LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTIONS-'MEMBRANES' in Light wight and Membrane structures

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The aim of this PPT is to take an overview of the ‘membranes’ in cable and membrane structures. Before installation on site a membrane has to go through several stages right from design including the …

The aim of this PPT is to take an overview of the ‘membranes’ in cable and membrane structures. Before installation on site a membrane has to go through several stages right from design including the steps as form finding, load analysis and design of fabric geometry. The paper also talks about several shapes and forms a membrane can achieve and the principle behind the design of these shapes. Important aspect of membrane structure is availability of membranes in market. This paper accounts various available covering materials in the market and the criteria have to be considered before their installations on the site. Joinery plays a significant role in attaining the required shape and equilibrium. This PPT takes a review of significant junctions in a membrane structure.

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  • 1. ‘MEMBRANE’S’IN LIGHTWEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIREESH PATIL CHAUGULE PATIL CONSULTANTS P LTD Guimarães, Portugal – 21-23 July 2010
  • 2. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Introduction Tensile structures They are Light weight as their structural stability is derived from their pre stressed shape rather than the mass of material used . Tensile structures allow larger spans with easier and cheaper constructions and they cover vast expanse of spaces. Membranes are uniform in thickness with a capacity to support imposed loads due to their designed shapes and deflections.
  • 3. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL The aim of this paper is to take an overview of the ‘Membranes’ in cable and membrane structures. Before installation on site a membrane has to go through several stages right from design including the steps as form finding, load analysis and design of fabric geometry. The paper also talks about several shapes and forms a membrane can achieve and the principle behind the design of these shapes. Important aspect of membrane structure is availability of membranes in market. This paper accounts various available covering materials in the market and the criteria have to be considered before their installations on the site.
  • 4. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BASIC SHAPES AND FORMS Synclastic surface .( fig 1) Anticlastic surface .(fig 2) Membrane structure depends on double curvature to resist the imposed loads. The shapes can be deciding factor of resistance of loads. The surfaces can be categories in Synclasic and Anticlasic surfaces. 1]Synclastic surface: Upward loads are resisted by a stress increase about both axes of the fabric while downward loads are neutralized by internal pressure. Inflatable fabric structures are simplistic forms.( fig 1) 2]Anticlastic surface: Fibers with convex curvature. One surface resists the upward load by increasing tension, while fibers with concave surface increase their tension to resist downward loads.(fig 2)
  • 5. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BASIC SHAPES AND FORMS The basic forms of all curvatures are hyperbolic paraboloids, cones or arches Hperbolic Paraboloid Cone Arch thread in tension changes conventional materials Curvature provides geometry when in in tension and resistance to out of Compression. compression. plane forces. Tension conditions between tensile and conventional materials
  • 6. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Evolution Of Several Forms From The Basic Add your text 6 point membrane Chinese hat Center arch Rectangular pneu 3D node Custom2 Custom1 Rhino design Some More Shapes (www.membranes24.com)
  • 7. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text Inflated bubble Some More Shapes
  • 8. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL DESIGN PROCESS 1.The first step in designing a fabric structure is to create a form with sufficient PRE-STRESS or tension. Fabric structures must be clamped to a frame or be pre-stressed in order to avoid “fluttering” like a flag or sail. 2.The second step is to DETERMINE THE BOUNDRIES of the tensioned fabric. Boundaries include frames, walls, beams, columns and cables. The fabric is either continuously clamped to frames, walls or beams or attached to columns with membrane plates with adjustable hardware. In most cases the fabric forms a curved edge or “CATENERY” between connection points requiring a cable, webbing belt or rope to carry loads to the major structural points. 3.Once the primary points have been determined, the third step is referred to as “FORM FINDING”. Form finding is the art of discovering the most efficient structure which can be fabricated with as little waste as possible and can be transported and installed with ease, installation and fabrication. 4.The last step in the design process is ANALYSING the structure’s response to loads, including dead loads and live loads (snow, wind, etc.).
  • 9. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE, ER SHIRISH PATIL Flowchart :Illustrating General Approach to Tensile Membrane Structure Design and Engineering Add your text
  • 10. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Tensile membranes design process, from conception to realization Add your text Architects Requirements Conception Construction,elevation Form Finding Membrane cutting and manufacturing Analysis Cutting pattern Detailing generation Engineers Contractors,Manufacturers.
