Now is a good time to solidify some ethical guidelines we can set for our researchIdentify yourself, purpose here, and research focusDepending on the site, you need to ask for permission to conduct research and collect data. Always consult with relevant research ethic boards or legal expertsGetting informed consentProperly cite your sources and protect participants from possible risks
The question is “How are you going to come out of lurking?”In his book, robert suggests to …Read slideBe a member, use their language, behaviourGive before you takeCome up with something interest for the members better chance of being accepted
HootsuiteMulti-faceted (plug into mostly anything social)Team collaboration with tasks associated (Scale) Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Ping.fm, Wordpress & more
Agenda1. What’s in a name?2. Characteristics of web/net/virtual studies3. Social media4. Kozinets rules of practice and key steps for Netnography including coding5. Importance of social listening and keywords6. Insight aggregation tools7. Case study vignettes e.g. Pringles and iPhone 4S8. Why Netnography?
What’s in a name ?• Webnography => web and ethnography• Virtual ethnography => virtual online as site of research• Netnography (Kozinets 2010;2002) – Systematic approach is specific about how to start project and analyse data. – Ethics – Member checking whereby participant is given opportunity to comment on the user generated content they created and provide feedback References: Kozinets, R. V. (2010). Netnography. Doing ethnographic research online. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Kozinets, Robert V. (2002), “The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities,” Journal of Marketing Research, 39 (February), 61-72.
Characteristics of Web/Net/Virtual Studies in 2012• Getting answers without asking questions using “found” data (UGC) e.g. Tweets or Instagram photos• Answers to questions not asked• Naturally occurring conversations online in forums, social networks, blogs etc.• Traces of consumer Identity (who and where they belong)• Subjective and emotional aspects of consumer experiences (phenomenological study)• Lived experiences (emic perspective) and how consumers use products in day-to-day lives• Preserves voice of consumer in natural settings including humour• Rich “Geertezian” thick description cultural consumer insights building on multi structured data• Strong elements of qualitative analysis and interpretation• Top down & bottom up with content analysis and text analytics/multimedia analysis• Social media centricity with consumers connecting, sharing, and engaging in first person stories of feelings about brands, meanings and lifestyle• Unit of analysis conversations # participant• Big data• Consumer is not passive but an active creator of brand meanings and content• Ideal starting point for market research triangulation• Social media netnography• Reduces Hawthorne effects (people acting differently when being observed by an external observer)• Absence of researcher gaze (external observer with a selective perception and interpretation)• Maintains the cultural, lived, empirical quality of the research• B2B or B2C
What is different about social media for the researcher?1. Authenticity2. Advocacy3. Marketing is real time conversations and feedback4. Brand is the conversations
March 2011 “Online Australians Shift To Social Networks” Most Online Australian Adults Use Social Media Regularly Increasing socialmedia engagement 7
July 2012 “Social Media Marketing In China” The Social Technographics Of Chinese Online Adults
Netnography is Green!• Compare greenhouse gas (or GHG) emissions of the in-person focus group vs. online approach• In person energy usage: transporting participants and researchers using hotel space food• Findings with a large focus group (N= 20 participants), the in-person groups create almost 2.5 times as much GHG emissions vs. online. About one half of a metric ton of CO2 emissions per research project.• How much per research project? – 2 typical plane trips – shutting down a typical 10,000 square foot office for one day – avoiding nine typical business trips (1,100 miles) by car Source: “Avoided Carbon Emissions from Online Immersive Research” http://revelationglobal.com/learning-center/avoided-carbon-emissions-from-online-immersive-research/
Kozinets – Rules of Netnography Practice1. Entrée - Planning and identification of the research target : Definition of Research Questions, Social Media Sites or Topics of Investigation2. Data Collection Two kinds of data to be gathered and contextualized: a) directly from the system b) from the interaction with users online3. Interpretation/Analysis The gathered data is trustworthy, because we are trying to understand not the individual herself but her online behaviour.4. Ensuring Ethical Standards Questions about anonymity and informed consent5. Research representation The research should be presented to the users that contributed to the study in order to obtain feedback.
Framing the Research Question Kozinets (2010)• Begin the research questions with the words “what” or “how” to convey an open-ended and emergent research design• Focus on a single phenomenon or concept• Use exploratory verbs such as “discover”, “understand”, “explore”,“describe”, or “report”.• Use open-ended questions.
