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133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
133 tech blitz
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133 tech blitz

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  • Publish or Perish What's the origin of this phrase? Our patrons want to know, but the origin has been lost to the ages! F. A. Hetzel has this to say about "publish or perish": Although no one seems to recall who coined the phrase Publish or Perish to describe the assertion that a university or even college teacher will not be promoted within the system of American higher education unless he conducts original research and proves his capabilities by publishing, the words have provided scholars and their publishers with an unparalleled opportunity to defend the faith. [pp. 101-102] Hetzel, F.A. (1973). Publish or perish, and the competent manuscript. Scholarly publishing , 4(2), 101-109.
  • JBC also took the references and submitted them to CrossRef. CrossRef checked the references against its metadata database of article information and returned DOIs that matched. JBC also has links to Medline, Infotrieve for document delivery and to other articles available on the HighWire platform. The CrossRef links go directly to the cited article. JBC didn’t need to have bilateral agreements, figure out what other publishers had available online, figure out publishers algorithms. Reference were sent to CrossRef and DOIs were returned.
  • Clicking the first reference links takes u off to the cited journal on ScienceDirect. Used to be IDEAL – DOI seamlessly goes to new location. Elsevier displays DOIs and have a help button to explain about using DOIs. User education is very important since this is so new.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Technology Blitz: Making Sense of the Technology Landscape for Publishers The State of Linking and Searching Chuck Koscher Director Of Technology SSPTechnology Blitz 1
    • 2. In the beginning … Tim Berners-Lee conceived the WWW to provide universal access to documents on the network • Uniquely identify everything • A way to access them (Hyper Links) To do this he invented 3 things … 1. A simple protocol to communicate over (HTTP) 2. A common document language (HTML) 3. An identification scheme (UniversalResource Identifier ––URI) (Uniform ResourceLocator – URL) Identifier URI) SSPTechnology Blitz 2
    • 3. URLs are Unreliable Links to a location are fragile  Documents move around the Web and change over time (versions)  Available in multiple formats and multiple places (appropriate copy)  Spinellis, “The Decay and Failures of Web References”. Communications of the ACM. 46(1), 71-77, 2003  Examined 4300 URL citations in articles from ACM and IEEE  After 4 years 40-50% of referenced URLs become inaccessible Larwrence et al. “Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research”. IEEE Computer, 34(2), 26-31, 2001  Examined 67,000 URL citations from 270,000 articles  23% from 1999 and 54% from 1994 were invalid  Brooks, “Broken Links: Just How Rapidly Do Science Education Hyperlinks Go Extinct?”. University of Nebraska, 2003  Loss after 35 months: ‘.edu’: 40% ‘.com’ : 53% ‘.org’ : 25%Technology link to an identifier not to a location SSP Blitzto an identifier not to a location link 3
    • 4. Why link in the first place ‘Publish or perish’ corollary: ‘if it is not on-line it doesn’t exist  If it is on-line but not linked to no one will find it  If it is on-line but does not link out it is not as valuable  Linked references are expected  An actionable bibliography is no longer an enhancement  ‘Added value’ features are becoming more sophisticated (example. Cited-by links) To positively influence academic standards Many students are likely to use information found on search engines and various Web sites as research material…and faculty often report concerns about the number of URLs included in research paper bibliographies and the decrease in citations from traditional scholarly sources. Pew Internet and American Life Project College Students Survey. http://www.pewinternet.org/ SSPTechnology Blitz 4