  • 11. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Hybrid Method Proposed for Tensile Membrane Design Grid Generation Form Finding Surface Fitting Render (a) Grid Generation, (b) Form finding (c) Surface fitting, (d)Render representation Representation of a membrane structure with a nodal force using a 5x5 grid
  • 12. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL FROM CONCEPT TO SITE 1.SKETCHING. 2.COMPUTER DRAWING 3.PHYSICAL MODELLING 4.ACTUAL SITE INSTALLATION http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0708_rv2_rhino.html
  • 13. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Form-finding 1.Soap and liquid plastic films: soap and liquids are excellent mediums to experiment with as they exhibit excellent tensile capacity but lack shear capacity. Wire or strings can act as cables and liquid as well as soap films will form anticlastic shapes of pre stressed structures. The film or bubble can be stretched to the limits till it breaks. Various shapes which are formed after stressing the film can be noted and applied for further design. 2.Physical models Building:plays a significant part in design of structure. The limitations and possibilities can be worked out by experimenting on the physical models. The miniature model must carry or be identical with the actual structure in properties. The structures are to be designed to be in equilibrium conditions for applied loading conditions. The structures mostly are designed to carry uniform pre stress in their membranes Experimenting on physical models for evolution of different forms
  • 14. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text Actual cutting process
  • 15. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL TECHNICAL TERMS IN DESIGN OF TENSILE STRUCTURES Base Fabric: The uncoated fabric, also known as greige goods. Bias: Oriented at 45 degrees to the warp and fill directions of the fabric. Add your text Biaxial: Taken along two concurrent orthogonal directions, usually principal directions. Butt Seam: Seam created when the two pieces of fabric being joined together are butted together with a strip twice the width of the seam. Catenary Cable Pocket: Edge treatment in which the fabric is folded over on itself to form a pocket in which a catenary cable can be installed. Catenary Cable Fitting: Device attached to the end of a cable to allow a connection to another member. Fittings are swaged. Catenary: The curve theoretically formed by a perfectly flexible, uniformly dense fabric. Catenary Cable Fitting: Steel cables that run through the pockets on the perimeter of a tension fabric structure. The shape of the cable follows that of the pocket, which is typically curved with a ratio of 1:10. The length of the cable is determined by the project engineer supplying the fabric patterning. The thickness of the cable is determined by the engineer who calculates the reaction loads at the cable ends. Coating: A material applied to a fabric for waterproofing and protection of the fabric yarns. Coating Adhesion: Strength of the bond between the substrate of a fabric and the coating.
  • 16. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL TECHNICAL TERMS Compensation: The operation of shop fabricating a fabric structure of pieces of the structure smaller in the unstressed condition than the actual installed size, to Add your text the stretch at pre-stress level. account for Elongation: The change in lengths of a material sample; normally this is associated with some load or force acting on the sample. In fabric, this elongation. does not normally refer to true strain of the fiber elements as in the classical sense; but, rather, normally refers to the apparent” strain resulting from a straightening out of the crimped yarns in the fabric matrix. Equilibrium Shape: The configuration that a tensioned fabric surface assumes when boundary conditions, pre-stress level, and pre-stress distribution are defined. Fabric Clamp: Device for clamping the edge of a fabric panel, usually a bar or channel shape and made of aluminum or steel. Form Finding: The process of determining the equilibrium shape of a fabric structure . Keder: Brand name for the solid PVC cord used at a “rope edge”. Rope edges provide strength and a surface to evenly distribute fabric tension forces. Lap Seam: Seam created when the two pieces being joined are overlapped by the width of the seam Mast: The principal upright in a tension structure. Warp Yarn: The long straight yarns in the long direction of a piece of a fabric. Waft Yarns: The shorter yarns of a fabric, which usually run at the right angles to the wrap yarns.They are also called as filled yarns.