Kozinets (2002, p. 63) recommends the following method for netnographic studies:1. e: formulation of research questions and identification of appropriate online for a for study2. Data collection: direct copy from the computer-mediated communications of online community members and observations of the community and its members, interactions and meanings3. Analysis and interpretation: classification, coding analysis and contextualization of communicative acts4. Research ethics: “(1) The researcher should fully disclose his or her presence, affiliations, and intentions to online community members during any research; (2) the researchers should ensure confidentiality and anonymity of informants; and (3) the researchers should seek and incorporate feedback from members of the online community being researched... (4) The researcher should take a cautious position on the private-versus-public medium issue. This procedure requires the researcher to contact community members and to obtain their permission to use any specific postings that are to be directly quoted in the research” (Kozinets, 2002, p. 65; cf. Kozinets & Handelman, 1998).5. Member checks: presentations of some or all final research report’s findings to the people who have been studied in order to solicit their comments.Kozinets, R.V. (2002), “The Field behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXXIX, pp.61-72.
Ethical Guidelines for Netnography Research• Identify and Explain yourself fully disclosing presence, affiliations, and intentions to online community members during any research• Ask for permission to conduct research and collect data• Consult with ethics boards or legal experts if need be• If in doubt take a cautious position on the private-versus-public medium issue• Informed Consent through contacting community members and to obtain their permission to use any specific postings that are to be directly quoted in the research• Properly cite sources and protect participants from risk ensuring confidentiality and anonymity of informants Kozinets, R.V. (2002), “The Field behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXXIX, pp.61-72.
Entrée – How are you going to come out of lurking ? (Kozinets, 2010)• Act like a new MEMBER (not a researcher) using the language and behaviour of community• Start contributing – Be social and give before you take• Be creative and interesting for the members increases chance of acceptance
Key Steps (Kozinets 2010)Step 1: Definition of Research Questions, Social Media Sites or Topics to Investigate Step 2: Community Identification and Selection where do our consumers or businesses hang out online? Step 3: Community Participant-Observation (Engagement and Immersion) and Data Collection (Ensure Ethical Procedures) Step 4: Data Analysis and Iterative Interpretation of findings Step 5: Write, Present and Report Research findings
Train of Thought Analysis• A bottom-up approach to letting the online conversation data speak• Understand emotions• Deep dive into themes• Perceptual process of discovery to uncover structure• Distinguish patterns,structure, relationships and anomalies• Colour code the knowledge• Researcher can spot irregularities• Not sure why but where does this lead• Harnesses the power of the human mind Data Information Knowledge
Data analysis technique - Analytical coding (Kozinets 2010)• Coding: labeling to general phenomenon• Noting: reflection on data• Abstracting: identifying similarities and sequences and differences of interaction• Checking & Refining: return to the field to check and refine existing understanding of patterns, differences, commonalities• Generalizing: elaborate a small set of generalization that cover or explain the consistencies in the dataset• Theorizing: construct theory from the findings• The goal here is to achieve an explanation of consistency in data
Coding Schema for Netnographic Analysis (Davis, P. 2011/2012) of User Generated online community (~6,470registered users and 449 users online on day of study) www.bomberblitz.com for supporters of the Essendon Football Club (EFC) Content of posts coded in Nvivo8 using Dholakia, Bagozzi & Pearo (2004) motivations to participate in online community typology “Did we beat them last week?? Did wePurposive value “Im going to...suggest beat Geelong? Did we beat GC by over that Gumby should be in Social Enhancement 100pts?? We have this weekend as a sub.” – Information gathering (15) every right to bag them.” – Information providing (26) – Override opinion/disprove others (14) – Generating idea (20) – Acceptance gained (30) – Solution to a problem (1) – Depth knowledge (14) – Influence others (20) – Acceptance seeking (8) – Establishing personal credibility/expert status(4)Maintaining Interpersonal Interconnectivity – Belittling others’ opinions (6) “I remember that game – Reference to specific individual (6) well - sitting behind the – Off-topic conversation (16) goals at the Ponsford end • Entertainment (which was the wrong end – Gratitude /agreement (8) for that 4th quarter). “I hear that his position – Like-minded people (13) Essendon NEVER gave up at the Pies next year back in those days, and so – Humorous pictures (1) involves hugging players – Reference to group (3) we stayed on with a little – Jocular remarks (30) after Buckley loses them – Personal stories/experiences (13) bit of belief.” consecutive GFs.” – Recognition of humour (8) – Games (1)Self Discovery – Enjoyment emoticons (4) “I defy anyone to convince – Sarcastic humour (8) me that Mick wouldnt be coaching the pies next year – Learning about others (8) for any reason other than the – Help understand ideas (4) buckley/2 year contract.” – Help form opinion (4) Note: Numbers represent number of posts on topic Source: Davis, P. 2011, Netnographic Analysis of User Generated Online Communities, Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy
Coding Schema for Netnographic Exploration (Perkins, A. 2010) of Online Fan Communities Content of posts coded in accordance with Rock Fan Typology (Beaven and Laws, 2007, pp.126-127) for Metallica Message BoardCasual Fan Die Hard Fan – Missed tickets/havent seen Metallica before (2) – Practise tries to get tickets (2) – New fan/ first Metallica concert (2) – Meet up before show with other fans (6) – Dont care where they get seats (1) – Know band/history (12) – There for fun (1) – Attend multiple shows (2) – Like live music (2) – Comment on changing quality of shows (2) – Seek advice/Info from other fans (5) – Think they are Metallicas biggest fan (4) – Only see band if outdoor concert (8)Loyal Fan Dysfunctional Fan – Become a fan member to get good tickets (1) – Humorous pictures (1) – Upload videos from concerts (1) – Early Line up (2) – Give tour advice to Metallica (25) – Drive/Fly long distances to follow tour (3) – Brag about getting tickets (3) – Willing to pick up stranger / Willing to go with stranger (2) – Personally address the band/band member (19) – Cant sleep (11 weeks before concert) (1) – Identify with genre (1) – Changed travel plans (1) – Stalking behaviour/seek contact with band (1) – Competitive/antagonistic behaviour towards other fans (4) Note: Numbers represent posts on topic Source: Perkins, A. 2010, Identification in Popular Music: A Netnographic Exploration of Online Fan Communities, Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy
Emergent Themes in Thyroid Cancer Conversations on an Electronic Bulletin Board (Jayanti R. 2010)• Researcher let the culture “seep into” (Kozinets 2010) over a two year period to become comfortable with the vocabulary• Research comprising: – 5 different threads – 392 distinct postings – 7,825 text lines – 80 unique individuals – period of 10.5 months• Emergent themes uncovered in the five threads by researcher and assistant: – Subtle Interactions – Dosage Problem – Surgical Procedures / really cant tolerate the hypo symptons I have a 40 hr. a week job. When I get these symptoms I cant even get – Adams Cancer myself up for work and when I do go in I cant function. I think what you said about finding a doctor up that will up – Thyroid Disease my dosage would be agood Idea but I dont know if I can find one who will up me 50mcg. I cant wait 6 wks for meds to kick in and find it wasnt the right dosage anyway. Im a busy person and this slows me completely down where 1 miss events and feel totally drained where people see this and tell me how terrible I look and how I look like I have no energy. ... When I increase all these horrible symptoms go away. —Beverly: "Dosage Problem" Source: Jayanti, Rama (2010) A Netnographic Exploration Listening to Oniine Consumer Conversations, Journal of Advertising Research , June, p.181-196
Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) Qualitative = texts, graphics, audio or video Source: http://www.surrey.ac.uk/sociology/research/researchcentres/caqdas/support/choosing/
QDA Miner highlighting Dictionary & KWIC – Personal Concerns
Weft QDA (free) CAQDAS Features Supported• Import documents from plain text or PDF• Code-and-retrieve document text with different categories• Attach and update memos to categories and documents• Free text search and boolean queries• Coding statistics and simple cross-tabulations• Export text and numbers for browsing and further analysis• Single-file project format (*.qdp)• Does not support images, audio or video
Importance of Social Listening• Research – How do consumers use my brands Identify and select research community – Forums, Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, YouTube – Observe and listen Data Analysis & Aggregation of Consumer Insights – Sentiment Monitoring, Semantic Recognition, – Google Trends, Social Mention• Translate Insights – Meaningful to business – Positive or negative trends, themes etc.