    • 5. Topics  What is a DOI  Why CrossRef  How CrossRef and DOIs work  New linking features of the DOI & at CrossRef  OpenURL & CrossRef  Local Link Servers & CrossRef SSPTechnology Blitz 5
    • 6. What is a DOI  A Digital Object Identifier (DOI), is a unique string created to identify a piece of intellectual property in an online environment. ANSI/NISO Z39.84 -2000 The prefix is assigned by an IDF registration agency (CrossRef) The suffix is an opaque identifier assigned by the publisher  Suffixes must be unique within a prefix  Some publishers use a transparent scheme A DOI is intended to identify a ‘work’ not a manifestation  We’ll need multiple resolution to fully realize this goal SSPTechnology Blitz 6
    • 7. What is CrossRef.org?  An independent, non-profit membership organization  A cross-publisher citation linking network based on the DOI system  An official DOI registration agency There are now five DOI registration agencies. CrossRef was the first, and is the only one whose mission is to enable citation linking and serve the scientific/scholarly community SSPTechnology Blitz 7
    • 8. CrossRef’s Mission  To serve as the complete citation linking backbone for all scholarly literature in electronic form, focusing on services that are best achieved through collective agreement by publishers – Books – Conference proceedings – Dissertations – Patents – Gray literature – Etc… SSPTechnology Blitz 8
    • 9. Key benefits of the CrossRef system  As a business infrastructure for linking  No bilateral linking agreements needed – an agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement with all CrossRef publishers  Publishers maintain their own business models while enhancing value and functionality of their content  Collaborative foundation for future developments in information access  As a technology service  A search engine to find DOIs based on an article’s metadata (title / author / volume / issue / page / year)  Operates an OpenURL 1.0 resolver  As a technology provider  Standards and industry coordination  Linking expertise SSPTechnology Blitz 9
    • 10. The CrossRef / DOI Community CERN …and more !! …and more !! …and more !! • Gateway to the DOI world • Develops and maintains the DOI standard • Develops and maintains the Handle system upon which the DOI executes SSPTechnology Blitz 10
    • 11. How is CrossRef used by Publishers … 1. Deposit the metadata for their articles in an XML file (Journal / Authors / Article Title / Volume / Issue /Page / Year) 2. Parse their articles and extract the elements of each reference then query CrossRef to find the DOIs 3. Make the reference link active by using http://dx.doi.org/<some-DOI>  May cache the DOIs for later use  Retrieve the DOIs as needed by Libraries …  Directly query CrossRef (CERN is placing doi.crossref.org/resolve?<an-OpenURL> in their links)  Through local link servers to ‘reverse lookup’ the metadata for a DOI by the public …  Indirectly every time they follow a (CrossRef) DOI enabled link  Find DOIs using the free lookup form at www.crossref.org SSPTechnology Blitz 11
    • 12. What the DOI does Provides truly persistent hyper links to the identified entities Makes linking more reliable Enables locating the entity through the CrossRef database Makes linking more accessible SSPTechnology Blitz 12
    • 13. How the DOI appears in use SSPTechnology Blitz 13
    • 14. SSPTechnology Blitz 14
    • 15. How DOIs & CrossRef Work HTTP://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)80789-9 Constant address DOI used to ‘lookup’ of the Resolver the entity’s URLPublisher of the 1 1. Deposit article meta-data to target entity CrossRef with the DOI & URL 2 2. Query CrossRef for the DOI using Publisher of the meta-data referring entity 3. Present the referring article to the user with reference links active as3 Referrer 4 5 DOIs Source User 4. The user clicks on a link 5. Their browser sends the link to the DOI Resolver Referent 6. The Resolver finds the URL and re- Service directs the user to the target Target 6 document SSPTechnology Blitz 15