  • 17. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Most commonly observed shapes and forms Add your text Mast supported Point supported Arch supported Frame Supported Simple saddle shaped
  • 18. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details Edge details Typical Details of connection of members
  • 19. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details Catenery cables at Base Plate to get Mast, cleats, clips side connection anchor bolts right and bale rings Extruded member with Tripod head with Membrane Plate membrane plate catenery cable the link and connector and catenery cable
  • 20. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details Edge- curve, cantenary or clamp Tie downs- connector to the ground
  • 21. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details-Edge CONSRTUCTIONAL DETAILS-EDGE Masts Or Compression Members,Catenary Cables,edge details
  • 22. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details-Edge And Center Bale Rings- Catenary Cables Membrane Plate Compression Catenery cables are Provide ‘Link’ from embrane to rings At the top of used along the structural masts.These plates are conical shaped perimeter stretching installed to accept membrane structures. from mast to mast Catenery cables and pin connections Entire structure is installed inside a hardware. tensiond at the top by pocket inside a lifting the ring membrane
  • 23. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Issues To Be Considered Before Design Are As Following: Add your text 1.ECONOMICS:The cost of designing custom components needs to be weighed against the use of semi-finished products (i.e. tube, pipe, etc.) and fabricated parts (bolts, nuts, shackles, etc.) 2. MATERIAL :The different material properties (strength, thickness, elasticity, weight, etc.) make material selection critical.A need for components to be highly abrasion-resistant, low maintenance and “vandal proof” also influences the choice of suitable materials. 3.PRODUCTION:Various production processes (welding, forging, casting, etc.) have their own advantages and disadvantages that dictate the design of structural components. In addition, the quantity of parts required (single vs. mass production), play a significant role in determining whether a custom component is feasible and cost effective. 4.ANATOMY OF FABRIC: The best way to understand the cost of a fabric structure is to request a Schedule of Value (SOV) or a breakdown of the major cost (design/engineering/ project management, steel, fabric and hardware fabrication, installation and equipment and shipping).
  • 24. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Considerations Prior To Design Of TheStructure Anatomy of a Fabric Structure (% varies) Plan Area (Length x Width) X Shape Factor (H) = Surface area Surface Area X Cost per SQFT= Budget Design (DD to CD) Engineering (awning to dome ,Stadium etc) Project Management (scope of work) Steel Fabrication (large variable) Membrane Fabrication (based on complexity) Installation (location) Shipping (transport.) Today’s Materials come in 1. Different widths 2. Variety of colors 3. Some can accept graphics 4. Different light transmission 5.Vary in life span
  • 25. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BENEFITS OF TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE Benefits of Textile Architecture 1.Natural Light Add your text 2.Reverse illumination at Night 3.Easy to handle, as light in weight 4.Unique shapes 5.Retraction, Dismantling & Re-erection possible 6.Colors available 7.Graphic customization possible 8.Graphic projection possible 9.Rapid on site installation 10.Large clear Spans possible 11.Resistance to corrosive environments 12.Easy to adapt to existing structures for renovation 13.Can be combined with different materials 14.Can exist in all & extreme climatic conditions 15.Suitable for a wide spectrum of size & applications 16.Pre-engineered Modular structures possible
  • 26. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Benefits of Textile Architecture BENEFITS OF TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE Suitaible For Wide Spectrum Of Resistant To Wide Spectrum Of Size And Applications Climatic Conditions Day And Night Performance Large Clear Spans
  • 27. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BENEFITS OF TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE Add your text Resistance to corrosive Natural Light Unique Shapes environment Easy Combination with other materials Flexible skin Flexible skin
  • 28. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL AVAILIBILITY IN SEVERAL COLOURS
  • 29. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Significance Of Coating Add your text fabric against weather 1.It seals the 2.provides resistance to ultraviolet light 3.functions as a medium for joining panels 4. fire-rated Selecting the proper Fabric 1Size 2.Form 3.Span 4.Function 5.Availability 6.Economics 7.Sustainability
  • 30. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Today’s coverings include Introduction 1.Teflon coated fiberglass (PTFE) 2.Ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene (ETFE) 3.Vinyl coated polyester (PVC/PVDF) 4.High density polyethylene (HDPE) 5. Laminated Products 6.Theatrical Draperies and Stretch fabrics Polyvinyl Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) 1.Large scale permanent structures 2. Non Combustible 3. Life span of over 25 years. 4. Waterproof,resists UV Rays,chemically inert. 5. Colors now available membrane bleaches to milky white
  • 31. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Other “Non-combustibles”… Add your text Silicon Coated Fiberglass •Hybrid PTFE •TiO2 (Titanium Dioxide) Photocatalyst membrane.
