Pre installation Planning Placement and Site Selection Air conditioning AC Power Interference AC Stabilizer Power supply capabilityPC Model SMPS WattagePC – 8088 63.5WPC/XT 130WAT-286 192WCeleron PC 200WPentium III PC 250WPentitum IV 300WI3 400WI7 550W
Installation practices Un packing and checking Removing a Mother board Removing and replacing the Daughter boards Removing the FDD, Mounting FDD Checking the PCB Boards Tighten the screws Incorrect setting of DIP switches Broken wires,Wrong connections Missing jumpers Physical damage to cabinet or peripherals
Routine checks Inspect the Hardware modules, PCB’s cables..etc FDD jumper – Drive Select FDD cable –Twist FDD terminator Memory jumpers Cable connector orientation Processor Heat sink/ Cooling fanAssembling preparatory Steps Collecting Hardware & Software modules CollectingTools Choosing the non metallic surface work and moisturefree environment
Caution Power to the PC should be switch OFF on assembling Use rubber soled shoes to minimize the static charge Use a grounding (Anti-static) strap attached on wrist A CRT should be handled carefully while carry Some MB support more then one processor. Proper log should be maintained and entry Illegal software and un confirmed software may bringthe virus Don’t use unstabilized AC powerMERITSSaving money, choosing exact configuration, ease offuture up gradation, gaining expertise
Installation Sequence System box preparation Motherboard stuffing: processor and processor fan Mother boards stuffing: DIMM, RAM Mother board placement and Installation IDE preparation : Master, Slave or cable select drive Disk drives/Other peripheral installation Daughterboard installation Cables installation Power connections BIOS set-up Loading OS and I/O DriversToolsScrewdriver, flat screwdriver, pliers (needle nose) marker pen
PC Installation Step – 1: Configuring the Mother board(Now a days all in Mother board) Step – II: Identifying the Connectors & cables Step – III:Adding the Memory Modules Step – IV: BIOS set – up Step –V: Configuring the IDE card Step –VI: Final Assembly and softwareInstallation
Problems with Installations If CPU was added to working motherboard,check:◦ Thermal paste between CPU and heat sink◦ Fastening between cooler and motherboard frame◦ Pins or lands on the socket and processor Things to check if new motherboard is notworking:◦ Whether the front cover of the case is installed◦ Whether the power switch on back of the case is on◦ Incorrect connections◦ Installation of CPU, thermal compound, and cooler◦ Installation of all motherboard drivers on the CD
Connectors and cables Key Board Connector Power supply connector I/o connectors :Parallel port, Serial Port, Floppy port,Primary IDE and Secondary IDE Ports External Battery connector Infrared device connector (Mouse) Hard Disk LED connector Turbo Switch connector Reset Switch connector Turbo LED connector Speaker connector Key-lock and Power LED connector
Different BIOS setup’s Standard set – up : press <DEL> to enter setup- Date/Time, Setting for Floppy Drive A & B- Setting for Master HD & Slave HD Advanced Set – up :- Keyboard & display settings, Mouse set – up- System Boot-up NUM LOCK, System Boot Sequence- Floppy drive seek at boot & drive swapping- virus warning, CPU internal cache/External cache- Quick power on self test(POST)- Boot sequence- Swap FD, Boot up Floppy seek, Boot up NUM LOCK status- Boot up system speed- Gate A20 System Speed – (HMA) High memory area
Chipset set-up :- cache memory settings- Auto Configuration- DRAM cycle time selection- MA(Memory address) wait state- CPU to PCI IDE posting- System BIOS cacheable – F0000 – FFFFF-Video BIOS cacheable – C0000 to C0FFF-Video RAM cacheable- 8 bit and 16 bit I/O recovery time – delays- AGP Aperture (portion of PCI MA) Size (MB)- CPU warning temperature- Current chassis (RPM) for CPU FAN speed
Power management:- Enable/Disable (APM) Automatic Power managementMode- Sleep mode time out, Suspend mode time out-VGA Power down, HDD Power Down TOOLS
CMOS/BIOS Errors The complementary metal oxidesemiconductor (CMOS) or non-volatile random access memory(NVRAM) stores the systemsstartup configurations andparameters. To access the CMOS setup utility,press the setup key during theboot process. The setup key must be pressedearly in the boot process, or thesystem will load the installed OS. The CMOS setup key is usuallyF1, F2, or Delete.