    • 16. CrossRef Growth is Steady Members Journals300 10000 9000250 8000 7000200 6000150 5000 4000100 3000 200050 1000 0 0 ry h y r r ry h y r c ay Ju l be be c ay Ju l be ua ar M ua ar M n M te m em n M te mJa p v Ja p Se No Se SSP Technology Blitz 17
    • 17. Ja 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 0 nu Fe ary br ua ry SSP Ma rch Ap r il Ma y JuTechnology Blitz ne Ju Au ly Se gus p te t mb Oc er t No ober ve m De be ce r mb Ja er nu F e ar y br DOI Clicks ua ry Ma rch Ap ril Ma y Ju ne DOI Clicks Ju Au ly Se gus p te t mb Oc er to b er 18
    • 18. Queries and Matches # of Queries Matches16,000,00015,000,00014,000,00013,000,00012,000,00011,000,00010,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 02 2 02 02 2 2 02 2 2 2 02 2 03 3 03 03 3 3 03 3 3 3 n- eb-0 ar- pr- ay-0 un-0 Jul- ug-0 ep-0 ct-0 ov- ec-0 an- eb-0 ar- pr- ay-0 un-0 Jul- ug-0 ep-0 ct-0 Ja F M A M J A S O N D J F M A M J A S O SSP Technology Blitz 19
    • 19. Deposits Current Article Backfile Articles480,000450,000420,000390,000360,000330,000300,000270,000240,000210,000180,000150,000120,000 90,000 60,000 30,000 0 ay ay ly ly e e r il il ch ch Fe r y st st Fe r y De b e r er r Ja r r Oc r ry ry r n n be Ju be Ju be be Ap Ap gu gu M M ua a ar ar Ju Ju ob ua ua nu m to m em em M M Au Au n ct br br ve ce Ja O pt pt No Se Se SSP Technology Blitz 20
    • 20. Using & Getting DOIs is free (there is a fee for creating DOIs)  Annual fee for libraries has been dropped immediately  Lookup fee will be eliminated as of Jan 04 SSPTechnology Blitz 21
    • 21. Why DOIs are a good thing  Its more than just an identifier  A complete resolver system operated by CNRI and the RAs  A governing body (the International DOI Foundation) for establishing policies and to guide the maintenance, promotion and development of the entire system.  A tiered organization to provide support at multiple levels IDF RAWG CNRI RAs RAs RAs Prefix Prefix Holders Holders DOI Users DOI Users DOI Users SSPTechnology Blitz 22
    • 22. Parameter Passing(a DOI feature) Parameter passing  Allows the link source to pass information through the DOI resolver to the link target (very cool!)  Based on OpenURL 1.0 SourceHTTP://dx.doi.org/10.1038/suffix?from=EBSCOHTTP://dx.doi.org/10.1038/suffix?rfr_dat=cr_pub=EBSCO With Parameter Passing and HTTP://www.nature.com/articles?id=123 With Out Parameter Passing With a standard vocabulary Registered URL Target HTTP://www.nature.com/articles?id=123 HTTP://www.nature.com/articles?rft_dat=id=123&from=EBSCO HTTP://www.nature.com/articles?rft_dat=id=123&rfr_dat=cr_pub=EBSCO SSPTechnology Blitz 23
    • 23. Multiple Resolution (a future DOI feature) SSPTechnology Blitz 24
    • 24. The appropriate copy problem & Multiple Resolution Truly a problem seeking a multiple-resolution solution 1. Publisher A produces and hosts a journal from 1999 through 2002 2. Publisher B acquires the journal in 2003 and hosts all back issues  Pre 2003 DOIs are transferred to publisher B and the URLs are reset to publishers B’s 3. A customer subscribes to publisher A and wants to go there for pre-2003 issues.  Multiple resolution of DOIs will solve this problem in the future  Local link servers solve the problem today SSPTechnology Blitz 25
    • 25. Multiple Resolution (cont.)  Multiple Resolution  Infrastructure will be provide by the IDF (browser script , server component, etc)  Target owner can control what is displayed at the link  Update of multiple target information done once in theDOI, 1000’s of links do not need to be touched  3rd parties will be able to supply services as one of the choices. (e.g. CopyRight Clearance Center’s RightsLink)  Early forms of multiple resolution are available now (Content Directions) SSPTechnology Blitz 26