  • 32. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Ethylene Vinyl Coated Polyester Tetrafluoroethylene (PVC/PVDF) Add your text (ETFE) 1.Most cost effective 1.High transparency (97%) 2. Temporary and permanent 2 More than 25 year life span structures. 3. Self cleaning 3. Soft, pliable and easy to handle 4 .Single or multi-layers 4. Less expensive than PTFE 5 100% recyclable. and ETFE 6.Can take 400 times of 5. Variety of colors, weights, it’s own weight. topcoats and textures. 6. Fire resistant 7. life span of 20+ years
  • 33. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Tensotherm and GSA Fabrics 1Add your text (UV stable) Shading only 1.Lightweight,beautifully transluscent. 2 Variety of styles, colors & shade factors 2.Impressive thermal and acoustic benefits. 3 High tensile strength 3.UV protection during the day and 4 Fire and non fire resistant Stunning appearance at night. 5 Well suited for dry/hot climates 6. Protection from sun and hail
  • 34. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Covering mesh and canvas Other Applications Add your text 1.Textile Facades Acrylics, Coated and 2.Graphics Laminates 3. Textures 1.Tent and Awning Industry 4. Digital Printing 2.Variety of styles, colors & 5. Truly unique patterns patterns 3.Low tensile strength 4.Fire and non fire resistant 5.Exterior Shading Devices
  • 35. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL SEVERAL OTHER USES Add your text 1.Hides mechanical systems 2.Acoustical helper 3.Light reflector 4.Transforms spaces
  • 36. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL SEVERAL OTHER ALLPLICATIONS Introduction Add your text
  • 37. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text Indore Cricket Stadium Science City Ahmedabad Nirmal Lifesyle Mumbai 10 Acres City Mall,Ahemadabad Project-Inside Outside Mega show WESTERN OUTDOORS , INDIA Mahindra World City, Chennai Glenmark Pharmaceutical Ltd. New Mumbai
  • 38. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL PROJECTS IN INDIA
  • 39. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL REFERENCE: 1.Makowski, Z.S. (1995): Light-weight structures. 2.Gopal Mishra http://theconstructor.org/2009/10/cable-and-tension-structures 3.Ambroziak. A, Klosowski. P .2006.On constructional solutions for tensile Structures (17-20 ) . 4.Armijos.S, www.fabricarchitect.com (images-20-24) 5.Huntington C. 2004.The tensioned fabric roof . (12-14) 6.Kloiber L,P.E,.Eckmann D, AIA,S.E,P.E,.Meyer.T, Hautzinger .S,2004. Design consideration in cable stayed roof structure. AI conference, North American steel construction March 2004, Model steel construction . 7.www.membranes24.com 8.www.architen.com 9.www.taiyomc.com 10.www.tensileworld.com 11.www.FabricArchitect.com
  • 40. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text THANK YOU AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL
  • 41. ‘MEMBRANE’S’IN LIGHTWEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIREESH PATIL CHAUGULE PATIL CONSULTANTS P LTD Guimarães, Portugal – 21-23 July 2010
  • 42. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Introduction Tensile structures They are Light weight as their structural stability is derived from their pre stressed shape rather than the mass of material used . Tensile structures allow larger spans with easier and cheaper constructions and they cover vast expanse of spaces. Membranes are uniform in thickness with a capacity to support imposed loads due to their designed shapes and deflections.
  • 43. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL The aim of this paper is to take an overview of the ‘Membranes’ in cable and membrane structures. Before installation on site a membrane has to go through several stages right from design including the steps as form finding, load analysis and design of fabric geometry. The paper also talks about several shapes and forms a membrane can achieve and the principle behind the design of these shapes. Important aspect of membrane structure is availability of membranes in market. This paper accounts various available covering materials in the market and the criteria have to be considered before their installations on the site.