Importance of KeywordsPrior to listening, an important starting point is to determine thevocabulary (both online and offline).The vocabulary represents the unique words used in the business andby customers.The culture of the business separates the vocabulary one businessfrom another business even if they are operating in similar areas.Keywords and tagging are the cornerstone of being able to locatecontent with relative ease when searching for relevant information.Keyword data is at the foundation of the vocabulary. To assist andunderstand the trends of keyword searches consumers are conductingworldwide a wide variety of tools are available
Data Driven Tools : Identification and Selection of Communities and Insight Aggregation• Google ad planner (provides demographics++)• Google trends• Alexa (keywords, audience and clickstream)• Facebook advertising• LinkedIn advertising• Listening & monitoring via Netvibes or Google reader• Social mention• Google chrome and Diigo for online note taking and sharing bookmarks of sites
The Internet is Now: Splinternet (Forrester 2010)• Facebook is the Internet for many with one of eight minutes spent on the Internet is on Facebook – Experian Hitwise, January 2011
Superfine Segmentation by Facebook using # Facebook Segmentation by precise interests ( 19 March 2012) and age > 18 Interest Global UK Germany Russia France Hong Kong Malaysia Singapore Australia #Thailand 6,500,000 78,340 44,880 4,240 48,890 22,520 115,240 28,160 48,300 #Thai 2,200,000 22,860 14,100 660 22,140 3,720 34,820 13,360 17,160 Language Muay 1,300,000 64,420 38,000 1,460 48,400 6,600 38,400 8,320 40,300People with interests in Thailand and Thai have suggested likes and interests:#Indonesia , #Bodyslam (band), #Malaysia, Bodyslam, #Vietnamese language, #BangkokPeople with interests in Muay Thai Boxing have suggested likes and interests:#Rajadamnern Stadium, #Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, #Kathoey, #Mixed martial arts, #Lumpinee Boxing Stadium and Brazilian JiujitsuKey social networks vary by country and Facebook is not the largest in select markets e.g. China, Germany, Austria, Russia and Korea
“Why agents *travel+ should take an interest in Pinterest” Dori Saltzman, 19 March 2012, www.travelmarketreport.com Pintrest - A visual bookmarking website – check out Thailand http://pinterest.com/search/?q=THAILANDContent curating (collecting) Product boards for Travel sellersresources for travel agents or “inspiration boards” for travellers Content research Social interaction with people Pintrest Psychographics (Experian Mosaic) “Boomers and Boomerangs” baby boomers and young adult children - 10% to 20% of Pinterest users likely to pin travel plans and photos “Babies & Bliss,” parents in their 30s and 40s with large families - pin things related to deals on high-quality products, brands and life conveniences “Families Matter Most,” mostly young, middle class families with active lifestyles – pin things relating to easy recipes, child-friendly activities and healthy living.
This universal symbol seen across the web identifies an RSS (Really Simple Syndication)feed. The updates from a web site in any format are pushed to you. RSS offers benefitsall round to consumers seeking large amounts of content, publishers looking togenerate subscription content and advertisers seeking to avoid challenges of emailspam and search engines. Consumers using social media are able to produce RSSfeeds of content e.g. photo sharing sites or blogs.While a number of different methods and tools can be used to read RSS feeds thesimplest and most flexible is the use of Google Reader.Interesting RSS feeds to explore:ABC - http://www.abc.net.au/services/rss/BBC - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10628494Australian top restaurants (De Groots)http://www.bestrestaurants.com.au/xml/rss/http://www.bestrestaurants.com.au/xml/feed/dining-specials-australia.xmlDirectorieshttp://www.feedzilla.com/galleryhttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/_/rss-directory.htmFlickr-RSS Feed Generatorhttp://www.degraeve.com/flickr-rss/
Google Reader – Cheats• Help – Video tutorials (www.youtube.com/GoogleReaderHelp) – googlereader.blogspot.com/ – “?” help at any time for short cuts• Track real-time updates to web sites, social networks and blogs via RSS feeds• Trends ( read,click,share,email, mobile and lifetime)• Capture any web pages via notes• Share with friends via shared item page (public or private)• Browse for stuff (feed bundles) and create your own bundles to share or embed in blog• Add subscription (left sidebar) and review (right side) delete via manage subscriptions• New items bold• Expand/list• View all posts or only unread posts “new items" or “all items”• Reader player – new, all, star, like, share or by category and shows recommendations• Feedly web (application) wrapper for Reader
Google Spreadsheet for ListeningTo read an RSS feed into a spreadsheet:Type the URL of any feed into cell A1In cell A2 enter =ImportFeed(A1, “Items Title”, FALSE, 10) This is title of last 10 stories incolumn A.Also, =ImportFeed("http://search.twitter.com/search.atom?q= chris+brogan","","",20)OR = importFeed("search.twitter.com/search.atom?q=Malaysia+Events”)=ImportFeed("http://www.bestrestaurants.com.au/xml/feed/ featured-restaurants.xml" )Translate & Language detection=GoogleTranslate("Hola, ¿cómo estás?","es","en")=DetectLanguage("Hola, ¿cómo estás?)