    • 26. Forward Linking Cited-By Service Coming to CrossRef  CrossRef forward linking will … − Allow members to retrieve the DOI and extended meta-data for the articles that cite a given article − Utilize the same types of interfaces used with the current service (deposit and query) − Be built easily on top of existing member commitments Couple meta-data deposits with DOI queries so we can identify a reference’s source document.  CrossRef forward linking is still under development … − Indications are very encouraging, final approval expected in Q3 − Fees and policies are TBD, but… … we expect forward linking to be part of the core CrossRef service SSPTechnology Blitz 27
    • 27. Cited by: aka Forward Linking SSPTechnology Blitz 28
    • 28. OpenURL and DOIs/CrossRef OpenURL and DOI are complementary technologies  CrossRef helps solve the appropriate copy problem by providing a ‘reverse’ DOI lookup (DOI in / meta-data out)http://doi.crossref.org/servlet/query?id=10.1006/jmbi.2000.4282&pid=<USR>:<PWD>  CrossRef offers an OpenURL 1.0 compliant resolver http://doi.crossref.org/resolve?pid=<USR>:<PWD>&aulast=Maas LRM &title= JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY&volume=32 &issue=3 &spage=870&date=2002 (This resolver will redirect you to the target document) SSP Technology Blitz 29
    • 29. What does an OpenURL look like • Add the referent referrer fixed Start with the http://resolver.example.org? elements BaseURL url_ver=z39.88-2003 &url_ctx_fmt=ori:fmt:kev:mtx:ctx Version &rfr_id=ori:rfr:publisher.com Declare &rft_id=ori:doi:10.1126/science.275.5304.1320 ContextObject referrer Identifier for format Add the metadata &rft_id=ori:pmid:9036860 elements &rft_val_fmt=ori:fmt:kev:mtx:journal &rft.genre=article Declare the &rft.atitle=Isolation of a common receptor Include identifiers OpenURL “Referrer” Domain of metadata format for … referrer &rft.jtitle=Science (rft) format Shows referent (fmt) is by value (val) Indicates we are using key- &rft.aulast=Bergelson encoded-values (kev) as actual Substitute &rft.auinit=J defined in the “journal” for the item … values matrix (mtx) in the registry. being referenced SSPTechnology Blitz 30
    • 30. Why Use an OpenURL? OpenURL is a sophisticated (and complex) subject, but it …  Establishes a uniform structure for the transport of meta-data and objects  Supports context sensitive linking (local link servers)  Supports algorithmic linking (links based on meta-data) OpenURL is only a specification, it is not a system http://resolver.example.org? A service must provide the resolver  CrossRef operates an OpenURL 1.0 resolver: http://doi.crossref.org/resolve?pid=<USR>:<PWD>&aulast=Maas …  Local link servers (SFX, EBSCO’s LinkSource) are resolvers SSPTechnology Blitz 31
    • 31. Local Link Servers  Solves the appropriate copy problem  Localizes control over resource linking  Integrate with local services  Centralizes administration  Optimizes use of licensed resources  Tracks resource utilization  Linking consistency for the end users  Often are based on OpenURL  Algorithmic linking driven by database lookups  Must subscribe to the vendor for database updates SSPTechnology Blitz 32
    • 32. A&I (Ovid) as link sourceLink Source SSP Technology Blitz Link Menu Link Target 33
    • 33. OpenURL Linking: SFX & CrossRef DOI link DOI Server References OpenURLhttp://dx.doi.org/doi=10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.560502.x Awarehttp://www.sfx.edu/? OpenURLdoi=10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.560502.x Metadata DOI Server SSP Technology Blitz 34
    • 34. CrossRef and Full Text Search Part of CrossRef’s mission statement:  Facilitate collaborative action  Enable access for the scholar to the primary literature Many CrossRef members are keenly interested in a readily accessible broad full text search service Two options are being considered, each have pros & cons  Initial focus is on an ‘open’ service (very low cost, easier to implement, lower barriers)  Next focus is on a proprietary service that offers more robust features specific to STM publications Look for an announcement before year end. SSPTechnology Blitz 35
    • 35. www.CrossRef.org the central source for reference linking Linking Scholarly Communities Together Chuck Koscher ckoscher@crossref.org SSPTechnology Blitz 36

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