  • 44. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BASIC SHAPES AND FORMS Synclastic surface .( fig 1) Anticlastic surface .(fig 2) Membrane structure depends on double curvature to resist the imposed loads. The shapes can be deciding factor of resistance of loads. The surfaces can be categories in Synclasic and Anticlasic surfaces. 1]Synclastic surface: Upward loads are resisted by a stress increase about both axes of the fabric while downward loads are neutralized by internal pressure. Inflatable fabric structures are simplistic forms.( fig 1) 2]Anticlastic surface: Fibers with convex curvature. One surface resists the upward load by increasing tension, while fibers with concave surface increase their tension to resist downward loads.(fig 2)
  • 45. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BASIC SHAPES AND FORMS The basic forms of all curvatures are hyperbolic paraboloids, cones or arches Hperbolic Paraboloid Cone Arch thread in tension changes conventional materials Curvature provides geometry when in in tension and resistance to out of Compression. compression. plane forces. Tension conditions between tensile and conventional materials
  • 46. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Evolution Of Several Forms From The Basic Add your text 6 point membrane Chinese hat Center arch Rectangular pneu 3D node Custom2 Custom1 Rhino design Some More Shapes (www.membranes24.com)
  • 47. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text Inflated bubble Some More Shapes
  • 48. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL DESIGN PROCESS 1.The first step in designing a fabric structure is to create a form with sufficient PRE-STRESS or tension. Fabric structures must be clamped to a frame or be pre-stressed in order to avoid “fluttering” like a flag or sail. 2.The second step is to DETERMINE THE BOUNDRIES of the tensioned fabric. Boundaries include frames, walls, beams, columns and cables. The fabric is either continuously clamped to frames, walls or beams or attached to columns with membrane plates with adjustable hardware. In most cases the fabric forms a curved edge or “CATENERY” between connection points requiring a cable, webbing belt or rope to carry loads to the major structural points. 3.Once the primary points have been determined, the third step is referred to as “FORM FINDING”. Form finding is the art of discovering the most efficient structure which can be fabricated with as little waste as possible and can be transported and installed with ease, installation and fabrication. 4.The last step in the design process is ANALYSING the structure’s response to loads, including dead loads and live loads (snow, wind, etc.).
  • 49. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE, ER SHIRISH PATIL Flowchart :Illustrating General Approach to Tensile Membrane Structure Design and Engineering Add your text
  • 50. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Tensile membranes design process, from conception to realization Add your text Architects Requirements Conception Construction,elevation Form Finding Membrane cutting and manufacturing Analysis Cutting pattern Detailing generation Engineers Contractors,Manufacturers.
  • 51. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Hybrid Method Proposed for Tensile Membrane Design Grid Generation Form Finding Surface Fitting Render (a) Grid Generation, (b) Form finding (c) Surface fitting, (d)Render representation Representation of a membrane structure with a nodal force using a 5x5 grid
  • 52. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL FROM CONCEPT TO SITE 1.SKETCHING. 2.COMPUTER DRAWING 3.PHYSICAL MODELLING 4.ACTUAL SITE INSTALLATION http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0708_rv2_rhino.html
  • 53. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Form-finding 1.Soap and liquid plastic films: soap and liquids are excellent mediums to experiment with as they exhibit excellent tensile capacity but lack shear capacity. Wire or strings can act as cables and liquid as well as soap films will form anticlastic shapes of pre stressed structures. The film or bubble can be stretched to the limits till it breaks. Various shapes which are formed after stressing the film can be noted and applied for further design. 2.Physical models Building:plays a significant part in design of structure. The limitations and possibilities can be worked out by experimenting on the physical models. The miniature model must carry or be identical with the actual structure in properties. The structures are to be designed to be in equilibrium conditions for applied loading conditions. The structures mostly are designed to carry uniform pre stress in their membranes Experimenting on physical models for evolution of different forms
  • 54. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text Actual cutting process
  • 55. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL TECHNICAL TERMS IN DESIGN OF TENSILE STRUCTURES Base Fabric: The uncoated fabric, also known as greige goods. Bias: Oriented at 45 degrees to the warp and fill directions of the fabric. Add your text Biaxial: Taken along two concurrent orthogonal directions, usually principal directions. Butt Seam: Seam created when the two pieces of fabric being joined together are butted together with a strip twice the width of the seam. Catenary Cable Pocket: Edge treatment in which the fabric is folded over on itself to form a pocket in which a catenary cable can be installed. Catenary Cable Fitting: Device attached to the end of a cable to allow a connection to another member. Fittings are swaged. Catenary: The curve theoretically formed by a perfectly flexible, uniformly dense fabric. Catenary Cable Fitting: Steel cables that run through the pockets on the perimeter of a tension fabric structure. The shape of the cable follows that of the pocket, which is typically curved with a ratio of 1:10. The length of the cable is determined by the project engineer supplying the fabric patterning. The thickness of the cable is determined by the engineer who calculates the reaction loads at the cable ends. Coating: A material applied to a fabric for waterproofing and protection of the fabric yarns. Coating Adhesion: Strength of the bond between the substrate of a fabric and the coating.