CMOS/BIOS Errors Clearing the CMOS memory is usefulwhen the computer will not boot at all. The easiest way is to clear memory isto remove the CMOS battery.1. Turn off the power on the computer.2. Remove the CMOS battery from themotherboard.3. Short the negative and positiveconnections (terminals) of the batterylocation on the motherboard4. Replace the CMOS battery in itsoriginal position on the motherboard.5. Turn the power on (reboot) the system.
CPUs CPUs must be set to receivethe correct voltages to runproperly. That use Socket 5, Socket 7 orSuper Socket 7 chips need touse voltage regulators. Typically, the voltageregulators are built into theboard. They must be set at theproper voltage, or the CPUcan be damaged. Staggered pin grid array
RAM Some motherboards requirememory modules to beinstalled in a particular slotorder, or jumpers to be set(SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs).
Power Supply Issues The power supply convertsthe current coming from thewall jack from alternatingcurrent (AC) into directcurrent (DC). An onboard fan attached tomost power supplies cools thepower supply and internalcomponents.
Box Cooling Issues Computer components aresusceptible to heat. The components operate at highspeeds and in tight spaces. The computer case plays animportant role in cooling theinternal components and isdesigned with cooling features. Computer cases have air intakevents, which are usually cut intothe sides or front of the cases.
What isTroubleshooting? Effective troubleshootinguses techniques to diagnoseand then fix computerproblems. A series of logical stepsspeeds up thetroubleshooting process. Rarely will simply guessingpotential solutions for aproblem work. Troubleshooting is a cycle.
Problems with theMotherboard and Processor Some symptoms of impending failure◦ The system begins to boot but then powers down◦ IntermittentWindows or hard drive errors occur First troubleshooting task to perform◦ Update drivers of components not working◦ Use support CD bundled with motherboard A few other tasks to perform if update does notwork◦ Change power saving features, such as sleep mode◦ Check jumpers, DIP switches, CMOS settings◦ Exchange the processor
Trouble shooting the Mother board Check the SMPS power cable & DCVoltage cables Check whether Keyboard is connected properly Check the Monitor and signal cables are connected Properly Check the CMOS setting are set proper configuration Check the driver power cable and data cable Check all the Daughter Boards inserted properly Check the RESET Switch connected Properly Check KEYBOARD LOCK is Positioned Properly Check the all IC’s are inserted in the bases Properly Check the good Boot disk is available in drive A Check the Speaker connector in connected Properly
Trouble shooting the Key board Possible Problems:- Complete Non operation, Non operation of some keys- Broken (or) struck Keys, Keyboard Interface Problems- Keyboard connector Problem, Keyboard Cable Problem Diagnostic Software:- Checking of make and break scan codes for all Keys- Check the Status of NUM Lock, CAPS Lock, SCROLL Lock Some Problem & Diagnostic:- Interface Problem check the SMD IC & replace- Non Operation check the PCB, Dry Soldering- Broken & struck keys Feather touch (or) soft Touch- Connector Problem Pins Replace the Keyboard
Trouble shooting Floppy disk Drive Possible Problems on FD:- Display the directory of Diskette which wasPreviously in the drive- will not read the drive, Error during the Reading- New drive will not recognize by the System Diagnosis procedure :- check the jumper setting for disk change line- check the data & Power cable, drive may be dirty- Possible drive logic & controller failure- Misalignment of drive (or) disk- check CMOS setting & signal cables
Trouble shooting Hard disk Drive Possible Problems on HD:- system is not booting from the Hard disk- disk performance is slow- system displays “ No fixed disk present”- scan disk report the Hard disk Problem Diagnosis procedure :- Check CMOS setting & run the SETUP and auto detect- Buffers set too low in CONFIG.SYS (Increase)- Run scan disk program to arrange the data propermanner- Enter the CMOS setup check the POST & make sure thereis no IRQ conflicts- run windows set up with /ls parameter.
Advancements in Nanotechnology CouldLead to Smaller Processors,Denser Storage A team from the University of Pittsburgh reportedthey have achieved a way to make transistors a fractionof the size of those used in todays silicon-based chips.Using layers of lanthanum aluminate and strontiumtitanate sandwiched together the team was successful increating the miniature transistors and claim thetechnology could be used to produce the atom sizetransistors in the future. A second team from team from the University ofMassachusetts Amherst and the University of CaliforniaBerkeley reported finding a way to make a a thinsemiconductor film capable of storing the equivalent of250 DVDs on a surface the size of a quarter.