Feminism and Citizenship:
Multiculturalism and Globalisation
Understanding the concept
Feminism and Citizenship
Multiculturalism and Globalisation
Videos (if time permit)
We co -exist in a Complex world
A trivial example of this amalgamation could be the
Our amalgamation is in media, education, finance,
computer manufacturing, corporate management,
and in religion
“Man was born free, and he is everywhere in
chains. Those who think themselves the masters
of others are indeed greater slaves than they”.
The struggle for freedom lead to the notion of
feminism and citizenship and multiculturalism and
The questions that arise in the modern struggle are
what is the status of women in a nation?
1. Understanding the concept
Feminism is the advocacy of women’s rights on the
ground of the equality of the sexes.
It is giving dignified identity to women
Simone de Beauvoir in her book second sex
said, “Woman is the privileged other”.
Feminism: French and American revolutions in the late
The terms ‘feminism’ or ‘feminist’ in earlier days were
commonly termed as ‘Woman’s Rights’
The women's suffrage movement in UK and USA in the late
19th century pave way for women to have equal rights of
Feminist struggle in India: male European colonists –Sati,
Gandhi-women movement and Post Independence-fair
treatment of women
Julia Kristeva, French feminist philosopher in her book
Stabat Mater said, “If it is not possible to say of a woman
what she is (without running the risk of abolishing her
difference), would it perhaps be different concerning the
mother, since that is the only function of the ‘other sex’ to
which we can definitively attribute existence?”
Patriarchal society subdued women
1. Citizenship is the position of being vested with
the rights, duties and privileges of a citizen in
a country and is part of the political,
economic, social, religious and cultural
diversity of a country.
2. Citizenship endowed the citizens with rights to
vote and to contest for election; rights to say,
to think and speak; rights to practice their
own religion; right to have a fair trial or get
justice and right to own property.
Multiculturalism is the amalgamation of different
cultures in a single country.
Multiculturalism is a society “at ease with
the rich tapestry of human life and the
desire amongst people to express their own
identity in the manner they see fit”. Kevin
Bloor;T he Definitive Guide to Political
It has often been described as a “salad
bowl” or “cultural mosaic” rather than a
Multiculturalism includes the perspectives of Racial
differences, Gender, Sexual orientation, Ethnic
backgrounds (language and customs) Religions and
It is closely associated with “identity politics,” “the
politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition.”
“Multiculturalism as a philosophical orientation
recognizes de facto pluralism in a society, and
celebrates that diversity. It also requires governments
and institutions to encourage pluralism through public
policy, though the precise way this is done can vary
across places and time”. Prof. Irene Bloemraad in
The notion, “Unity in diversity” is an Indian style of
saying that India is a multicultural nation and is
Globalisation is a process when a nation is intertwining
with other nations
The word ‘globalisation’ was said to have been coined
by Theodore Levitt, a former professor at the Harvard
Business School. The word constructs itself by
combining the word “global” with the standard suffix
“ization” which mean “to become global”, “to make
global” or something along these lines.
In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and
transactions, capital and investment
movements, migration and movement of people and
the dissemination of knowledge.
Merits and Demerits of Globalisation
Text from Investopedia, “Proponents of globalization
say that it helps developing nations “catch up” to
industrialized nations much faster through increased
employment and technological advances. Critics of
globalization say that it weakens national sovereignty
and allows rich nations to ship domestic jobs overseas
where labour is much cheaper”.
2. Feminism and Citizenship
Feminism and Citizenship in the past are two distinct areas
as one deals with empowerment of women while the latter
deals with rights and duties imbibed by a citizen.
Johannes Voet, a Dutch jurist emphasizes that feminist
theory should reflect more seriously on citizenship.
In the past women are looked down as incapable to carry
out political tasks, administration, governance and are so
they are not eligible to enter into political career or hold
Women do not have the duties to uphold and protect the
sovereignty, unity and integrity; to defend the country and
render national service when called upon to do so; to
develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of
inquiry and reform; and to safeguard public property and
to abjure violence.
When they don’t have the basic rights and duties are they
citizens who have citizenship?
Feminists of all strands have criticised the dominant
conceptions of citizenship on two counts. They argue, first
of all, that citizenship is gender-blind. A second major
strand of feminism is, however, sceptical of what is felt to
be a merely ‘add women approach, which while looking for
avenues of inclusion into the public sphere, does not
question its ‘maleness’. Rajeev Bhargava and Ashok
Acharya writes in their book Political Theory: An
Feminism and Citizenship address the issues pertaining
women and social mobility like women
health, education, status; women at work like sexual
division of labour, domestic labour, women and paid
employment, women in employment; women crime and
deviance like rape, assault on wives, violence, male power
and women and politics.
Feminist have been concerned not to argue that women’s
political action is identical to men’s. They have argued that
male stream research and male-dominated trade unions
and political parties have a taken-for- granted definition of
what to count as political. Rajeev Bhargava and Ashok
Acharya. (2013). Political Theory: An introduction. New
Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. 188.
3. Multiculturalism and Globalisation
Multiculturalism encourages globalisation
and globalisation leads to multiculturalism.
The objective of Multiculturalism and Globalisation:
Hélder Pessoa Câmara, Roman Catholic Archbishop of
Olinda and Recife said, “Keep your language. Love its
sounds, its modulation, and its rhythm. But try to march
together with men of different languages, remote from
your own, who wish like you for a more just and human
Multiculturalism relates to cultural
diversity in a demographic setup or
organizational level or sharing of
ideologies that advocate equal respect
to the various cultures in a society
which is as necessary for humankind as
biodiversity is for nature.
Globalisation and the increased interdependency among
nations, which itself is a function of technological
advances, have made possible the easy international
movement of information, capital, commodities and
When Multiculturalism and Globalisation brings changes
is it good for humanity?
Multiculturalism and Globalisation creates a ‘we and free
culture’ and provides equal opportunities to people
gender, religion, castes, class, colour, race, ethnicity, natio
nality, or and social background.
Multiculturalism and globalisation become as an ethical
myth on the new cultural synthesis, parcelling business
and states into a unitary container, centralisation of
decision making, speculative capital and financial
movements and loosen the morality of people.
Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher said, “No man ever steps in
the same river twice, for it’s not the same river and he’s not
the same man.”
Feminism is understood as core aspect of citizenship and
multiculturalism and globalisation enhances growth to
people and economy.
Modernisation, global politics, free trade and easy
communication pave way to globalisation which enhances
both men and women to participate freely in politics and
business as full fledge citizenship.
The new thinking of feminism and citizenship and the novel
impact of multiculturalism and globalisation are welcomed
but with great care.