  • 56. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL TECHNICAL TERMS Compensation: The operation of shop fabricating a fabric structure of pieces of the structure smaller in the unstressed condition than the actual installed size, to Add your text the stretch at pre-stress level. account for Elongation: The change in lengths of a material sample; normally this is associated with some load or force acting on the sample. In fabric, this elongation. does not normally refer to true strain of the fiber elements as in the classical sense; but, rather, normally refers to the apparent” strain resulting from a straightening out of the crimped yarns in the fabric matrix. Equilibrium Shape: The configuration that a tensioned fabric surface assumes when boundary conditions, pre-stress level, and pre-stress distribution are defined. Fabric Clamp: Device for clamping the edge of a fabric panel, usually a bar or channel shape and made of aluminum or steel. Form Finding: The process of determining the equilibrium shape of a fabric structure . Keder: Brand name for the solid PVC cord used at a “rope edge”. Rope edges provide strength and a surface to evenly distribute fabric tension forces. Lap Seam: Seam created when the two pieces being joined are overlapped by the width of the seam Mast: The principal upright in a tension structure. Warp Yarn: The long straight yarns in the long direction of a piece of a fabric. Waft Yarns: The shorter yarns of a fabric, which usually run at the right angles to the wrap yarns.They are also called as filled yarns.
  • 57. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Most commonly observed shapes and forms Add your text Mast supported Point supported Arch supported Frame Supported Simple saddle shaped
  • 58. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details Edge details Typical Details of connection of members
  • 59. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details Catenery cables at Base Plate to get Mast, cleats, clips side connection anchor bolts right and bale rings Extruded member with Tripod head with Membrane Plate membrane plate catenery cable the link and connector and catenery cable
  • 60. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details Edge- curve, cantenary or clamp Tie downs- connector to the ground
  • 61. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details-Edge CONSRTUCTIONAL DETAILS-EDGE Masts Or Compression Members,Catenary Cables,edge details
  • 62. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Constructional Details-Edge And Center Bale Rings- Catenary Cables Membrane Plate Compression Catenery cables are Provide ‘Link’ from embrane to rings At the top of used along the structural masts.These plates are conical shaped perimeter stretching installed to accept membrane structures. from mast to mast Catenery cables and pin connections Entire structure is installed inside a hardware. tensiond at the top by pocket inside a lifting the ring membrane
  • 63. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Issues To Be Considered Before Design Are As Following: Add your text 1.ECONOMICS:The cost of designing custom components needs to be weighed against the use of semi-finished products (i.e. tube, pipe, etc.) and fabricated parts (bolts, nuts, shackles, etc.) 2. MATERIAL :The different material properties (strength, thickness, elasticity, weight, etc.) make material selection critical.A need for components to be highly abrasion-resistant, low maintenance and “vandal proof” also influences the choice of suitable materials. 3.PRODUCTION:Various production processes (welding, forging, casting, etc.) have their own advantages and disadvantages that dictate the design of structural components. In addition, the quantity of parts required (single vs. mass production), play a significant role in determining whether a custom component is feasible and cost effective. 4.ANATOMY OF FABRIC: The best way to understand the cost of a fabric structure is to request a Schedule of Value (SOV) or a breakdown of the major cost (design/engineering/ project management, steel, fabric and hardware fabrication, installation and equipment and shipping).