Google Spreadsheet for Listening II• Try importing Wikipedia data as follows in Google Spreadsheet: =ImportHtml ("http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_India", "table",1)• Vary the number beween 1 to say 20 and get a feel for the ability to directly capture live Wikipedia data.• Try these table list extractions from other public web pages:=importHTML ("http://www.interbrand.com/en/BestRetailBrands/2011.asp", "table",1)=importHTML ("http://asiancorrespondent.com/429/top-100-brands-of- india/","list",10)
Network analysis of airline tweetsAccess Twitter Archiving Google Spreadsheet TAGS v3 via http://mashe.hawksey.info/2012/01/twitter-archive- tagsv3/ or directly from http://bit.ly/twitter_archiveYou are required to make a copy for your own use.Upon opening ensure the TAGS menu is availableOn the Readme/Settings sheet (starting in cell B9): Search term = what you areseeking1. Cathy pacific2. Air AsiaLeave the “No. results” = 1500 (maximum twitter allows) Do not worry about the restof the parametersFor each of the airlines review the archive, summary and dashboard.
Potential Listening Sources for Dashboard Google News news.google.com.my/
Social Dashboards• Try your own brand relevant keywords using the following free tools in addition to Google reader/spreadsheet:• Netvibes• Addictomatic• IceRocket• HootSuite (mobile is free desktop is subscription)• For lightweight applications new media publishing apps – Flipboard – Paper Li – Blogging platform (e.g. Posterous) with html embed code
Online monitoring optionsHootSuite University Promo Coupon : HOOTUPSYDNEYInstructions to apply promo code http://help.hootsuite.com/entries/21944741-adding-a-hootsuite-university-promo-coupon 3 months of free HootSuite Pro and HootSuite University 40
Message boards of the Invisible Web• Human to human discussion groups or peer to peer problem solving communities• Forums (message boards) provides most transparency into people’s lives• Why do people join a forum? – The topic is deeply relevant to the life of the person – A parent joins a parenting forum to share experiences and learn from other parents. – Someone who has just come down with a disease or medical condition may join a forum devoted to that subject for support and advice on breast cancer, smoking or diabetes – People join a wide range of forums because they find it helpful to communicate with others about major issues in own life. Forums provide the best way to connect with individuals in similar situations and share experiences, post questions and seek support• For a netnographer forums are a rich source of raw material even comparing with the new social media environments
Forum/Message Board Search Engine• groups.google.com to search Usenet• www.boardreader.com search engine dedicated to message boards• Indexes popular message boards, i.e. UBB, vbulletin, etc..., rather than plain newsgroups.• Check out message boards: – http://www.epicski.com/ – http://www.veggieboards.com/ – http://www.geekvillage.com/forums/
Negative Postings• What about intervention with regard to negative posts? – Netnography reveals the conversations that used to be hidden – Community may not want you “listening in” or responding directly to them in “their space” – Allow opportunity for advocates to step into the situation
Adapted from Gaurav Partap Singh Schulich School of Business
Pringles Sites Channels Observations 1,217,287 likes 83,454 talking about this. (Pringles Australia) Active discussion section Pringles and user community active 14,469 followers 43 videos, 851 Subscribers, 1,981,689 views Not very active comment section head over to retro Aus ad (1993) Pringles across the globe 34,086 images 155 community members sharing stories and supporting membersNot much effort to engage official Pringles community, except on Facebook.YouTube and Facebook comments provide useful research insights. Adapted from Gaurav Partap Singh Schulich School of Business
InsightsAs of 13th February, 2011 Adapted from Gaurav Partap Singh Schulich School of Business
Twitter SentimentAdapted from Gaurav Partap Singh Schulich School of Business
