVEMBER 2008•“ Three-quarters of academic libraries and half of public libraries that responded intend to increase their collections of eBooks over the next year, in spite of the current fiscal climate.”• “ the academic libraries who responded to the Of survey, half indicated that their use of eBooks was to support their core reading lists in various subject areas –the main ones being Business / Management (13%), Medicine / Health (9%) Education (6%) and Engineering (5%).”
UK SUPERBOOK USER STUDY•“ What do faculty and students really think about e- books?” Ian Rowlands, David Nicholas, Hamid R. Jamali, and Paul Huntington. CIBER, London, 2007.• 3,000 selected ebooks. 1,800 faculty and students at UCL respond to survey on use and perceptions of ebooks. Also used log analysis and interviews.• About half were current ebook users; 61% found them by means other than the library catalog; strong preference for reading on screen (undergrads most likely group); associated ebooks with work/study.•“ Book discovery … emerges as a critical focus for service delivery and enhancement” .
JISC: THE NATIONAL E-BOOKS OBSERVATORYPROJECT• –36 course text e-books freely available to all UK Higher Education institutions• –Over 48,000 responses to benchmarking surveys carried out in January 2008 and in January 2009• The most important benefit of the e-book is 24/7 access -- Use of e-books over 24 hours: 25% of use between 6pm and 8am• Use of e-books over the year: Sharp peaks and deep declines –“ DRM systems need to recognise that use of e-books … is concentrated and in line with the academic timetable and at certain times of the day.”• Non-linear use –dipping in and out.http://www.jiscebooksproject.org/
Finally,four potential accelerants for ebooks in academia
ACCELERANT: APPLE• iPhone/Touch as ebook reader (Kindle reader; Stanza) -- 2 million free EPUB files from feedbooks.com to Stanza already.• Rumored Apple Tablet/NetBook touch screen device (see fake Apple ebook above). http://digitaldaily.allthingsd.com/20090311/apple-netbook-actually-an-e-book/• Rumored Apple ebook store: "It doesnt matter how good or bad the product is, the fact is that people dont read anymore,”[Jobs] said. "Forty percent of the people in the U.S. read one book or less last year.” “The Passion of Steve Jobs.”By John Markoff. New York Times, January 15, 2008 http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/15/the-passion-of-steve-jobs/
ACCELERANT: STANDARDSl Standards –can drive down cost if publishing to multiple platforms.l Can allow experimentation with niche markets.l Can allow aggregation of content from multiple sources on a given device (desirable for customer at least).l ePub –maturing out of OEB (1999); XML packaging model.l Text Encoding Initiative / METS interoperability.
ACCELERANT: GOOGLE• Google. 7 million books, many scanned from academic libraries.• Absorbing what it means to have our entire stacks and storage library discoverable through search.• Post settlement: immense, instant discovery and online full-text access to deep academic content if cost allows. We’ gonna want this. re• 500,000 public-domain titles from academic library collections released free in ePub format for Sony Reader (March 2009).• Caveat: page images awkward on mobile devices.
ACCELERANT: STUDENTS (includingK12).• Connectivity and ebooks: annotate, share, comment, blog, link (http://www.goodreads.com/).• Need more innovative content behaviors to drive innovative use.• Textbooks –need tougher, cheaper hardware, but they are ready to use handheld textbooks (see UK study earlier).• Single use handheld device a hard sell unless mandated. Ditto content tied to a single device.
SUMMATION• Mobile devices deeply embedded in student culture.• High tolerance for reading online.• High expectation of searchable content available now.• Textbook, monograph, technical guide well suited to the medium –not literary, pleasure reading mostly.• Need annotate/share/discuss features built in.• Need standards-based content; escrow services.• Libraries and our users are highly willing market for more ebooks on mobile devices as part of our collections and service offerings.
Thank you.David SeamanAssociate Librarian for Information Management6025 Baker Library, Rm 115Dartmouth CollegeHanover, NH email@example.com
WHAT IS A LIBRARIAN ON AN IPHONE? • Wish you could shush the people around you while you try to concentrate on an important task? • Want to wake up at the slightest noise around? • Librarian for the iPhone does all of this! Simply set the audio level sensitivity and tap start to begin. • Once the noise surrounding you exceeds the set sensitivity level, the librarian will shush those around you. • http://www.guidanceisinternal.com/ See presentation by Megan Fox, Simmons College, for more on mobile library services. http://web.simmons.edu/~fox/mobile http://web.simmons.edu/~fox/pda/cil1_09_fox_mobile.pdf