  • 64. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Considerations Prior To Design Of TheStructure Anatomy of a Fabric Structure (% varies) Plan Area (Length x Width) X Shape Factor (H) = Surface area Surface Area X Cost per SQFT= Budget Design (DD to CD) Engineering (awning to dome ,Stadium etc) Project Management (scope of work) Steel Fabrication (large variable) Membrane Fabrication (based on complexity) Installation (location) Shipping (transport.) Today’s Materials come in 1. Different widths 2. Variety of colors 3. Some can accept graphics 4. Different light transmission 5.Vary in life span
  • 65. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BENEFITS OF TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE Benefits of Textile Architecture 1.Natural Light Add your text 2.Reverse illumination at Night 3.Easy to handle, as light in weight 4.Unique shapes 5.Retraction, Dismantling & Re-erection possible 6.Colors available 7.Graphic customization possible 8.Graphic projection possible 9.Rapid on site installation 10.Large clear Spans possible 11.Resistance to corrosive environments 12.Easy to adapt to existing structures for renovation 13.Can be combined with different materials 14.Can exist in all & extreme climatic conditions 15.Suitable for a wide spectrum of size & applications 16.Pre-engineered Modular structures possible
  • 66. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Benefits of Textile Architecture BENEFITS OF TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE Suitaible For Wide Spectrum Of Resistant To Wide Spectrum Of Size And Applications Climatic Conditions Day And Night Performance Large Clear Spans
  • 67. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL BENEFITS OF TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE Add your text Resistance to corrosive Natural Light Unique Shapes environment Easy Combination with other materials Flexible skin Flexible skin
  • 68. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL AVAILIBILITY IN SEVERAL COLOURS
  • 69. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Significance Of Coating Add your text fabric against weather 1.It seals the 2.provides resistance to ultraviolet light 3.functions as a medium for joining panels 4. fire-rated Selecting the proper Fabric 1Size 2.Form 3.Span 4.Function 5.Availability 6.Economics 7.Sustainability
  • 70. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Today’s coverings include Introduction 1.Teflon coated fiberglass (PTFE) 2.Ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene (ETFE) 3.Vinyl coated polyester (PVC/PVDF) 4.High density polyethylene (HDPE) 5. Laminated Products 6.Theatrical Draperies and Stretch fabrics Polyvinyl Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) 1.Large scale permanent structures 2. Non Combustible 3. Life span of over 25 years. 4. Waterproof,resists UV Rays,chemically inert. 5. Colors now available membrane bleaches to milky white
  • 71. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Other “Non-combustibles”… Add your text Silicon Coated Fiberglass •Hybrid PTFE •TiO2 (Titanium Dioxide) Photocatalyst membrane.
  • 72. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Ethylene Vinyl Coated Polyester Tetrafluoroethylene (PVC/PVDF) Add your text (ETFE) 1.Most cost effective 1.High transparency (97%) 2. Temporary and permanent 2 More than 25 year life span structures. 3. Self cleaning 3. Soft, pliable and easy to handle 4 .Single or multi-layers 4. Less expensive than PTFE 5 100% recyclable. and ETFE 6.Can take 400 times of 5. Variety of colors, weights, it’s own weight. topcoats and textures. 6. Fire resistant 7. life span of 20+ years
  • 73. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Tensotherm and GSA Fabrics 1Add your text (UV stable) Shading only 1.Lightweight,beautifully transluscent. 2 Variety of styles, colors & shade factors 2.Impressive thermal and acoustic benefits. 3 High tensile strength 3.UV protection during the day and 4 Fire and non fire resistant Stunning appearance at night. 5 Well suited for dry/hot climates 6. Protection from sun and hail
  • 74. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Covering mesh and canvas Other Applications Add your text 1.Textile Facades Acrylics, Coated and 2.Graphics Laminates 3. Textures 1.Tent and Awning Industry 4. Digital Printing 2.Variety of styles, colors & 5. Truly unique patterns patterns 3.Low tensile strength 4.Fire and non fire resistant 5.Exterior Shading Devices
  • 75. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL SEVERAL OTHER USES Add your text 1.Hides mechanical systems 2.Acoustical helper 3.Light reflector 4.Transforms spaces
  • 76. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL SEVERAL OTHER ALLPLICATIONS Introduction Add your text
  • 77. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text Indore Cricket Stadium Science City Ahmedabad Nirmal Lifesyle Mumbai 10 Acres City Mall,Ahemadabad Project-Inside Outside Mega show WESTERN OUTDOORS , INDIA Mahindra World City, Chennai Glenmark Pharmaceutical Ltd. New Mumbai
  • 78. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL PROJECTS IN INDIA
  • 79. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL REFERENCE: 1.Makowski, Z.S. (1995): Light-weight structures. 2.Gopal Mishra http://theconstructor.org/2009/10/cable-and-tension-structures 3.Ambroziak. A, Klosowski. P .2006.On constructional solutions for tensile Structures (17-20 ) . 4.Armijos.S, www.fabricarchitect.com (images-20-24) 5.Huntington C. 2004.The tensioned fabric roof . (12-14) 6.Kloiber L,P.E,.Eckmann D, AIA,S.E,P.E,.Meyer.T, Hautzinger .S,2004. Design consideration in cable stayed roof structure. AI conference, North American steel construction March 2004, Model steel construction . 7.www.membranes24.com 8.www.architen.com 9.www.taiyomc.com 10.www.tensileworld.com 11.www.FabricArchitect.com
  • 80. MEMBRANE’S IN LIGHT WEIGHT AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL Add your text THANK YOU AR.SUVARNA LELE ER.SHIRISH PATIL