Data Analysis• Coding – Country, sentiment, type of product, nature of activity• Noting/Memoing• Abstracting and computing – Grouped above coded data to create a semblance and pattern• Checking and Refinement – Further analyzed above data to create information• Generalizing – Some Pringle flavors are not available globally – Consumers associate the brand with popular culture and make it relevant to the era, this has helped the brand reinvent itself• Theorizing – Pringle’s packaging has kept abreast with changing times and cultural demands – Innovation in flavor demonstrates good consumer insights
FindingsPringles brandemotional attributes: – sociability, irresistibility and funfunctional attributes: – Tastes better, non – greasy and great can – Innovative : 192 flavors till date* in over 140 countriesFacebook is a proven channel for the Pringles community – Stimulates the consumption and keeps the conversation going – Presence of insiders help build the communityKey aspect: Strength of the brand has helped sustain the conversations online without much support from P&G. Tremendous potential in terms of consumers needs and wants remains untapped, which when leveraged will help increase sales volume.Challenge for P&G is to consolidate the fragmented knowledge present online in an easily accessible location for the community. It is recommended that Pringles Blog be leveragedNote: This is just a rapid test of netnography for demo purposes only Adapted from Gaurav Partap Singh Schulich School of Business
Insights• Sour cream and onion seems to be the favorite flavor (globally) – Pringles Exchange Program: different fans exchanging flavors found in their part of the world – Scope of bundling exotic flavors at a premium for consumers to try them out as a limited edition run – Leverage insights from analyzing latest online consumer data to make limited edition runs• Launch Pringles Dips – consumers want it• Consumers love the non-greasy aspect of Pringles• Increase awareness on innovative ways to serve Pringles*• Tons of stories around how you can’t get your fingers inside the can, this can be effectively leveraged by the brand• Pringles Cans – 626,000 search results – Innovative uses help build the fun aspect of the brand – Used to store paint rollers to prevent them from drying up Adapted from Gaurav Partap Singh Schulich School of Business
iPhone 4S - Insights• Reading what people like about Siri makes you think they’re talking about a human friend: They like talking to her, she tells them stories, and they think she’s fun and funny. Also intelligent. But that’s not too surprising, given that Siri understands what you say, acts on it, and calls you by name. Even in the negative comments, which people make when they’re frustrated with Siri, users personify her and swear at her like they would at a person.• Evaluating the utility of Siri, most people accept that voice recognition software hasn’t evolved to the point yet where it’s perfect, but they find Siri pretty darn good. So most users don’t feel Apple’s claims are too bold; instead they find that the iPhone is a very useful device, made much more useful (and fun) by the addition of Siri. Sure, there are some complaints, but they’re often expressions of immediate frustration over Siri not understanding a specific utterance; the users aren’t panning the app as a whole.• A couple of the negative themes—“scary” and “misspellings”—actually consist mostly of tongue-in-cheek comments that are pretty funny.• The iPhone 4S is a device that people enjoy using and Siri gives it an extra dimension of convenience and utility, and a personality that most users really like. Except when it calls them “Sex Kitten” in public … which gives us an idea: Maybe Apple can add the capability for Siri to call you different names at different locations. When I’m at home (which it can detect), call me Sex Kitten. When I’m at work, call me Boss.
Why Netnography?• Unlike traditional market research methods such as focus groups, surveys, questionnaires, and data models, netnography is unelicited and naturalistic, offers cultural insights, and maintains the human connection with context.• Netnography helps with marketing decision- making, branding, and innovation.• A systematic, comprehensive, netnographic study exposes critical information about consumer behaviours, opinions, tastes, impressions, and interactions.
experiences services goodscommodities The Experience Economy Pine & Gilmore, 1999
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